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E0Q7 ia0t,3fiS ii 

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Volume XXVI.] 


[Number 1 

A Guernsey Beauty. 

Our engraving is a vignette of the imported 
< iuernsey cow Naftel, a cow of remarkable 
beauty, now a member of the Fernwood Guern- 
sey herd at Cazenovia, New York, the property 
of Mr. L. W. Lcdyard. Mr. Ledyard is an 
enthusiastic believer in the pre-eminence of the 
(Iuernsey as a dairy animal, and he has devoted 
much time and money in building up his famous 
herd. His catalogue, which is a model of taste 
in the printing art, contains a very interesting 
sketch of the (iuernsey stock, from which we 
shall quote to accompany the handsome (iuern- 
sey portrait which we use as an illustration: 

From colored illustrations, and 'careful de- 
scriptions in the finest and most reliable vol- 
umes on cattle, it is found that it is evidently 
within half a century that the characteristics 
which now distinguish the (iuernsey and Jersey 
cattle, have been produced by skillful breeding 
with different aims in view. On the Island of 
Jersey the cattle have been bred more and more 
to supply the British demand for a pet cow, 
that on the green lawns surrounding their 
country places would show as a beautiful ob- 
ject. For many years a light squirrel-gray was 
deemed a color well fitted to contrast with the 
deep green of English grass. A later fancy has 
called for animals of dark color, which, to be 
entirely fashionable, must add to their attrac- 
tions black points and a black tongue. But the 
sturdy Guernseyman has departed less in his 
breeding from the original type of his butter 
cow. A century ago her merits were so fully 
appreciated that it was determined that the in- 
troduction of any foreign blood was undesira- 
ble, and in 178!) a law was passed by the insular 
Legislature, forbidding the importation of any 
cow, heifer, bull, or calf under a penalty of 200 
livres, and the forfeiture of the boat and tackle 
Which should bring them, and a further penalty 
of fifty livres on any sailor on board who should 
fail to inform of the importation. Since that 
date it is probable that tin cattle of the Island 
of Guernsey have remained as absolutely pure 
as any breed that is known. The aim 
that has animated these many years of care 
has been to produce a cow as perfect as possi- 
ble for the dairy of luxury — a cow to produce 
milk and cream of marvellous richness, and 
butter, that in grain, flavor, and golden color 
excels that of any and all other breeds. 
The most remarkable characteristic of the 
(iuernsey is the richness of the animal. It is 
seen in every point. The horn is soft and full 
of color; the hoofs are usually like tortoise 
shell; the skin is soft and of a golden yellow 
tint, and the inside of the ears is still more 
highly colored, while the same orange hue 
seems to glow from the bag, as if there were 
light under the soft skin. In the mature, 
well bred animal, both eye and hand find evi- 
dence that all secretions are rich and of high 
quality, and a careful examination prepares the 
mind for understanding why the butter made 
from (iuernsey cream possesses qualities that 
are not obtainable from the milk of any other 
animal. The disposition of these cattle is re- 
markably gentle and affectionate. On the 
island their care is usually confided to women 
and children, whose gentle ways are reflected 
in the quiet demeanor of their family favorites. 
Almost all the milk produced by the cattle of 
(iuernsey is made into butter, This butter is 

carried to the handsome stone market building 
of St. Petersport, where the matrons sit await- 
ing their customers with their pats of golden 
butter daintily displayed in the deep green 
leaves of the (iuernsey cabbage. It invariably 
commands the highest price on the island and 
in England. When the proprietor of Fern- 
wood farm was there, its price was eighteen 
cents per pound above that made on the sister 
island of Jersey. The cattle on the island are in 
almost all instances tethered, and have but very 
little food beyond the grasses that in so moist a 
climate afford pasturage during nearly all the 
year. Although little or no grain is fed, the 
yield of butter from a mature Guernsey cow is 
expected to average a pound a day for the year, 
and there are many trustworthy statements of 
cows making fourteen and fifteen Guernsey 

Oregon Crops. 

We are sorry to learn from our northern ex- 
changes that the Willamette valley, that beau- 
tiful and fruitful region of Oregon, will have to 
get along with short crops this year. The 
Qregortian says rain is now more imperatively 
needed than at any time w ithin memory. The 
fall sown wheat was frozen out during the 
severe weather of January, and most of it was 
resown this spring. The first spring sowing 
was during the fair weather of early March, 
when about half the frozen fields were re- 
planted. The March grain is now from ten to 
fifteen ini lies high, and until within a week it 
has promised well, but continued dry and hot 
weather is bringing out the heads prematurely, 
and m a fev. instances shrinking the stalks. It 


pounds of butter, equal to sixteen and eighteen 
pounds of our weight, per week, without the 
forcing feed that in this country has ruined 
many a fine cow, by unnatural stimulation for 
the purpose of making a great butter record. 

The milk yield of the (iuernsey will compare 
favorably with any. The richness of the milk and 
cream is quite as marked as that of the Jersey: 
the color, especially in winter, is much more 
golden, and when mingled with the milk of 
ordinary cattle it will do much more to give 
color and character to butter. Among the 
Fernwood herd are animals that have given 
forty pounds of milk with first calf, and as 
high as the vicinity of 10,000 pounds in a year. 
Of this milk, when in full flow, twenty-two 
pounds will make a pound of butter, and later 
in the How the amount is lessened to sixteen to 
eighteen pounds. 

From the specimens of fine rich milking fam- 
ily cows, of great beauty and quiet disposition, 
that are found among the Guernsey grades, it 
is an assured fact that the use of (iuernsey 
bulls will do an immense service in forming 
choice herds for butter or rich milk dairies. 

is seriously feared that unless rain should come 
during the present week the March sown fields 
will wither and come to naught. A member 
of the Oregonian staff just returned from a 
trip through the valley, reports fields every- 
where along the railroad much the worse for 
dry weather, and his interviews with farmers 
from oft' the routes of travel indicate that this 
condition is general. 

The second sowing, done cliielly in May, after 
the long April rains, is now in the tender blade 
and much of it is scarcely more than above 
ground. For this, rain is almost as necessary 
as for the earlier fields. Under a fierce sun and 
without sufficient moisture, it is in danger of 
drying up. Indeed, some fields are already so 
blighted that the most favorable weather from 
this time on could not save them. The danger 
of an almost total failure of crops in the Willa- 
mette valley is really alarming ; and it is cer- 
tain that the yield will be much less than has 
been expected. Only a general and drenching 
rain will prevent what has never been experi- 
enced—a failure of the wheat crop. 

The fruit crop, too, is an almost total failure, 

Apples, which have never before failed, will be 
in scant supply this fall, and it is even thought 
the Willamette valley will have to import for 
its own consumption. Pears stood the severe 
weather better, but cherries, plums and other 
small fruits have failed altogether. The trees, 
however, were not frozen in the valley, as in 
eastern Oregon, and are thrifty as usual. The 
loss of fruit is not a consequence of frost, bntof 
the unusual and long-continued cold rains of 
April, following the unusual warmth of March, 
which developed buds prematurely. 

Indian Wool. — It is a good thing that some 
Indians are good for something. The Zunis of 
Arizona and New Mexico furnish the pleasant 
exception to the unpleasant rule respecting 
Indian character. The Albuquerque Journal of 
a recent date states that the Zuni Indians are 
now shearing their flocks and beginning to bring 
large amounts of wool into this market. These 
Indians are located south of Fort Wingatc, on 
the Arizona line. They have very large flocks 
of sheep as well as some cattle, and are becom- 
ing very important contributors, through their 
wool product, to the business of New Mexico. 
The Navajo Indians, also, on the north of the 
Atlantic ami Pacific, and in northwest corner 
of the Territory, arc producing wool im- 
mensely, their crop this year running into the 
millions of pounds, and now coming to market. 
Last year's crop was about 3,000,000 pounds, 
and they expect twice as much to reach Albu- 
querque this season. 

Improved Local Demand for Fkuit. — One 
of the good results of the prosperity which now 
shines upon our interior districts is the im- 
proved home market which is made for local 
products. It indicates that the people can af- 
ford to live better, and the result will be the 
upbuilding and advancement of all the product- 
ive enterprises in the neighborhood. A little 
item in the Ghico Record of last w eek show s 
clearly what may be expected where there is 
growth in population and prosperity among the 
people, It says: " It is not likely that any 
shipments of fruit will be made to the Fast 
from this vicinity within the next 60 days. 
There is a great demand right here at home for 
fruit, and it is even difficult to find a surplus to 
send to the mountain towns. But this scarcity 
is not caused by a failure of crops, for they 
were never better; there are more consumers. 
In the latter part of .1 lily several carloads of 
pears and peaches may be spared from ltancho 
Chico to be sent to Chicago." 

In an experiment with one of the largest lo- 
comotives crossing the Sierra Nevada on the 
Central Pacific railroad, Saturday, an accident 
occurred, as thus described: The trial proved 
a success until the Summit valley was reached, 
when the locomotive, meeting with a slight flaw 
in the roadbed, caught one of the rails, twisted 
it almost double and ditched the engine and 
the train of cars. Railroad Surgeon Cm less 
was immediately sent to the scene of the wreck 
and found all the engineers and trainmen more 
or less injured, but not fatally. It is the opin- 
ion of railroad men now that on account of the 
immense weight of these machines they cannot 
be used successfully on these grades. 

NEGOTIATIONS between France and China 
have been difficult and unfavorable but have 
not been broken off. 



[July 7, 1883 


Arizona Notes. 

EDITORS Pkkss : — I am not in an agricultural 
county now. This Yavapai county of middle 
and northers Arizona is by many considered 
the "boss" mining region of the Territory, if 
not of the world; and truly they have some vast 
properties in mines, and as fast as the requisite 
capital and experienced management is brought 
to bear on these mineral deposits they are re- 
sponding very generously in gold, silver, copper 
and lead. 

The completing of the A. & P. R. K. through 
the higher and timbered lands of the Territory 
opening a second thoroughfare across the fine 
and healthful mineral belt, will add much to 
the value of all properties in this portion of the 
T e r rito ry. The railroad is now open and run- 
ning on time from near the Colorado river (six 
iniles)on through east to Albuquerque, there con- 
necting with the Santa Ke. And to the west of 
( 'olorado river through Calico there is a break 
of about thirty miles, where only gravel trains 
are now running, on which some passengers 
work their way down within two miles of river, 
and get over this as best they can, and then 
take private ferry across the river. When the 
bridge is completed this promises to be a very 
safe and healthful route at all seasons of the 

The great need now is the lines of railroad to 
run north and south across the Territory be- 
tween these two great trunk roads. When 
these are built many mines scarcely able now to 
pay the high running expenses will then be able 
to pay handsome dividends from the amount 
saved on present rates of transportation. The 
owners of these great herds of cattle and horses 
that roam over the hills and plains can trans- 
port their fat stock to a distant market, and go 
themselves "inside," meaning to ( 'alifornia for 
a visit. 

( 'attle and horse raising is easy, safe and 
profitable business here. True, there may come 
a year of severe drought once in eight or ten 
years, but even this is not so dangerous with 
this outlet for escape and means for supplies. 
The markets here are now rejoicing in Phomix 
valley peaches, at fifty cents per pound, and 
cherries, mostly from California, or " inside, 
Sit sixty cents per pound. Apricotsare supplied, 
mostly from Phoenix, small but sweet, at four 
for ten cents. Oranges and lemons, from l<oa 
Angeles, twenty-five cents per pound. 

The late frosts and unsettled population has 
greatly retarded fruit glowing in Arizona. 
There are fortunes in store here for skilled 
horticulturists. There are lands to be covered 
by the Arizona canal ami the various ditches of 
S ilt and Gila river valley that will produce 
very heavily the various fruits and melons that 
are craved here through a long, warm season, 
and will command a high price; but so far few 
are willing to wait for a tree to grow, so they 
get an immediate crop of barley or w heat and 
avoid the constant care of fruits or vines. 

In these higher regions, ."i,0O0 feet above sea 
level, are some small water supplies and little 
arable valleys of good soil. They are now cut- 
ting wheat hay, and raking it up immediately, 
and ricking it np and hauling it into the mar- 
ket, finding (puck sale for it at to (50 per 

At the 1'cck mines, on a hill range .'{"J miles 
south, they pack on donkeys the hay from Phoe- 
nix valley, making it worth ¥100 per ton at the 
mines ; $1.50 per night for horse to hay. 

Near the Copuar Mountain mines is a pretty 
little garden valley, owned by Mr. G. W. Hill. 
He has some excellent gardening ground, with 
several apple Mid peach trees. He claims to 
have a very extra large rich seedling peach, the 
best he ever ate. His trees look very healthy 
and thriving, though not fruiting this year. He 
and his sons being especially devoted to stock 
raising, the garden is too much neglected. 
Prom Copper Mountain mines the Ravine road 
to I'rescott has many little garden spots and 
water for stock within the first 10 miles, and 
then a few farm enclosures, where they are rais- 
ing some corn, and hay, and grain. 

The experiments of artesian boring would 
probably prove a success in many places if 
properly handled by men of means. The flow 
of water will govern the use of thousands of 
square miles of good pasture lands now lying 
almost waste. There are probably many places 
in the small and large ravines where good spring 
fountains could be found by a small amount of 
judicious digging. 

These are some of the inducements for set- 
tlers to come in this direction, or, more safe for 
them, to send their trusty prospector in advance 
to locate essential water rights, and find the 
ranges least exposed to other stock. 

From Mr.W.J. Murphy, who has takena con- 
tract for digging 33 miles of the Arizona canal, 
I learn that he has a small force of 100 men 
and his own teams— 20 to 30— now getting 
the work initiated, ready to take on a large 
force of men and about -200 teams, after the 
harvest season is over and the valley heat is 
somewhat abated by the summer rains of .July. 
The canal takes the waters from Salt river 
below its junction with the Verde. Dimen- 
sions of canal on base, thirty-six feet, sloping 
to a width of forty-five feet on top. This en- 
terprise is undertaken by some of the leading 
business men ami officials of the Territory, 

and promises in the next two years to open 
up for farmers and horticulturists a large 
scope of fine deep soil, on level lands. 
The small old ditches are showing what value 
water has on these lands. The canal will first 
give supplies of water to those nearest the 
head, and as it is carried forward give it to 
those farther down. The company are not 
desirous of any settlers anticipating them, and 
locating on the plains before they can go on and 
use the water and make a livelihood on the 
land which is well adapted to wheat, barley, 
altala. peaches, apricots and vines. In 10 
years Arizona will challenge California to show 
fruit with her, i . < . if a live, progressive class of 
fruit men migrate this way. We want here a 
few expert men to lead off; those men who are 
readers of what others know, and who also 
keep account of their own experience. 

None need fear that the mines are worked out; 
the surface mining for present is done, but the 
great claims are just being prospected ami the 
capital of the Kast becoming interested here. 
Four companies of Dutchess Co. (N. Y.I farm- 
ers (all wealthy) are now opening mines herein 
Yavapai Co. , which is almost as large as the 
State of New York, and has great resources in 
minerals, timber and pasture lands. 

The Phoenix papers of Maricopa county are 
talking big harvest talk, giving the Isaacs 
thrashing crew credit for thrashing lit;, 000 
pounds in half a day. They are just feeding 
those editors there on wheat and fresh fruits. 
They can afford to speak a word of praise some- 
times for their homy-fisted farmers. There are 
several other crews, and some of them may dis- 
count those figures before the harvest is over. 
It will be in order to hear from Franklin Bros, 
and the new outfit of Wm. Huff next, on big 

The present outlook for the rattle interests in 
this section is good. All stock up here is look- 
ing well, and the bed steers are in fine en der for 
market. There is no danger of anything in 
farming, fruit or stock, being overdone for 
years to come, if the mines continue to prosper 
as they now promise. 

All this portion of Arizona centers in I'res- 
cott, the capital of the Territory, a city of — 
well they like to think they amount to 3,000 
people, taking in ('amp Whipple, a very beau- 
tiful suburb and military plant — which to mor 
row will welcome home the highly honored 
hero, General Crook, who is now returning via 
Maricopa and Phoenix, everywhere receiving 
warm greetings. Kut I'rescott is preparing to 
give him a warm home reception of love, grati- 
tude and respect. They count him a father 
and protector. 

Of I'rescott, the Tucson Star lately remarked: 
"Situated in the pine-clad mountains, where 
the bubbling springs of ice cold Maters flow the 
year round, it is one of the most delightful and 
pleasant places to be found by the tourist on 
the Pacific coast. " This I consider a tolerably 
liberal concession for a rival city paper to pub- 
lish, and that Star is one of Hi st magnitude. 

B. W. Cuowkli.. 

I'rescott, A. T.. .lune ->2d, 1883. 


Horticultu:e in Napa County. 

The follow in" essay was read at the meeting of the 
Napa Grape Growers' Club, on June 30, by Leonard 
Coates and furnished for publication in the Rl KAL 

Pkkss : 

Horticulture in Napa county has, to make use 
of a vulgarism, taken a back seat since the 
grape Ikjoiii. It has been shown, during the 
meetings of this Association, that grape'gi owing 
is not. and cannot be, so great a success at this 
end of the valley as at the other. Still, it is a 
paying business, ami there are thousands of 
acres of land between Yoiintville and Soseol 
which are far more valuable for this purpose 
than some of the shallow, rocky hillsides now 
being sold in the neighborhood of St. Helena 
ami Calistoga. A recent article in the San 
Francisco Bulletin pointed out the folly of put- 
ting all of one's eggs into one basket. This has 
been characteristic of California since its first 
settlement, and was owing, no doubt, chiefly to 
a lack of general information concerning those 
crops which it would pay to raise, or those in- 
vestments which, with some degree of certainty, 
would prove safe ones. It need not be 
inferred from this that I am one of those 
who say that this or that business will 
be overdone — far from it. Hut at the 
same time, it is just as improbable to think 
that the present high prices for grapes will be 
maintained as that the figures paid for the last 
few years for apricots and other liuits will be 
the same. In fact, one to two cent> is now the 
price to figure on for fruits which have been 
sold at four cents by the ton. 

We have to contend with spring storms, 
changeable weather and frosts; but to counter- 
act the evil arising from these, we have an am- 
ple and never-failing rainfall. Much is being 
done, or said, in the southern portion of the 
State, and while there is much there that recom- 
mends itself to the intending purchaser of land, 
we find that many looking for a permanent 
home prefera location where drought is unknown, 
and where there is something surer to depend 
upon than a water company's promises, or a 
ditch that may run dry. The raising of orchard 
fruits has never been properly 01 fairly tried 
in Napa valley. This may seem a strange 

assertion, but it is none the less true. 
Ignorance or neglect, or both, is the 
too frequent cause of failure. Fruit growing 
requires the most constant vigilance and study, 
followed up with prompt action, to be a success. 
To lx: an orchardist, one cannot raise wheat 
and stock at the same time, although this has 
generally been the case here. The wheat must 
lie harvested and the stock looked after, but 
the orchard can take care of itself, except when 
the fruit is ripe, and then it "don't pay to haul 
it to the storekeeper to get what he can for it, 
or to spread it on the roof of the chicken-house 
to dry, and ship it to market in a patched grain 
sack." There are some orchards which are a 
credit, both to the planter and to Napa valley, 
and amongst these, perhaps, the best is that of 
Mr. Roeder. one mile and a half north of Napa 
city. I mention this orchard particularly, as a 
standing proof that the deplorable and disgust- 
ing condition is not owing to the climate or the 
soil. The fault lies chiefly with the original 
planter, the present owners often doing what 
they can to improve the trees. 

Fruit trees are somewhat longer in com- 
mencing to bear here than in Vaca 
or Santa Clara valleys, or farther 
south, and the spring storms and frost render 
the crop rather more uncertain, but this is no 
real drawback, the care and cultivation being 
the same. Trees that bear early and heavily 
cannot live long. Some of the apricot and 
peach trees in Yaca valley which have been 
bearing heavy crops for four or five years suc- 
cessively show signs of weakening already. 

In any of our valley land the plum, prune, 
pear and apple may be made a success, so far 
as soil and climate are concerned. The first 
thing to be done is to drain any wet spots, for 
water standing about the roots is injurious to 
any tree. Drain tile should be used, which is 
manufactured in Xapa City as reasonably as 
anywhere. 1 will briefly enumerate the loca- 
tion of the different fruits, mentioning those 
varieties which it is best to plant. 

The plum and prune will succeed in any rich 
land, and will stand a great ileal of moistute. 
Its hardiness and longevity are still greater if it 
is on the plum stock. The peach stock is gen- 
erally used, and for some varieties it is the best, 
but other varieties, as the Washington, will 
only succeed in the plum. The objection to 
this stock is that it throws up so many 
suckers, making the orchard look untidy and 
weakening the tiee. If a clean seedling has 
been used for the stock, and not a sprout, and 
if any buds upon the roots or crown are re- 
moved when the tree is planted, and the roots 
are not cut by subsequent plowing, there will 
be but little trouble from this. However, we 
have not a suekerless plum stock, of French 
origin, but which can be raised from the seed 
of the cherry plum. It is called myrobolao. It 
is extremely hardy, and I have seedlings of it 
now in iny nursery which are making an enor- 
mous growth. I believe it to be the best stock 
for the plum or prune, and would use none other 
were I planting an orchard myself, though the 
expense be double. Coe's Golden Drop, Yel- 
low FCgg, Washington and Columbia are 
the most profitable varieties, though 
there are many others desirable to 
plant, The two last named are prefer- 
able for drying, but the Coe's is superior, 
except that it does not pitt quite so readily. 
They should be dried in the sun for a few days, 
covered with netting to keeji flies from them, 
and finished in a drier, at a heatof 1.10 to - J00 . 
This is a good paying crop, if managed right, 
but it is of no use to deluge the 
market with plums in a fresh state. 

The Petite d'Agen, or French prune, the 
Fellenberg, Bulgarian, and silver prune of 
Oregon, are also some of the most valuable 
fruits we can raise, and succeed well in Napa. 
The Petite 'd Agen is the most popular, being 
an early and heavy bearer, very easily handled, 
and being remarkably sugary. The drying of 
prunes and plums is a staple industry, and 
cannot lie over done anymore than any other 
legitimate undertaking. Mr. Fisher, of St. 
Helena dries a very superior article from the 
F'rench prune. He scalds them in grape juice 
before drying. Mr. Lewelling has showed me 
dried specimens of the Columbia plum, which 
were excellent, and drying up but little, were 
considered very profitable. The Bulgarian 
prune is grown principally about Hay wards, 
and I have seen branches from young trees lit- 
erally loaded with fruit. The silver prune orig- 
inated in Oregon, is similar to Coe's golden 
drop, but claimed to be superior. Samples of 
it dried, shown me by Mr. Hixon. of Hixon, 
.lusti A Co., were certainly ahead of anything I 
have seen or tested in the prune line. 

The pear will thrive in perhaps a greater 
variety of soils than any other fruit tree, but 
prefers a heav y, moist land, or alluvial deposits, 
rich in humus, where there is suthcient moist- 
ure. The Bartlett, of course, stands at the 
head, and it is doubtful it it will ever be beaten. 
It seems to possess the quality of retaining its 
flavor, after it is canned, better than any other. 
It flourishes anywhere in Napa county, and 
pays well when sold at 7"> cents to $1 per box, 
though some lots were sold last year as high as 
$2,26 per box. The lower price is the one to be 
figured on, for it is being largely planted, and 
will come down to that. I would prefer to give 
more attention to pears for shipping to the Hast- 
en markets in a fresh state. The Faster 
Beurre has been shipped to F^urope, and, as I 
was told when there last year, arrived in good 
condition. This is the best late winter pear 
we have, except the Winter Nelis, which is far 
superior in flavor, will not keep so long, and of 

late years has been liable to blight. Beurre, 
Hardy and Beurre Clairgcau are very desirable 
as shipping pears. The latter bears very heavi- 
ly, is perfectly hardy here, and even this year, 
when most of the Harrietts lost their fruit, the 
Beurre Clairgeau was uninjured. It is very 
large, with a reddish brown cheek, and ripens 
in the fall, after the Bartlett. Souvenir du 
Congres Bhould be planted. In some re- 
spects it is even superior to the 
Bartlett. It is handsomer and ripens a 
week earlier. Some of the Japanese hybrids, 
as the Mikado, should be in every collection; 
we have not had them long enough to determine 
their commercial value as compared with 
others; the foliage is very large and brilliant. I 
have eight or ten x'arietiesof them on my place. 
But few apples have been planted in ( alifornia 
of late years, and it seemed as though what we 
had were given over to the codlin moth. No 
more paying crop could now be planted than an 
apple orchard, of the right varieties, and as fat- 
removed as possible from old orchards. Good 
apples already bring very fair prices in the San 
Francisco market, and New Orleans has be- 
come a market for our surplus dried apples, and 
the statement has l<een made by an authority 
on such matters, that a No. 1 article, dried, 
will sell readily in the Kastern markets, at re 
munerative prices. An apple tree, when it 
commences to bear, will continue to increase, 
on to twenty boxes to the tree. At least thir- 
ty-five feet should be allowed from tree to tree. 
Red Astrachan, Alexander, Gravenstein, Bell- 
flower, Hoover, Nickajack, Newtown Pippin, 
Sonoma and Skinner seedling, are standard va- 
rieties, and as good ;is any to plant. The w<>oly 
aphis has troubled apple trees a good deal this 
year, but the recent hot blast from the north 
together with the fierceness of the sun's rays, 
hav e destroyed many of these insects. 

The cherry pays well in some localities, as 
does the peach. Black Tartarian and Napoleon 
Bigarreau are leading varieties of the former, 
which should only be planted in deep. »v// 
oVoMt/W soil. Napa cherries are hardly equalled 
by any sent to the market. In suitable locali 
ties it is a very remunerative crop. I would 
like any who are interested in thecherry to copy 
tite method of training adopted by Mr. Roeder. 
The trees should be of the Mazzard stock. A 
location like that of Mr. Sackett's, south of 
Napa, is admirably suited to the cherry and 
peach. Those varieties of peach which are 
least liable to curl leaf should be planted. The 
Hull's Katly, Karly Crawford and Susque- 
hanna come as nearly as any in meet 
ing this requirement. The peach should 
be planted in light soil, of good depth, 
and will do well in the reddish loam of 
the hillsides, where more or less iron abounds. 
It should be pinned heavily every year when 
bearing, and wood ashes may be plowed in to 
great advantage. 

The apricot is not a profitable fruit to raise, 
except in isolated localities, as at Hudeiuan'- 
six miles west of Napa. A variety called the 
purple, or black apricot is quite hardy, and is 
recommended for the family orchard. It is a 
very pretty fruit, somewhat like the plum in 
appearance. Small fruits of all kinds succeed 
admirably in Napa. A ten-acre patch of cur 
rents would have been a small fortune this year, 
when the norther destroyed the crop in Ala 
meda and Santa Clara. It is but rarely that 
they are injured here to any extent. The rasp- 
berry and blackberry are both profitable crops 
to raise, and some varieties of Knglish goose 
berry, least subject to mildew, are highly 
remunerative. Thorough cultivation in a moist 
soil is essential for this berry, and the 
old wood should be thinned out, and suckers 
should not be allowed to choke the life out of 
the plant. 

There is much else that might be said, but I 
have already taken up too much time. 

Leonard < ihtks. 

Extermination of Insect Pests. 

The following circular by Dr. Chapin. State 
Inspector of Fruit Pests, upon the Rubjcct of 
insect pests and methods for their extermination 
has just been issued through the office of the 
State Printer. 

The Executive Officer of the State Board of 
Horticulture hereby earnestly requests the fruit 
growers of the State to observe and carefully 
carry out the following recommendations for 
the suppression and eradication of the various 
insect pests infecting fruit trees and fruit : 

The means to be used for this purpose are 
now to be applied for the mmnn r or during the 
active and fruiting stage of the tree. Remedies 
intended for use during the dormant period of 
the tree will at another time be specified. 

Codlin Moth. 

The ground in an orchard should be kept, 
thoroughly clean from weeds by constant ctilti 
vation. and the surface in as fine tilth as possi- 
ble, and smooth, so as to avoid furnishing a 
hiding place for the larvic of the moth. The 
bark of the tree should be as clean and smooth 
as possible in order to prevent the larva- from 
hiding away from reach. All loose pieces of 
bark should be carefully removed without inju- 
ry to the green layer and then destroyed, and 
the trunk washed with soft soap suds or the 

whale oil soap and sulphur mixture," in the 
strength of one pound to one and one-half gallons 
of water. This preparation is a standard one 
and is most convenient for use. It can be ob- 
tained from the manufacturers, Messrs. AUyne 
& White, 112 and 1 14 Front street, San Fran 
eisco, or can be liought of, or ordered through 

July 7, 1883.] 


any merchant. Bands should be placed upon 
trees as follows : Strips of grain sacks, or other 
similar material, should be cut about six or eight 
inches in width and long enough to encircle 
the tru.iik of the tree, lapping over slightly, and 
being folded, placed wi.h the open edge down- 
wards upon the trunk about one foot from the 
ground; a large-headed tack (Xo. 1*2 tinned 
being the best) will safely and easily confine the 
band in place. The upper or folded edge of the 
band should be tight upon the tree while the 
lower edges should be loose. Once every week 
these bands should be removed, and all larv;e 
found in them killed. Once every week all 
fruit upon the trees should be carefully exam- 
ined and the infected specimens picked, and 
then boiled, and fed to the hogs; also, all fallen 
fruit should be gathered from the ground once 
every week and be boiled and fed to the hogs. 
Where instead, it is used for drying purposes, 
all refuse should be carefully destroyed by boil- 
ing and feeding as above. This work should be 
commenced as soon as the fruit is well set and 
of sutiicient size to examine. Bands should be 
applied by the middle of May of each year. In 
addition to the bands, loose rags or pieces of 
sacking should be placed in the crotches of the 
trees and scrupulously examined each week. 
The w hole system must be carried out until all 
fruit is finally gathered from the orchard. 
Fruit at gathering should not be piled up 
ami left in the orchard. Great care 
should be exercised that no package infested 
with the eggs, larva; or pupae of any insects 
be allowed to come upon orchard premises. It 
is important to see that where goods are pur- 
chased through commission houses they be or- 
dered sent direct from place of purchase, as it 
is known that the eggs and larva' of insects 
may be earned with other tilings than fruit 
packages. Where new and free packages are 
not used, all packages should be disinfected 
before being brought into the orchard, either at 
the distributing centers, or immediately upon 
their entrance upon the home premises. Even 
doable disinfection would be found to be most 
profitable. Fruit growers are earnestly request- 
ed to examine into the merits of the package 
system, as it is now believed that the day is 
near when the free box or package will be found 
to be the cheapest as well as the safest mode of 
marketing all fruit worthy the growing. The 
disinfection of packages may be accomplished 
by dipping and keeping them in boiling water 
(with or without the addition of an alkali), for 
the space of three minutes. By the faithful 
carrying out of these directions it is thought 
(and as proven by my own experience) that 
ninety pel cent, of an apple or pear crop can be 
saved instead of entailing that percentage of 
loss, as is frequently and usually the case where 
the moth is well established. 

Scale Insects. 
At this season of the year the best remedy 
known at the present time is that of spraying 
infested trees and fruit thoroughly with the 
whale oil soap and sulphur mixture, in the 
strength of one pound to one gallon, or one 
pound to one and one-half gallons of water. 
This may be repeated. In this way the insects 
may be either entirely destroyed or held in 
check, and thoroughly treated the coming win- 
ter by other and more suitable remedies for the 
dormant condition of the tree. (During the 
winter season the proper treatment is by con- 
centrated lye one pound, to water one and one- 
half gallon's, applied by line spray. This must 
not be applied in the summer time. ) The neces- 
sity for careful watching and instant treatment 
of infected trees is paramount. Regarding the 
scale leerya Purchasi a special report may ere 
long be expected. 

Bed Spider. 
This pest is best attacked after the egg has 
hatched and during the period of activity. At 
this time the whale oil soap and sulphur mixture, 
in the strength heretofore mentioned, and to 
which is added a very strong decoction of to- 
bacco, is the most effectual yet used. It is 
hoped however, that experiments now in pro- 
gress with pyrethrum and other insecticides, 
will furnish better and surer means for its ex- 

Woolly Aphis. 
The positively effectual remedy for woolly 
aphis yet remains undiscovered. Particularly 
difficult is it to treat the aphis upon the roots of 
the tree. The means most effectual for those in 
the top of the tree is the spraying with a strong 
and hot decoction of tobacco leaves and stems ; 
one pound to one gallon of water, then diluted 
by the addition of another gallon of water when 
used : it should he applied as nearly as may be 
at 130° temperature. Applied to the collar of 
the tree and just under ground, the following 
has been used with success in destroying the 
aphis upon the roots, or at least in preventing 
its appearance above ground : Five pounds, or 
one-half gallon whale oil: boil in two and one- 
half gallons water ; to this add one-third of a 
pound of potash to make a soap. For use add 
to this quantity of soap one gallon of water and 
one and one-half gallons of strong decoction of 
tobacco. Then to every five gallons of the wash 
thus made add one-half a pint of Calvert's crude 
carbolic sheep dip. Apply by brush or spray, 
and then replace the earth, mixed with a liberal 
quantitv of air-slacked lime and wood ashes. 
Investigations to be made this season will doubt- 
loss Ida much to our knowledge of the best 
remedies for this pest. 

Green Aphis. 
This promises to be troublesome the present 
season. Until we ascertain better means, the 
most effective remedy is the Bpraying by whale 

oil soap and sulphur mixture. Other species of 
the aphides are noticeable on the apple, pear, 
plum, etc., and should receive similar treatment. 

Preventive measures are far more successful, 
than remedies after the injury has been done. 
Shading the trunk and preventing the sun burn- 
ing the bark will almost always prevent the 
work of borers. This may be done by placing 
two shakes, one on the south, the other on the 
west side of the tree; or by means of two pieces 
of board nailed together and secured to the tree 
by rope. Also allow the tree to branch out low 
down upon the trunk. Where borers have been 
at work, wrapping the trunk of the tree with 
burlap has been found to be a most valuable 
remedy. Rubbing the trunk of the tree near 
the ground with fresh common bar soap is very 

Pear and Cherry Slugs. 

The use of dust or the finely powdered earth 
of the orchard, thrown freely over the tree by 
the shovel or otherwise, is effectual in the de- 
struction of the pest. 

Tent Caterpillar. 

The twigs around which are clustered a band 
of eggs should be cut oft' and destroyed during 
the winter pruning. When, however, hatched 
out, the caterpillars should, while in the 
branches, be taken from the tree in the same 
way and burned; or when scattered about the 
tree they should be shaken off, and prevented 
from ascending the tree trunk by placing upon 
the trunk a greased band, which they will not 
cross if the grease is kept soft. They then 
may be readily killed when collected in masses. 
Canker Worm (Anisopterx Vernata). 

For the past three seasons this caterpillar has 
caused great damage to some orchards, but it 
is not generally known through the State. The 
best means of combating it is to place about 
the trunk of the tree an inch rope, and over 
this a six-inch strip of tin, long enough to go 
around the tree and lap over a little, being se- 
cured by a nail driven through the tin and rope. 
The middle of the tin is placed lengthwise 
against the outside of the rope. This secures 
a space both above and below the rope between 
the band of tin and the tree. This proves an 
obstruction to the ascent of the tree by the 
wingless moth to deposit her eggs. Apply this 
band in the autumn. Destroy bunches of eggs 
deposited on the trunk below: also look on the 
underside of loose pieces of bark for eggs. 
When the worm is at work upon the tree and 
the foliage destroyed there will be no crop of 
fruit matured. Then the effectual remedy is 
by spraying the tree with arsenic, one pound to 
100 or l.">0 gallons of water. 

Where arsenic has been used, three pounds 
to 200 gallons of water, the past season, al- 
though burning the foliage at that time, it ef- 
fectually destroyed the worm. The trees are 
in tine foliage and bearing a good crop of fruit 
at the present time. 

The parasitic fungi (fusicladium dendriticnm) 
so designated by Professor T. .1. K-urrill, of 111., 
such as is manifest upon blighted and scabby 
apples and pears; also the smut fungus, (fumago 
salicina), observable upon oranges, olives, and 
the like, infested with scale, may be best treated 
by spraying trees and fruit with the whale oil 
soap and sulphur mixture, one pound to one and 
one-half gallons of water. 

In order to successfully combat these various 
pests the hearty co-operation of all {rait growers 
is necessary, and it is hoped will be cheerfully 
rendered. ( 'ounty Horticultural Commissioners 
are reminded that the law creating those com- 
missioners is still in force, and that it will be 
necessary for them to carry on the work 
diligently the present season. Oreat caution 
should be used in sendingspecimensof insect pests 
over different paitsof the State. .Many pests 
are thus carelessly disseminated through the 
desire to show specimens. It is advised that no 
such specimens be sent by mail or otherwise, 
except to entomologists, or those whose business 
it is to carry on investigations therewith. When 
so sent they should be properly secured. 

S. F. ClIAI'IN. 
State Inspector of Fruit Pests. 

San .lose, May 17, 188:1. 

To Mevnirk THE Flow ok Stkea \is. — The 
Maiiiifur'un r ami Builder gives the following 
very simple method: To measure water roughly 
in an open stream, take from four to twelve dif- 
ferent points in a straight line, across the 
stream, ami measure the depth at each of these 
points, and, adding them together, divide by 
the number of measurements taken. This 
quotient will give you the average depth, which 
should be measured in feet. Multiply this 
average depth by the width in feet, and this 
will give you the square feet of cross section of 
the stream. Multiply this by the velocity of 
the stream in feet, per minute, and you will 
have the cubic feet, per minute, of the stream. 
The velocity of the stream can be found by lay- 
ing off 100 feet on the bank, and then throwing 
a board into the stream at the middle, note the 
time required to pass over the 100 feet, and 
dividing the 100 feet by the time and multiply- 
ing by sixty gives the velocity in feet, per min- 
ute, at the surface. The velocity at the cen- 
ter is only eighty-three per cent of that at the 
surface, and so only eighty -three percent should 
be calculated. For example, suppose the float 
passes 100 feet in ten seconds, this, divided by 
ten and multiplied by sixty, (seconds in a min- 
ute) gives BOO feet, per minute, as the velocity, 
and eighty three per cent of this gives -498 feet, 
per minute, as the velocity of the stream at the 
center, and the area of the cross section, multi- 
plied by this, will give the number of cubic feet, 
per minute, in the stream, 


Carp Culture. 

I-.mioks PRESS: — I am also very desirous of 
learning something of carp raising on a small scale, 
and as my efforts .so far have been singularly unsat- 
isfactory, I appeal to you, or any of your readers for 
information on the subject. I have an abundance 
of spring water on my place, but fear it is too cold 
for carp, and I would like to know particularly about 
the temperature of water best adapted to their gen- 
eral welfare; also habits, kind and quantity of food, 
etc., etc. — in fact, the whole modus operandi.— 
James Phaser. Nevada City, Cal. 

Carp culture in California, on a large scale, is 
yet one of the things to be. It is much easier 
to impart information concerning the culture 
of the carp "on a small scale" than it would be 
on a grand scale, because the former method 
has been tried in this State, and many persons 
are able to say something concerning it. For 
myself, I claim no more knowledge on the sub- 
ject than dozens of others possess. I can only 
give yon my experience. 

I consider that carp culture on a small scale 
is the most satisfactory method of raising these 
fish. The carp is essentially a poor man's fish. 
It is not desired that the exclusive control and 
management of carp ponds should be in the 
hands of a great and wealthy company, but 
rather that the thousands of our small farmers 
throughout California should each have one or 
more small ponds, and after supplying their 
own tables with as many delicious carp as they 
require, send the surplus to the markets. Carp 
culture on a small scale is a great deal like the 
mining of 184!), when each new-comer was per- 
mitted to stake out his little claim, and with 
pick and shovel wrest the golden treasure from 
the bosom of the earth. Much more gold was 
extracted in this way than when machinery and 
stamp-mills were introduced, and one great ad- 
vantage was that those who worked were 
rewarded. Now, the extra treasure of the earth 
is piled into the coffers of the few. The aim of 
carp culture, in my opinion, is to provide a 
something that did not exist before. In our in- 
creasing wealth as a community, we want bet- 
ter living, better food than we had thirty years 
ago. The first object, then, is for our farmers 
in easy circumstances to provide themselves with 
an extra article of food, that shall be at the 
same time cheap, delicious and profitable. I 
think there can be no mistake in this proposi- 
tion. We should endeavor to improve our con- 
dition by surrounding ourselves with all the 
comforts and enjoyments of life, so far as our 
means will permit. 

Little can be said in a short article like this 
about the many things that suggest themselves 
to one embarking in this business. The con- 
struction of ponds, water, food and many other 
equally important subjects demand our atten- 
tion. On the '•Construction of Ponds" there is 
no abler article than Rudolf Hessel's, in the re- 
port ot United States Fish Commissioner for 
187f. I would advise all to procure that re- 
port, if possible. To those who cannot get it, 
I would give a few hints on the subject of 

The Construction of Ponds. 

The area to he enclosed must first be .deter- 
mined. This is plowed up as deeply as possi- 
ble, and the soil removed with a common road- 
scraper, and deposited upon the edge of the 
pond as a levee. If the ground has a slope, the 
principal portion of the soil should be deposited 
on the lower side, where the outlet should be 
located. A box of wooden boards one foot 
wide is then made, open at both ends, which 
box is placed in the lower levee, and is fitted 
with a cap on the inside of the pond. This 
serves to let the water off. The pond 
should be made deepest at the lower 
end, to be from five to six feet in 
depth, running down to very shallow water 
at the upper end. The inside of the levee 
should be boarded up with common redwood 
boards, to prevent the water from eating into 
the levee. With us it is necessary, particu- 
larly on the east side, as the west w ind drives 
the water against the east bank. A ditch must 
be dug throughout the entire length of the bot- 
tom of the pond, and both sides slope towards 
the center, so that when the water is drawn 
off the fish all go into the ditch, where they 
can easily be caught. The ditch need not be 
deeper than one foot. There remains yet to be 
considered an inlet and an outlet. The inlet, 
of course, is at the upper end of the pond. 
When the pond is fed by springs, unless the 
springs arc without the pond, the inlet is not 
necessary. Otherwise it is a common ditch 
connecting the spring with the pond. The 
outlet is a shallow trough on the lower levee 
which serves to convey the surplus water of the 
pond. To guard against carp making their 
escape through this outlet, I place a small water 
wheel at the outlet. 

The water on our place is 74'' degrees warm. 
It comes from springs which are in the bottom 
of the ponds. The waters of California arc all 
adapted for the propagation of carp. When the 
water is brought from a distance, it is so much 
the better, as it is then thoroughly oxidized. 

It would be much easier to say what carp 
would not eat, than to say what they would eat. 
They arc fond of all kinds of grains — wheat, 
barley, corn, etc. I have been feeding them on 
beans almost exclusively, and they seem to 
relish the dish with as much gusto as the aver- 
age Bostonian. Beans can sometimes be bought 
very cheap in San Francisco. They should be 

boiled soft in a large iron kettle. Pilot bread 
is good food for carp. They will also eat coag- 
ulated blood and thick curd. 

I will add a word concerning the proper time 
to ship carp, and then conclude. I will en- 
deavor to speak of the habits of the carp, their 
characteristics, etc., in another letter. 

The spawning season of carp is in April and 
May. It would not, therefore, be a good time 
so ship them during the spawning season. The 
young fish of this year, by next spawning sea- 
son, will be from twelve to sixteen inches in 
length. They can best he transported late in 
the fall and early in the spring, because the 
weather is cooler, and they do not require as 
much care as now. Roukrt A. Porn:. 

Sonoma, J une 25th, 1 883. 

|H he "Vineyard. 

Fertilizers for the Vine. 

EDITORS PRESS:— I believe I shall do a ser- 
vice to those amongst your readers who arc in- 
terested in grape growing, by transcribing some 
notes on fertilizers for the vine, published in 
French by Mr. K. Chcsud. The lncidness of 
the practical experiences and the self-suggest- 
ing advice to be drawn from those notes will be 
most welcome to the thinking vintner. In sub- 
stance the remarks are as follows: 

When considering that the vine for its nour- 
ishment takes annually a certain amount of 
mineral and organic matters from the soil, and 
that these have to be restored before a lack of 
them become perceptible, wc must ask two 
questions. 1st. What elements does the vine 
draw from the soil? and the other, what should 
be employed to replace what has been furnished 
by the soil ? 

The following results of the investigations of 
Mr. de Oasparin about the requirements of the 
vine for the production of 100 kilogr. of grapes 
will be an excellent basis. He found the con- 
tents of 

Azote. Potash. 

84 i kilogr. of wine : 0^86 

10 3-5 kilogr. dry pomace 0.30 c 'l 

IS" kilogr. of wood, branches, etc ".fill u. IT 

188 ,62 kilogr. dry leaves ->.:u n.|s 

3.14 "ill 

The grape, therefore, contains but little azotic 
matter, 0..'10 only, while wood and leaves have 
2.50. The fruit furnished 0.56 of potash, and 
in the lignous and leafy parts of the vine were 
found only 0.35. Hereby the conclusion is 
reached that by enriching the soil with azotic 
elements, the vegetative power of the vine is 
stimulated, whereas through replacing potash 
in the soil the fructification of the plant derives 

Farmyard manure is rich in azotic matter, 
containing 0.38, 0.40 and up to 0.50. 

Manureof cattle fed on pomace is rich both in 
azotic and potash matter, and is therefore an 
excellent vineyard fertilizer. Crushed bones, 
powdered horn and woolen rags are also very- 
good, having rich contents of azote and de- 
composing slowly. Kelp, river-bottom mud 
and mud of the sea bottom, herbs, although 
less rich than farm manure are also very useful. 
The latter contains, likewise, potash, but in 
small proportion, and cannot be supplied in 
large doses to the vineyard, because it would 
lower the quality of the wine. It is therefore 
necessary to call potash salts to the aid of the 
vineyard. Pomace, wood ashes, and the 
tops of certain shrubs, contain potash. 
The soil itself contains considerable propor 
tions of potash, but not always in a soluble 
shape. Of the combinations in w hich potash in 
the soil is found, therefore, and which may or 
not render it insoluble, depends the power of 
the same for fructifying in the vine, and of 
which in taking the chemical composition of a 
soil, great stress should be laid. Liebig found 
.")0,000, liO.OOO and 70,000 kilogr. of potash 
per hectare of arable soil. The content of 
soluble potash for the same surface, according 
to Boussingault and Dehcrain, varies from 04 
to 2,'240 kilogr. Certain soils are exhausted in 
four, others in ten years, and others may keep 
soluble potash for 44 years Knowing the con- 
tents of the two chief elements in his soil, it is 
easy for the vintner to find in which cheapest 
form he can obtain azotic, or potash salts, to 
keep the soil of his vineyard in due state of 
ei | uable productiveness . 

F. PollNlPORl'K. 

St. Helena, Cal. 

Gold Clans. — There appears to be quite a 
run of late by manufacturers upon novelties in 
expensive gold and silver artistic glass. The 
executors of the late Joseph Webb, of the Coal- 
burn Hill Class Works, Stourbridge, have en- 
tered the lists, and have brought Out what they 
term the " New Cold Class." It is made in 
various ornamental shapes for the drawing 
room. The surface has a crumpled appearance, 
colored with gold, which is worked into it in the 
course of manufacture. The gold surface is not 
to be compared to gilding, it being, as it were 
a top layer of the glass, and is brought in com- 
bination with different colored bodies. Some 
arc worked out in green, and others in amber 
glass. The elevation of the crumpled shapes 
admits the light through, which throws up the 
tinge and acids to the effect. This firm also 
makes a specialty of jtIuhh furniture. 




t'orresirondtni c on ( Irange r^TTV** Sad work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate (Irangesarc respect 
fully solicited for this department. 

What the Grange Did. 

Stiiinling on our streets some time since, in 
conversation with » prominent member of tlie 
Lodi (Grange, a burly, horny-handed fanner 
strode past us at a gait that indicated the man 
full of business and energy. 

"There goes- — ," said our com- 
panion, directing our attention to the passing 
yeomen; "you have no idea w hat a change our 
(irange has made in that man. Why, a few 
years ago, he was one of the most careless and 
unfortunate fanners in the county. There was 
no system about him whatever. For a fact, 
he didn't even know how to plow his land. He 
gave little thought to the selection of seed, and 
still less to the manner of sowing it. He never 
knew what were the l>est changes to make in 
crops to rest his land, and he didn't believe 
much in summer-fallowing. There was bad 
economy in his keeping an inferior class of 
stock, and still worse economy in his keeping 
these half fed. His barns went unrepaired; his 
gates dragged the ground, anil he himself wore 
a 'rundown at the heel' aspect, superinduced 
by his inability to save enough money from year 
to year to pay the interest on the mortgage that 
encumbered his farm. 

Well, we induced the poor fellow to come 
into the (irange. He was a quiet member, and 
never had much to say, but he was watchful as 
a cat of everything going on at our meetings. 
From the discussions upon agricultural matters 
he gathered a thousand little ideas that set him 
to thinking. .. He saw how poorly he was utiliz- 
ing his farm. He saw at what points the waste 
was going on, and he comprehended the means 
of saving the leakage. His wits were sharp- 
ened by contact and social intercourse with suc- 
cessful men. He developed an appetite for 
reading, and sought eagerly for such papers as 
the Patron and the Kckai. Pkkss. The result 
is that he lias become a scientific agriculturist. 
He is known throughout the county as one of 
our most thrifty and prosperous farmers. Not 
only has he paid all back iuterest, but will this 
Near lift every dollar of the mortgage oft his 
place. He is a changed man, and this is plainly 
seen in the briskness of his step and the car- 
riage of his head as he passed us just now." 

This is no fictitious narration. The subject 
of the conversation above given is well known 
iu this county. 

To us, there seems embodied in the expe- 
rience <>f this farmer, a lessi in of great value. 
In the first place we see in it an unanswerable 
argument for the extension and perpetuity of 
the rations of Husbandry: we see in it the for- 
cible demonstration of that time-worn truth- 
"Knowledge is power;" we see in it the declara- 
tion that ignorance and illiteracy must be erad- 
icated from the ranks of the bread producer be- 
fore the country can ever touch the zenith of its 
prosperity; wc see in it countless, subtile sugges- 
tions as to how, in these Granges, the elevation 
of character, the dissemination of knowledge, 
and the cultivation of intellect among its mem- 
bers, may at once conserve the happiness of the 
individual and the safety of the State. 

Therefore we would conscientiously advise, 
especially all farmers, to unite with the Grang- 
ers. None can fail to be benefited thereby. 
Ami if any there are who arc wise ami prosper- 
ous beyond the need of advice and aid, to such 
wc#vould say that a sense of fellow feeling, 
and a desire to advance individual interest by 
promoting the e .inmon good, ought to constrain 
them for the lienefit of others less fortunate, 
to give the rations of Husbandry their moral 
and active support. —Lo<li Sentinel. 

Co-operation and the Grange. 

Hon. £L 1'. Boise, W. M. of the Oregon 
State (.range, delivered an able address before 
that body at its annual meeting at Salem, a lew 
weeks ago. We shall present the following ex- 
tract on the value of co-operation among 
O ranges: 

Co-operation in business if properly con- 
ducted is a most efficient means of educating 
our members in the ways of trade, and com- 
merce. Where subordinate Oranges have 
started small establishments on the plan laid 
down in the digest of the National Grange, 
they have generally been successful. All who 
become members of such associations, learn 
from experience the prices of the goods in 
which they deal and the profits made on them. 
They also learn how the products of their farms, 
and the goods they buy for their families are 
handled, and how many profits are made on 
them by middle men. We do not complain of 
middle men. There must be enough of them 
to make the necessary transfers of products 
from the producers to the consumers, and they 
are entitled to reasonable compensation for 
their services and interest cai their capital em- 
ployed in this business. But the buying and 
selling of produce merely for speculation, bene- 
fits no one but the speculators, and is against 
the interest of the producer and an injury to 
the legitimate trade. There is no good 
reason why the farmer 01 his agent, the ware- 
house man, (who should never lie the agent of 
the speculator) cannot sell wheat to the shipper 
or foreign merchant without the intervention of 
other go-betweens. Tf even 20 Oranges in this 
State had each a corporative establishment 

such as is now operated by the McMinn- 
ville (irange, they could by combining 
their trade at a single house in Port- 
land, make the very best terms for the 
purchase of their goods, and for the sale of their 
surplus produce, and soon build up a trade of 
great importance and profit to the members of 
the Order who participate in their enterprises. 
Our brethren of McMinnville (Irange are doing 
exceedingly well, but further co-operation^ by 
other Oranges would enable them to do still 
better, and by such co-operation we would lie 
able to establish a permanent agency in Port- 
land, which would be a source of great con- 
venience and profit to the members of our Or- 
der. From what I have learned of the success 
of the co-operation in California and other sister 
States, and from what I have seen here in this 
State— and especially in Linn county — I am 
fully piusuadcd that through an intelligent and 
prudent co-operation iu business we can almost 
entirely control our owii affairs, and be enabled 
to deal with our fellow men of other professions 
on equal terms and secure to ourselves what 
our produce is worth in the markets of the 
world where it is consumed, after deducting the 
customary freights and charges, and that we 
could in a great measure control these freights 
and charges. We could, also, by uniformly 
putting our produce on the markets in good or- 
der, secure an advantage. When the word 
(irange is seen on a sack of wool or other pro- 
duce, it should be a guarantee of the quality 
it represents. Co-operation in business among 
the members of our Order is now no longer an 
experiment. It has grown into a regular sys- 
tem which experience has now so far perfected 
that we have been able to lay down in 
our digest ueneral rules which, if followed, 
will guard us from dangerous risks. Most of 
these co-operate establishments (which are now 
very numerous) are eminently successful, and 
all the members of the subordinate Oranges, 
where co-operation is practicable under this 
system, are afforded a most valuable opportuni- 
ty of learning the ways of practical business. 
That education which enables men and women 
to lead successful and useful lives is not learned 
from books alone, it is gathered up iu the ex- 
perience of life, in the office, the workshop, on 
the farm, and in the actual practice of all the 
useful occupations which employ the people iu 
all the great avenues of civilized society. Those 
Oranges, where some business co operation is 
carried on, are generally the most prosperous, 
and their meetings most satisfactory and profit- 
able. As a means of facilitating co-operation, 
every Grange should embrace the earliest op- 
portunity to build a Orange hall and storeroom. 
This will be the home of the (irange, and Serve 
as the nucleus to hold the members together in 
interest and sympathy. It will be the place of 
deposit of their archives; can lie used as a store- 
house for their goods and produce intended for 
market, and will become a neighborhood center 
and rallying point, and the very structure itself 
will become hallowed by fraternal associations, 
and be a monument in honor of the Orange, 
and, like a church or a school-house, ever sug- 
gestive to the farmers of the vicinity of the 
grand purposes and principles of our Order. 

Absorption of Oxygen by Iron Cement. 

In the construction of a i ail way bridge over 
the Forth, a number of cylinders were sunk 
into the bed of the river. They were built of 
iron rings six feet in diameter and several feet 
high, and made a total hightof sixty feet. The 
space round the sections was filled up from the 
inside by a rusting composition of iron turnings 
mixed with sulphur and sal ammoniac. When 
wet, this mixture oxidizes and swells up, so as 
to fill the spaces into which it is thrust. It was 
applied to the joints by one man. One day last 
May, however, when there was a perfectly still, 
somewhat hazy atmosphere, and considerable 
heat without direct sunshine, this man was ob- 
served to lieeome overpowered by some "mys- 
terious influence," and a companion descended 
by a windlass to bring him up to the top of the 
cylinder. He managed to get the man into the 
bucket of the windlass, and so to get him hauled 
up into purer air: but the deliverer himself .suc- 
cumbed to the same influence, and falling into 
a pool of water at the bottom of the cylinder 
was unfortunately drowned. One of the eon- 
tractors now descended, taking care, however, 
to fasten a rope to his body, and it was fortu- 
nate he did so, as he also succumbed ami had 
to be pulled out by the rope. Dr. Wallace w as 
called in to account for this fatal accident and 
traced it to the absorption of oxygen by the 
rusting compound, thus depriving the air in the 
cylinder of its sustaining power. The oxygen 
combined with the iron and sulphur of the mix- 
ture, and the state of the atmosphere prevented 
free circulation of fresh air into the cylinder. 
The result was that the gas In v thed by the 
man was nitrogen, or air robbed ol its oxygen. 
The normal proportion of that gas iu the air is 
20.9 or 21 per cent, and Dr. Angus Smith has 
shown that this proportion cannot be altered, 
even by one quarter per cent, without produc- 
ing appreciable effects, while a loss of one half 
per cent gives rise to serious inconvenience, and 
air containing only twenty per cent of oxygen 
may produce grave consequences if breathed for 
a considerable time. When the deficiency 61 
oxygen exceeds this to a sensible extent, a can- 
dle refuses to burn. 

It is sagaciously noted that to determine the 
value of building stone a ramble among the 
tombs is wise. In far fewer years than most 
imagine monuments are in decay. 

( ^G^ieULTUr^AL Xi 0TE S. 


Cannery. — Oroville Register, June 28tht The 
new cannery just started here is one of the new 
style Wheeler canneries. Its capacity is ."i.000 
cans every ten hours, and when in full opera- 
tion will give employment to twenty-five per- 
sons. A brick furnace has been constructed 
about fifteen feet long and four feet wide and 
high. Into this is set five boilers, a foot deep, 
fifteen inches wide, and thirty inches long. 
Above each boiler stands an oven fifteen inches 
wide and thirty inches high and thirty inches 
deep. These are so arranged that they can be 
filled with hot steam from the boilers. There 
are slides in each oven for holding the trays 
that are filled with fruit. Kach tray holds 
eight cans and an oven holds five trays, thus 
the capacity of the cannery is 200 cans at a 
time. The fruit is peeled and pitted, and placed 
in the can or glass jar, the jar filled with syrup 
made from fine white sugar, and the cover 
is laid on but not fastened. The tray is 
then placed in the oven, and iu fitteen 
minutes the- fruit is cooked. The jar, or can, 
is at once sealed, and the tray is ready for an- 
other lot of fruit. Wc cannot imagine how 
fruit can be put up in better or purer shape. 
The Wheeler method is certainly far ahead of 
the old style canneries, and we deem it decided- 
ly preferable to the method iu which fruit is 
put up at our home. The new buildings erected 
are on the corner of Myers and Bird streets, 
and are large and roomy, while the Tom John- 
son brick building, on the same street, will be 
used for a warehouse. Another season will 
see this one of the busiest corners in town. 
Mr. Wheeler has made a thorough study of 
fruit canning, and has reduced it to a science. 
The new firm is fortunate in putting up this 
style of cannery. From the tests made we can 
safely pronounce the canning process a perfect 
success. Two of our leading business men, D. 
K. Perkins and James C. Gray, have taken 
hold of this new industry and w ill push it for- 
ward to a complete success. 

Till CojfTNC OltwcK (Mil-. — Oroville Mir- 
cury: — C. H. Wilcox informs us that his 
orange crop will not be more than one-fourth 
of that of last year. The cold weather of last 
winter, while it did not injure the trees, 
killed most of the fruit buds. This is true in 
regard to most of the trees in this town, but 
with a few, where they were protected by 
buildings or larger trees, a fair crop is now 


Kihtoks Pkkss: I send you a sample of 
early peaches by to-day's express. The speci- 
mens i send you are the P.riggs May, but are 
considerably behind the time this season, and 
are not good ripe yet. Two years ago they 
were all ripe and gone by the 10th of June. 
This variety does well here, and I can safely 
recommend it to all fruit growers as a valuable 
peach for an early variety. The specimens sent 
■ire the best 1 have; the only fault is, they were 
picked a little too green. [The fruit was very 
well grown and creditable. | Harvest is on 
hand here at this time, and w ill last for some 
time, as the crops are very heavy. Wages are 
good. Times are looking up, and there seems 
to be more stir in the business circle than there 
has been for some time past. A. H. Pok. Lake- 
port, Gal. 


Artesian Fi-kiikt. -UkSah /'/< M ; A com- 
pany is being organized in I'kiah and vicinity 
for the purpose of boring an artesian well to 
demonstrate the fact as to whether or not arte 
sian water can be obtained in I'kiah valley. A. 
F. Hedcmeyer, B. B. Fox, I). Haugh, Judge 
MoOarvey, Sam Wheeler, J. S. Heed, I>r. 
King, L. Gaff Bey, and many more of our most 
lnfluentl ll utlZMIs ire h.u kli;,, the eii ti I pi r 
and beyond a doubt the experiment will be 
made w ithin a short time. It is estimated that 
the entire cost of the undertaking w ill not ex- 
ceed s|, .-,o(i. 

Hoi's. — Hops are looking splendid in southern 
Mendocino. The poles are covered and the 
fields arc one perfect bower. 

Sheep.— Sheep arc going out quite Ireely at 
from |2.62 to .S.'t per head. The high price of 
beef and pork acts as a lever on that of mutton, 
and it raises approximately. Those sales made 
at 93 before shearing were considered good, but 
these latter ones prove to be better. Sheep are 
everywhere fat, and grass never better for the 

HOP Notes. -Ckiah Press, June 29; At pres- 
ent the crop prospect in hops is not promising. 
Last year gave a large yield, and consequently 
this is an oil' year, and old hops will probably 
average less than a thousand pounds to the 
acre. New hops, proportionately, look better 
than old, and the large acreage set out will 
greatly increase our total for the season. There 
is not a ranch from town to the head of Red- 
wood— Hi niih s that has not its patch of hops 
ranging in acres from three to forty, and they 
generally look well, though more weedy than 
usual, on account of the long continued late 
rains. Prices are likely to range from 20 to 30 
cents. L. V. Long has contracted l.">0 bales, 
and W. I). White ."i0 bales, to the Philadelphia 
Brewery at 25 cents for six years. This is a 
good sale, and yet not over the average for the 
last twenty years. Kuropean and Kastern re- 
ports indicate a small crop. So let our hop 
growers take heart and be careful to cure their 

[July 7, 1883 

hops in the bast of order, so as to command the 
top of the market. 

Crops. — Hay is coining into town much more 
slowly than usual, albeit the crop is immensely 
in excess of hist year. Kedeineyer sold a large 
lot of volunteer to the Fashion Stable, at *" per 
ton; Holliilay supplied Morrison fc Curtis. at 17 
and SI0 per ton, but most sales rate at *8 for 
loose and S10 for baled. An immense quantity 
-for this section is being baled, and it is hard- 
ly probable that it will rate over *12 during the 
winter. Grain is looking the best it has tor 
years, yet wheat is selling at the mills for one 
and a half cents per pound. Cleveland is get- 
ting in quite a lot from Potter at that price. 

Mammoth Straw merries. Transcript, June 
22: Felix Oillet yesterday left upon our table 
several boxes of straw lierries, including the 
"Ruby," "Young Wonderful" and "Flora" va 
rieties. They were raised at his Barren Hill 
nursery, in this city. larger or more delieiously 
flavored lierries are not to be found on the coast. 
The demand from abroad for trees and vines 
from Mr. GUlet's nursery is rapidly increasing, 
and he is kept busy a good share of the time in 
filling orders. He has converted what was a 
few years ago a barren tract of land into one of 
the most fertile spots to be found anywhere, and 
is now beginning to reap a rich reward for his 
enterprise and industry. 

San Benito. 

Hav AMD Okain. — Hollister IhinocraJ: A 
large amount of hay has been cut in this valley 
this season, and many are regretting the fact 
that they did not cut more. Indeed, grave 
doubts are expressed by fanners in some locali- 
ties, as to whether the grain will prove of any 
value whatever. The hot days did the business. 
San Joaquin. 

Silk. — Lodi Review: Mrs. T. Stoddard has 
127 pounds of superior cocoons, 10 pounds of 
second-rate cocoons, and 2 or .'t pounds of floss 
silk. The immense yield of raw material came 
from one ounce of eggs. After four weeks' dry 
ing, Ii4 cocoons averaged 21 ounces, and M 
cocoons of last year averaged 2 ounces apiece. 
Mrs. Stoddard thinks that the heavy weight of 
last year's cocoons over that of this season is 
due to the superiority of hist year's product. 
San Luis Obispo. 

CROPS. — Trihttnt , June 29: From all quarters 
the report is favorable. Buckley has com 
meiiced cutting his grain. It could hardly be 
better. Frank McCoppin will harvest 20,000 
bushels from 400 acres. The Lett place, which 
has beni cultivated for twenty years, is twenty 
percent better than ever before. The land was 
sold a short time since at SXi per acre. The 
present crop will more than pay for the land. 
The reports from other parts of the eotmty are 
equally as favorable. 

Santa Barbara. 

Fog an ii Beans. — Cor. Pre**, June 30 ; Th. 
past three weeks at < 'arpinteria ha ve been week.- 
of continued lighting with weeds, but now they 
an ch ain d out and the In an and coi n fields are 
looking beautiful ami are making a wonderful 
growth. The crops look promising, still it is 
too early to predict what the final result will 
be. If the b gs continue for a month yet until 
the beans cover the ground, the moisture will 
not evaporate so rapidly, and enough may be 
kept itl reserve to mature a fair crop, but the 
fogs are our only salvation to husband the 
moisture and mature the crop during the months 
of July and August. 

Santa Clara 

The New Cannery. -Mercury, June 28: 
The new buildings of the San Jose Fruit Pack 
ing Company, on Fifth street, to which allusion 
has frequently been made iu these columns, are 
now fairly completed. Tin y are magnificent in 
their proportions, and are admirably adapted 
to the uses for which they were built. 
They are fitted also with every appliance ami 
convenience which has suggested itself to the 
manager, J. H. Barbour, and his assistants din- 
ing nine years of practical and earnest work. A 
very large amount of credit for labor saving ap- 
pliances is due to the ingenuity and intelligent 

study of the very efficient superintendent oi the 

work-rooms, Mr. Wilson Hays. The main 
building is 250 feet in length, most of it two 
stories high. In the rear is a floored passagp 
way six feet iu width, and then conies another 
row of buildings, devoted to an engine room 
and rooms for making preserves and jellies, a 
department under the direction of RobBrt 
Manna, who, though a young man, is achieving 
li:tniLti;ii m his avocation his finished work 
comparing most favorably with the best speci- 
mens obtainable from Europe. The engine 
room is of brick, and contains two boilers of 
forty-horse power each. A v ery small propor- 
tion of the steam generated is required to oper 
ate the machinery, but is utilized in the cook 
ing and varied processes. In the rear of the 
jelly rooms a driveway runs the entire length of 
the block. 


CROP Notes. Shasta l)'iiinr,iit, June 27: 
Dr. Winsell, of Hall's Ferry, was iu town yes 
terday, and reports that the farmers in his sec- 
tion have commenced heading. He is of the 
opinion that the late north w inds have dam- 
aged the barley crop fully thirty per cent. The 
wheat yield has also been injured, but not so 
much as the barley. Practically, the fruit crop 
is a failure this year, owing to the spring frosts. 
The grape crop has not been injured in his sec- 
tion of the county. 


Tut: Hessian Flv. — Mr. Lewis Chinn, a 

July 7, 1883.] 


farmer whose place is located near Santa Rosa, 
and who is troubled considerably by the Hes- 
sian fly, recently had an interview with the ed- 
itor of the Santa Rosa Democrat, in which he 
gave some interesting facts concerning the in- 
sect. He is familiar with the insect and its 
ravages in the Eastern States, where, to use 
his expression, "it plays the mischief with the 
i .lrly-sown grain". In portions of Kentucky, 
Missouri and Illinois, where Mr. Chinn has 
farmed, it is almost a matter of impossibility 
to raise wheat two successive years on the same 
tract; but they plant corn one year and sow 
wheat the next. They seldom even then sow 
their grain until after one or two heavy frosts, 
as these kill the dormant Hies. He remarked 
that there the ravages of the insect were con- 
fined to the early wheat; consequently many 
postponed sowing as long as possible; while 
here, all the grain that has been injured by 
this pest is that which was sown late. 
He has two small fields that are ruined 
by them, and both were cut for hay last year, 
and both were sown this year for hay, after the 
late spring rains. He thinks they are rather 
more of an advantage than a disadvantage in 
some respects, as their presence will compel 
farmers to vary their crops. In the East he 
has seen fields of wheat where, in the present 
year, a portion of the field had been in oats and 
the other in wheat, and the entire field sown to 
wheat the second year. Where the oats had 
been the grain was magnificent, but where the 
wheat followed wheat the entire crop was de- 
stroyed by the Hessian fly, thus practically 
illustrating the benefits of a rotation of crops. 
It is one of the surest means of killing them. 
Mr. Chinn has known of the fly being in Sonoma 
county for the past four or five years, but has 
never seen its ravages as marked as they are 
this year. If any grain looks yellow and has 
stopped growing, when about eight inches or a 
foot in hight, pull up a few stalks, and if it is 
black and rotten near the root, and a dozen or 
so yellow worms, in a chrysalis state, are in the 
stalk, it is the Hessian fly in its pupa form. 

Healdsiiuro Notes. — Flay : It having been 
observed that certain peach trees in this section 
are exempt from curl leaf, while even those in 
the near rows are affected, the variety will be 
noted and the experiment of propagating from 
them, will be tried. The Honest Abe is suppos- 
ed to be exempt in some orchards. D. 
Reardon returned from Humboldt county 
last Tuesday, where he has been shearing sheep. 
In 35 days he sheared 3,000, the largest day's 
work being 147 head. Another member of the 
party shearing 109 the same day. Mr. R. says 
the clip is as fine a one as he has ever seen, both 
in quantity and quality. In .lack Lancaster's 
Land of sheep in Salt Point township, 832 head 
of quarter Merinos sheared 4,800 pounds. The 
tleece from one buck weighed fourteen pounds; 
from spring lambs four and a quarter pounds. 
W ho can beat it? A. E. 8. de Weiderhold 
picked one hundred pounds of cherries from a 
small tree in his orchard in tow n last week and 
sold ninety pounds at six cents per pound. 
Who says that the fruit industry properly con- 
ducted is not a very profitable one': 

Hick — Santa Rosa Democrat: W. 
('. and J. I). Smith have just finished shearing 
.lack Lancaster's band of sheep in Salt Point 
township, and the average fleece from the old 
sheep weighed five pounds, and from this 
spring's lambs, four and a quarter pounds. 
They sheared S32 sheep in this band, from 
which 4,300 pounds of wool were obtained. 
These sheep are about one-fourth Merino. The 
Heece from one buck weighed fourteen pounds. 
W ho will beat this ? Mr. Lancaster has one of 
the finest ranges in the State, and is one of the 
most successful sheep raisers in the State. He 
has a fine lot of corrals, and has his apparatus 
for dipping arranged so that he can dip 2,000 a 
day if necessary. The feed is green and good 
even this late in the season,' having been kept 
moist by the fogs. A few nights since a large 
panther came within one hundred yards of the 
house and was treed by the dogs, but unfortu- 
nately got away. 


Harvesting. — Yuba City Farmer, .June 29 : 
.lust previous to the week's hot blast some three 
weeks ago, crops were unusually back ward, and 
harvesting was expected to be much later than 
average; but that week's hot weather hastened 
the ripening of grain to such an extent as to set 
the harvesters to work but little or any later 
than usual. Wheat and barley stacks are go- 
ing up in every direction, and in two weeks 
more there will remain but little to cut. The 
determination by our farmers and thrashmen 
not to thrash until cutting shall be nearly 
through, has had a good effect upon themselves 
and the labor market. Harvest hands were 
scarce at best, and a double complement could 
hardly have been procured. In consequence of 
the crop ripening earlier, thrashing, we opine, 
will also begin earlier than was expected when 
this movement began. We cannot change for 
the better our former estimates of the crop in 
our county. The grades of the wheat when 
thrashed will be found to vary much in quality, 
running from very good to very poor. And the 
yield of both wheat and barley, we think, will 
be very disappointing in quantity as well as 
quality. We estimate the acreage in the county 
ten per cent less than last year, and owing to 
the decreased amount of summer-fallow, the 
total yield twenty per cent less. But tne 
thrashers will soon make their onslaught, when 
facts will take the place of guessing. 

A Small Farm.- E. 1). Rickets, of Live 
Oak, has a field of grain that is worthy of 

special mention. It is of the Pride of Butte 
variety, and it would be a safe wager on its 
averaging more than fifty bushels to the acre. 
Mr. Rickets has a farm of 160 acres; he has 
one-half of it sown to grain and the other half 
summer fallowed; he does all his own work 
with three horses, except heading and thrash- 
ing; raises his own vegetables; has his own vine 
and fig tree; raises his own meat and keeps suf- 
ficient cows for milk and butter; has plenty of 
different varieties and comes as near being a 
model farmer as you will find in any country. 
What he does he does well, and makes big pay 
for his year's labor, thus showing conclusively 
that it pays to do better farming and less of it, 
or on a smaller and safer scale. 

CANNING. — The Sutter Canning Company 
has purchased five acres of land from U. A. 
Wilbur, on B street, just west of the slough, 
on high land. The lot fronts on B street, and 
is bounded on the west by the old railroad 
track. The price paid is §1 50 per acre. The 
Company will at once proceed to erect the 
necessary buildings and commence business in 
the shortest possible time. The "Wheeler proc- 
ess" meets with the most favor, and if adopted 
it is said can be erected at small expense and 
in a short time. 


A Well. — Tulare Journal: Lemuel Pierce, 
who lives three miles and a half northwest of 
Tipton, in November sunk a seven inch arte- 
sian well to the depth of 363 feet, and receives 
from it a flow of three and a half inches of water 
over the top of the pipe, and from this flow he 
has irrigated and put in cultivation twenty-five 
acres of alfalfa, thirty acres of canary seed, 
seventy acres of wheat, twelve acres of Egyp- 
tian corn, five acres of potatoes, and the ground 
on which he has planted 239 fruit trees. One 
hundred acres of this land had been irrigated the 
second time, and the crops are all looking well 
and of great promise. 

An Imm n [RATION Association. —F.J. Walker, 
of the Delta, is now in Kern county, whither 
he has gone to establish branch agencies of the 
San Joaquin Yalley Immigration Association. 
During the last two months Mr. Walker has 
been quietly but actively engaged in the forma- 
tion of this association. The plan is now an as- 
sured success, and in a few weeks the organiza- 
tion will be complete, and the new association 
will enter upon its work. Its object is to ad- 
vertise the resources of the San .Joaquin valley, 
to bring into market the unoccupied lands, to 
induce thither a desirable immigration of the 
industrial classes, to direct immigrants in find- 
ing pleasant homes and profitable occupation, 
to encourage every enterprise and industry af- 
fecting the development of the country, in short 
to lend a helping hand in whatever tends to 
promote the material prosperity of this valley. 
This is a brief outline of the proposed work of 
the new organization. 


The Honey Outlook.— Editors Press: 
Once more the beekeepers of this county have 
found the "occupation" they thought was 
"gone." The season will probably be short, 
but the bees are now lolling the honey in, and 
the extractors are worked to their utmost ca- 
pacity rolling it out. Every energy is bent to 
give the "little busy bee" plenty of room to 
store the beautiful nectar, for it is truly beau- 
tiful. The honey is the best we've had since 
1880.— MEL, Santa Paula, Cal. 

The New Tariff. — The New York Tribune 
of June 30th, as reported by telegraph says: In 
antiup iti;.n of the higher duties sn wine, the 
principal importers have given notice of an ad- 
vance of $2 per dozen in price of champagnes, 
which will go into effect simultaneously with 
the new tariff at the Custom House. It is stat- 
ed that all sparkling wines in warehouses have 
been withdrawn during the month, owing to the 
increased tariff rates after this week. Louis Sau- 
veur of Frederick De Bary k Co., agents of M. 
H. Mumm & Co., said: "The action of Congress 
was so unexpected that we were dumbfounded 
at the change in the duty. The importers had 
friends in Washington to look after their inter- 
ests, but somehow there seems to have been no 
opposition to the new rate. Of course, we tele- 
graphed to France to have as much wine as 
possible shipped to us at once, but champagne 
wines cannot be hurried very much. Our im- 
portations since January 1st are 27,1 18 cases. 
Last year at the same time they were 40, 505 
cases. This was all sold. But our customers 
have bought somewhat in advance of their want, 
in consequence of the new tariff. It is all sold, 
but not all consumed, and probably our business 
will be slack in July and August. We import 
ed nearly 07,000 cases last year, and I am sure 
we shall exceed that amount this year. " 

A POISONOUS Weed. — A drove of 4,000 
sheep, lately from California and all ravenously 
hungry, were driven recently into a canyon, 
forty-five miles from Eureka, Nevada, for feed, 
when, after eating greedily, all took sick. They 
seemed crazed by what they had eaten, and 
the whole flock staggered and ran about, bleat- 
ing sometimes piteously. In a day and a half 
all but 120 got well and fell to eating as 
though nothing had happened to them. The 
120 (lied. It is not known what the poison- 
ous weed is. 

The excess in the value of exports over im- 
ports for the twelve months ending Mav 31, 
1883, is $99,334,649; total value of imports and 
merchandise for twelve months ending May 31, 
1883, 1731,068,482. 

A Panic in Breadstuff's. 

London, July 1. — A panic in breadstuff's now 
threatens England. Its iminence is due chiefly 
to the cholera blockade against India. There 
seems to be no relief except from America, be- 
cause of the probability of an epidemic of 
Asiatic cholera, which will practically cut oft 
the Indian supply of cereals. There are many 
elements of this probable breadstuff panic, 
which bode great ill to large European specu- 
lators in human food. Nearly all the London 
East Indian houses that deal in cereals, by an 
apparently concerted action, early in the spring 
took steps to forestall the American supply by 
securing corners on Indian grain. The reasons 
they alleged for their actions were that they 
possessed information showing that New York 
and Chicago speculators had arranged to secure 
in advance the control of the American grain 
supply for the present summer, and that all 
reasonable calculations pointed to bad grain 
weather throughout England. They swarmed 
to India with experienced buyers and bought 
up a monopoly of the present harvest. This is 
reaped and is now in their hands. 

The weather throughout F'ngland, contrary 
to calculations, has been uncommonly fine for 
grain growing. The Suez canal is practically 
closed, because of the absolutely necessary 
quarantine. Cholera is ravaging the country 
on both sides of this necessary commercial 
thoroughfare, ami the people of the whole coun- 
try are in a state of wild panic and are running 
for their very lives away from their avocations. 
Grain lies piled up in Bombay, Calcutta and all 
other Indian ports, with a prospect of rotting 
where it lies before either labor can be got to 
handle it or a way be found to get it to market. 
At this very moment holders of grain at both 
Bombay and Calcutta are offering it at bidders' 
prices without finding takers, and speculators 
who find themselves in need of cash are offering 
discount rates double those which are usual 
during even a monsoon. 

It is difficult to convey a full idea of the state 
of apprehension which exists in commercial cir- 
cles here affected by the grain trade. The lat- 
ter is threatened with absolute paralysis, and 
unless the cholera in and out of FCgypt is speed- 
ily suppressed and confined, the most certain 
thing in England is a great panic in the grain 
trade. The signs of the impending crisis are 
already alarming in Indian ports, where grain 
speculating is crushed and where dealers arc 
being pushed to extremities for settlement. 

The Evil Effects of Tobacco. 

Many years ago Dr. Wm. A. Alcott pub- 
lished a very valuable little work on the "Phy- 
sical, Intellectual and Moral Effects of Tobacco 
on the Human System." That work has since 
been revised, with notes and additions, by Nel- 
son Sizer, and published by Fowler & Wells, of 
753 Broadway, New York. In the new addi- 
tion Mr. Sizer has added a sufficient amount of 
matter to nearly double the size of the book, 
and has brought the information and the facts 
bearing on the subject down to the present time. 
It shows the effects of the tobacco on the teeth, 
on the voice, and on the special senses; also its 
effect on the appetite and digestion, and how it 
leads to various diseases; its effect on the in- 
tellect and morals, and points out who are suf- 
fering most from its use. The slavery to to- 
bacco is discussed in an extended and interest- 
ing account, giving the history and confessions 
of a" tobacco chewer, and showing how he gave 
up the habit. An interesting history of a 
smoker is given, showing the great benefits he 
derived from quitting its use. This work should 
be in the hands of those who wish to have pre- 
sented a feasible way of overcoming the habit, 
as it is shown that the greatest slave of tobacco 
may learn how to give it up without much 
difficulty, or the feeling of nervous loss, and so 
become thoroughly restored to self-mastership 
and health; and especially should it be placed 
in the hands of the boys, and of moderate 
smokers who have not yet fully acquired the 
habit. Its arguments are convincing, and we 
know of no better use that can be made of 25 
cents than to send it to the publishers of this 
little book, and on receipt of the amount in 
postage stamps they will send it to any address 
by mail, post paid. 

New Use for the Potato.— If what the 
Agricultural Gazette, of Vienna, gravely states 
is true, Ireland may potentially possess a gi- 
gantic fortune in her ahility to raise innumera- 
ble potatoes. That paper says that the humble 
but indispensable tuber may be transformed 
into meerohaum pipes of the first quality, and 
likewise into any article now made of ivory, by 
subjection to the following treatment: Having 
been carefully peeled and suffered extraction of 
its "eyes," the potato is boiled steadily for 36 
hours in a mixture of sulphuric acid and water, 
after which it must be squeezed in a press until 
every drop of natural or acquired moisture is ex- 
tracted from it. The residuum of this simple 
process is declared to be a hard block of a deli- 
cate, creamy, white hue, every whit as suitable 
to the manufacture of ornamental and artisti- 
cally executed pipe-heads as the finest clay, and 
unsurpassed as a material for brush and um- 
brella handles, billiard balls, fans and chess- 

The Chicago banks are following the lead of 
the New York ones, and are using every means 
possible to throw the trade dollar out of circu- 

Progress of Electric Science. 

Speaking of the work of the electricity divis- 
ion, and the recent marvelous development of 
electrical inventions, Mr. E. M. Bentley, one of 
the examiners of the electrical division of the 
Patent Office, gives some very suggestive facts. 
He says that about two thousand applications 
for patents in electricity were filed in 1882, of 
which about two-thirds were granted. To show 
how the subject has grown in importance within 
a few years, he said that in 1 877 electricity was 
a sub-class in a division. Now it is the largest 
division in the Office, and regarded as the most 
important. The astonishing growth is due 
chiefly to two causes : First, the invention of 
the telephone; and, second, the development of 
the magneto -electrical machine. The telephone 
had opened, directly or indirectly, a wide field 
of inventions. The minds of many persons 
throughout this country were turned to this 
class of invention, and not only were improve- 
ments upon the telephone itself attempted, but 
attention was given to a great many incidental 
appliances useful in its successful application. 

The second great stimulus to invention was 
the development of the magneto-electrical ma- 
chine. For thirty years the world has been 
awaiting a cheap and convenient source of elec- 
tricity. Immediately following the discoveries 
of Faraday and others, from 1830 to 1840, there 
was a wide spread effort to make practical use 
of them, and special activity was manifested in 
the lines of electric lighting. The arc light was 
put into practical form, and the foundations of 
incandescent lighting were laid. But no eco- 
nomic source of electricity was at hand; for the 
galvanic battery consumed too much zinc for 
profit. The principle of the magneto-electric 
machine had, indeed, been long known; but it 
was left for the Italian, Pacinotti, in I860, to 
perfect a machine wherein continuous and con- 
stant currents were generated. The idea liter- 
ally lay on the shelf, however, until 1870, when 
Gramme re-invented practically the same ma- 
chine, and pushed it into notice. He was 
speedily followed by the Siemens brothers, of 
Berlin, andbyMr Brush and others in the United 
States. The magneto-electric machine, affording 
a cheap and abundant supply of electricity, im- 
mediately rendered practical all the half com- 
pleted inventions of thirty years, and opened 
the way to many new ones. Brush got his pat- 
ent in 1S77, Weston soon after, and the growth 
of the electricity division of the Patent Office 
has been steady and marvelous ever since. The 
invention had been, how ever, rather in the ap- 
plication of known principles than in the dis 
covery of new ones; for during the fifty years 
that have elapsed since the investigations of 
Faraday, little new has been added to the 
science of elsctricity. The present activity 
springs from the application of well known ex- 
hibitions of the still unknown force; and more- 
over, only a few of these fe-'tures of the science 
have been as yet made of y.ractieal value. One 
of the broadest and most successful patents ap- 
pears to be the telephone. 

News in Brief. 

The strike of the 'Chinese laborers on the 
Oregon extension still continues, and tin- 
Mongolians are provided with three weeks 

Advices indicate a general outbreak of small- 
pox among Arizona Indians, and Commissioner 
Price has ordered a supply of vaccine virus sent 
to the threatened points. 

Tiik idea of a prominent Furopean Sanitary 
Board for protection against epidemics and other 
diseases, is mooted by the press of Vienna. It 
is thought that the Austrian Government will 
officially propose the formation of such a Board. 

A cave in or filling up of the great diamond 
mine of Kimberly, in Cape Colony, has caused 
much distress. The disaster has affected other 
mines, and ten leading diamond merchants have 
committed suicide on account of their financial 

Mackerel and sardines are being caught 
just now in large quantities off the wharf. 
If sardines or anchovies are so plentiful and 
olive oil so abundant here, why cannot the 
sardine packing business be successfully in- 
augurated here': — Santa Barbara PreSSi 

The action of the United States authorities 
and the general expression of the public opin- 
ion of America in relation to the influx of 
paupers from Ireland, have plunged some of tin- 
Irish Poor Law Guardians into the deepest 
alarm and perplexity, and have called foith in 
England a good deal of sharp criticism. 

THE cholera has almost closed Port Said to 
commerce. The loss and delay consequent 
upon a lengthy quarantine keep vessels from 
taking coal and water there. The French fleet 
i* preparing to leave, and transfers of merchan- 
dise are refused unless they have been subject 
to quarantine, 

The production of rails of various descrip- 
tions in the United States last year was as fol- 
lows: Bessemer steel, 1 ,438, 1.V> tons; iron, 
227,874 tons; open hearth steel, 22,765 tons; 
total, 1 ,088,704 tons. The corresponding pro- 
duction in 1882 was as follows: Bessemer 
steel, 1,330,302 tons; iron, 488,581 tons; open 
hearth steel, 25 217 tons; total, 1,844,100. 

Stock-Raisino in Wyoming. — Nextto Texas 
Wyoming is probably the greatest stock-grow- 
ing region in the United States. It is said that 
about 1, 000,000 cattle are now feeding on ib» 
plains, the estimated value of which i- about 

[Jii.v 7, 1883 

Wee Maggie. 

[Written fur the Krn »L Phkss by .lulls Tw lok. ] 
Dedicated to Mrs. John lirTiiKRi'ORn. 
Wee Maggie lies sleepin' on mither's soft knee; 
The mother is singin' a sweet lovin' glee; 
The tear drops are fallin', baptizin' wt lose 
The darlin' wee Maggie sent dune fiae above. 

mother's .song. 
"The angels are smiling on spirits so fair. 
Thy --mile sheds a halo on rich, golden hair. 
Smile on. sweetest Maggie, my heart loves to see 
Love's ripple on dimples so charming to me. 

Dream on, my fair Maggie, my great love is thine; 
Thou art pure as the angels who bow at God's 

Thy immortal spirit is seen in thy smile. 

To brighten our pathway and lone hours beguile 

Oh, angels of purity (guard Maggie through life, 
When fairest of maidens, or idolized wife; 
And that innocent smile, so full of child love, 
May expand and enrich Eden homes high above 

Oh, sleep, dearest Maggie! thy clear eyes of blue 
Shall gaze on God's gardens, to thee ever new. 
Though cares may oppress me, thy love is still 

Wee Maggie so lovely, thy smile is divine. 

I will sing sweetest Maggie a lullaby song, 
While sleeping on sweetly, 'midst dream's fairy 

Life's sun sheds a splendor o'er life young and fair. 
When angels and mother tend with guardian care." 

Wee Maggie is smilin' on nulher's soft knee, 
And gazing in depths of mother's kind c'e. 
The tear drops now fall not. sweet kisses are given, 
And the home and the hearth become a bright 

May 18, 1880. 

Polly's California Chickens. 

I Written for the Rural PUN by Hiu>\ DauanrtnoL.] 

"Now, Polly, there's a good chance for you, 
if you're going into the chicken business,'' said 
Aunt Pauline. "Widow Wimple is going to 
move away and offers a dozen nice looking hens 
at a very low price; half a dozen pullets also, 
if you would like them." 

"Oh, that's good; I'll tell papa, and 1 most 
know he'll let me have 'em. Hut what are pul- 
lets anyway? " 

•'Why, Polly Fletcher, what a baby you are," 
laughed Kay^ 

"Well, how could 1 know': 1 was never very 
intimately acquainted with hens till auntie be- 
gan to keep 'em. Of course, I've heard her 
talk about her pullets, but I didn't like to ask 
about them, though now I'm going into them 
myself, I've got to be posted." 

"0, Pollyauthus Fletcher, how you do talk!" 
groaned Hess, hiding a giggle behind her hat. 

"Pullets are young hens just beginning to 
la y eRgs. said auntie, with a real broad smile. 

"Then I guess I'll take the pullets too, if you 
think it would be a paying investment. Papa 
thinks a good deal of your opinion." 

"If you take good care of them, I've no doubt 
you could soon sell eggs enough to repay him 
the lirst cost, if you wish to own them quite 

"Yes, I'd like that; just think of the lots of 
nice things I cau have when 1 get them all to 
myself; quit claim property, to have and to 
hold, and so forth." 

"Do look at her: " laughed Kay. "Why, 
Polly, you are actually tossing your head like 
the fabled milkmaid." 

"No matter," said I, "so long as there's 
no milk on top of it to get spilled. I like to 
build castles. But there, that makes me think; 
we haven't any hen house. What in the world 
shall I do ? " 

" Jack is coining home for the vacation, and 
I will send him over as soon as I can spare 
him, and he w ill put up one for you. You know- 
he built mine during his last holidays. As for 
lumber, I should think that there were old 
boards enough in your back yard, if your 
father does not want "them for anything else." 

"Oh, aunty, what a gorgeous contriver you 
are! ' cried I, "I believe there are enough 
boards out there; there were piles of 'em, but 
I've been splitting them up for kindling. I'm 
glad now 1 was so lazy and always picked out 
the smallest pieces. How distressed I should be 
if I had whacked into the big ones, or cut up a 
cord at a time; why, I shouldn't have had a 
splinter left for my chicken house if I had." 

In a week .lack came home. Meanwhile, I 
had been out in the back yard every day tak- 
ing account of stock. I stinted the girls as to 
the amount of their kindling wood, and made 
them burn all the rubbish I could rake up. I 
suddenly developed into a regular diplomatist 
-not that I know what that means— but the 
girls sai.l 1 ought to have a diploma for practi- 

cal economy, or something like that. Any- 
how, .lack came home and we soon 
began our castle-building. I was to the 
raising and helped a good deal. I held 
up the uprights and the cross pieces, 
while .lack nailed them fast and firm. And I 
helped level the underpinning and nail on the 
scantling and arrange the stanchions — no, come 
to think, 1 guess stanchions are something they 
use for cows. Well, any way, 1 learned ever 
so much about carpentering for a girl only four 
teen years old, .lack said 1 did: but he wouldn't 
let me help shingle the top roof for fear I'd fall. 

My hen house has two roofs, it is a real aris- 
tocratic two-story castle, and the hens roost in 
the top part. They walk up outside on a board 
with cleats nailed on it; you ought to see them 
waddling along all in a row up those hen stairs 
when it is their bed time. We had to put them 
up there the first night, but they learned the 
way to go up themselves in just a little while 
Their nests are in the lower pact, and it is all 
clean in there, so I can go in ami walk around 
and get the eggs and take care of the little 

Aunt Pauline gave me all the items she could 
about taking care of my fowls, and it 
wasn't her fault at all that I overdid 
the matter. You see, she told me that I 
must look out and not let my poultry get any 
vermin on them; that 1 must change the straw 
or shavings the nests were made out of once in 
awhile, and whitewash the boxes often, and put 
sulphur in their food sometimes, and if all that 
did not keep them clean, I must rub a little 
kerosene, or coal oil, on their legs and under 
their wings. Well, I knew that their house 
and everything was clean, so I thought 1 would 
begin with the kerosene, because "a pound of 
prevention is worth an ounce of cure" any day. 

I took a rag and a little kerosene - not much 
more than half a pint, I guess— and I drove the 
hens into the lower part of the hen house; and 
then I would catch them one at a time ami rub 
the oil in good on their breasts, and legs, and 
under their w ings. and just a little mite on top 
of their heads. As quick as got one finished, 1 
would put it out of the door and take another. 
( )f course they got frightened and tlew round and 
round, and when I was putting out the seventh 
one, the door got out of my hand someway and 
all the rest made a break for it and got away; 
so I thought I'd have to doctor them some 
other time. Hut the next morning when I 
opened the little door and called them dow n to 
breakfast, those seven didn't seem to respond 
worth a cent. They walked as though they 
had wooden legs, and their feathers where the 
oil had bathed them w ere all sticky and draggly; 
oh ! how they did look! worse'than drowned rats 

" I've just about killed "em sure enough!" 
I gasped, as Jack came through the gate with a 
feeding trough he hail been making for me. 

" Why, good heavens! what's the matter? 1 
he exclaimed, looking at them as though he was 
fairly puzzled. 

" I only kerosened them a little last night, 
your mother said it was good for them. n 

" Hut, you must have put on too much, 
they're fairlv blistered." " How did you 
do it?" 

" I uipped the cloth in the oil and sopped it 
around among the feathers sonic.'' 

" ^'>' goodness. I should think you did!" and 
then Jack actually laughed, when he knew I 
felt so bad. 

"Whatever can I do for them, Jack '.' Will 
they get over it do you think ?" 

"Oh, yes, I reckon they will in a week or 
two. Don't they look funny, though, with their 
pantaletts torn up that way ?" He meant the 
stringy feathers that showed their bare legs 

I didn't tell the girls and papa anything about 
the kerosened department 111 iny hennery. I 
didn't want to harass their minds before it was 
necessary. I hoped the poor things Would get 
better by the next day, but they didn't; they 
were worse if anything, and had not been onto 
their regular roost at all. So, then, I began to 
try to tell, but they didn't give me any good 
opening, and I hadn't said a word when Aunt 
Pauline came over to look at them. Jack had 
told her all about it, and the first thing she said 
to me was : 

"Well, Polly, how are your unfortunate 
biddies ?'" 

Of course, papa and the girls looked at her, 
and then at me, and said, kind of as though 
they was talking in their sleep : 
' Un-fortuuate biddies?" 

"So then there was an opening, and I told as 
fast as 1 could, and they all had to begin to 
laugh, and the next thing was to rush out and 
see them. The poor things were so stiff and 
hot, I suppose, that they couldn't seem to set- 
tle down and burrow in the dust and ashes as 
the others did, but there they were sitting on 
their tails with their legs stuck outV-fore them 
like sticks. You'd have thought they were 
some new breed of hens just imported with all 
their foreign manners." 

'Well, when the folks caught sight of them, 
their laughter at first was nothing to the way 
they laughed then. The girls fairly shouted, 
and papa leaned up against the fence and shook, 
and shook, and shook. I can't say but w hat the 
hens did look desperate queer. I couldn't help 
laughing myself, and when auntie handed me a 
picture of my chicken-house that Jack had 
drawn for me, 1 sat right down on my old chop- 
ping block determined to immortalize the poor 
things by putting their pictures along side of it. 
I named them the Californias. You see I be- 
gan to feel more lively, now they all knew it, 
and didn't scold — they couldn't — In < they 

had to laugh so hard. And then Aunt Pauline 
said they'd lie sure to get over it." 

"Yon ought to write a poem aWit them," 
said Kay, as she came and looked over my 
shoulder. "Jlow would this do? " 

" This is the house that Jack built. 
These are the hens that lay in the borne that lack 

This is die oil that blistered the bens that lay in 

the house that Jack built. 
This is the cup that contained the oil that blistered 

the hens that lay in the house that Jack built. 
This is the Polly that held the cup and sopped the 

oil that blistered the hens that lav in the house 

that Jack built. 
These are the girls, so heartless and gay, who 

laughed at Polly, who gave herself awa> . when 

she held the cup and sopped the oil that " 

Hut 1 won't atllict you with any more of that 
poem, though «he kept adding and adding line 
upon line till 1 was sick of it, and told her I 
wished she would go off; so she went right 
home with aunt Pauline, to spend the day; 
Hess had slipped of! to school some time before. 
1 went upstair»to8weepthe back bedroom; from 
the window 1 could see papa fussing around the 
trees in his nursery, and while 1 was looking, 
there was a man came through the east part of 
the orchard and began to talk to him. 1 think 
the man must have jumped over the fence, from 
the road. I could hear their voices, papa's on 
a tenor key and his on a bass. I finished my 
room and sat down to rest, and then pretty 
quick I saw them leave the nursery and come 
through the chicken yard toward the house. I 
dropped the curtain, but of course I looked out 
through a little parting, and 1 saw the man 
stop suddenly, and heard him ask: 

"What — what kind of hens are those? " 
Then papa began to shake again directly, and 
I whispered to him, "O, don't mention my 
name!" but of course he didn't hear, and of 
course "Polly" was the first word he said. 
"Polly calls 'fin her new breed of Californias! 
ha! ha! ha! She kerosened 'em, you see, and — " 
Just then 1 ducked my head for fear they might 
possibly look up and see inj baleful eye gleam- 
ing upon them, for they were coming through 
the gate into the garden. But before my head 
went down, I saw that the man was a stranger 
and he wasn't old. When they had passed on 
down to the front gate. I went into the kitchen 
to get papa's dinner. At the table 1 asked who 
the man was, and papa said, "Mr. ("lay, of 
Clay's ranch, up the river." 

About tw o months after that my hens were 
laying quite a good many eggs; the ( 'alifornias 
had been well a long time, and one of them had 
ten little chicks. 1 had about thirty chickens 
in all, after the cat had caught six anil two 
got drowned. It was rather late w hen I got 
the hens, so aunt Pauline said I had best not 
try to raise many till 1 got used to taking care 
of them. I began to pay papa on the install- 
ment plan a dollar every month or more, if I 
wanted to, but I didn't want to then, as I was 
trying to get enough eirg money to buy me a 
new hat for the Fourth of July. 

Well, one afternoon papa went into town to 
get the mail, and Hess and Ray went to call on 
a new young lady, who had moved into the 
neighborhood. Bess had a vacation now, that 
is why she could go. I locked the front door 
after them and then went to feed my chickens. 
I wanted to gather the eggs, but I had only 
a little quart can to put them in, and all the 
pullets had laid that day, so I had five eggs 
over when my can was full. I didn't like to go 
after another dish, so I thought I'd put them 
in my apron pocket. I said to myself 1 couldn't 
forget them. I'd lie sure to think of them 
wheu 1 put the other eggs aw ay, even if I didn't 
tie a string on my finger. I went serenely 
toward the gate, when all of a sudden the old 
white hen popped in before me. 

"Shoo ! shoo! " 1 said, but she only made a 
big fluttering and hit the gate, which flew 
open because it was not quite latched, 
and, with a great squawk and a cut- 
cut-cut, she cut through the garden with- 
out the least remorse of conscience. 1 ran and 
set my pan of eggs on the back porch and 
started after her. She took refuge in the 
shubbery, and I ran noiselessly down the path 
close to the house with my eyes fixed on her, 
thinking to head her off, when, without the 
slightest warning, I came spat against some 
warm brown cloth and buttons and coat-sleeves. 
It almost knocked me down, it was so 
sudden; but the coat-sleeves caught me, 
steadying me for a second, and then I 
pushed them away and staggered back a few 
steps, till I saw a face under a hat. It was the 
same man whom papa had told about my kero- 
sening the hens. It was Mr. Clay. 

"I beg your pardon, child; I hope I've not 
hurt you," he said earnestly. "I had been 
knocking at the front door, and as no one an- 
swered, I thought I would rush round the back 
way and see if I could rind your father. I 
would have gone away, but I live quite a numlier 
of miles from here, and hated to leave without 
seeing him. If I've hurt yon, however, I shan't 
forgive myself." 

"No, I'm not hurt at all," said I: "only I 
think 1 was dizzy half a minute. Now I'll let 
you in, and papa'll be here pretty quick, be- 
cause he left me alone and said he'd be right 
back. " 

Our key had a string to it, ami I had hap- 
pened to hang it on my neck so I could open 
the door. I took him in the parlor and ottered 
him the armchair, but he said, "Take that 
yourself," and then he went and sat by the 

I had not intended to sit down. I thought I 

could slip away and leave him. But when he 
said that I did not know as it would be polite 
to go, so I sat down in a frightened, sideling sort 
of way, when crack, crack, crack came from 
my big apron pocket. 

"Ow !' I said; in a sort of whispered Bcream, 
and then I caught up my apron and rushed out 
of the room. I got a dish and emptied my 
pocket into it. I dare say some of the eggs got 
cracked when 1 ran after the hen, but now every 
one was broken. I w-ashed my pocket and the 
spots out of my dress. Then I didn't know but 
1 ought to go lack to the parlor. I hated to 
go, yet perhaps Aunt Pauline would say I ought 
not to leave a visitor in such an impolite way 
without apologizing. I tiptoed to the door, and 
took hold of the knob. 1 couldn't bear to turn 
it. I wished papa would come. Then I thought 
of my hair, and tiptoed to the looking-glass to 
make it smooth: when that was done, 1 set my 
teeth and walked fast to the door, opened it and 
made my boot heels click along the hall as 
though 1 wasn't afraid of anybody. The parlor 
door was open, and I was there in a second. 
The young man was standing l>efore a picture 
with his hands behind him. He turned around 
when he heard me, ami 1 felt my face get as 
red and hot as a coal almost, for all at once I 
remembered how 1 had bounced against his 
vest. Strange as it may seem, the broken eggs 
had put that out of my mind till now. 

"1 I hope you'll excuse me for rushing out 
of the room in such a such a " I stammered, 
and couldn't say another word, which was really 
wonderful for such a rattle tongue as I am. 

"Pray don't mention it," he said kindly. 

"Hut you must think — " I began to blunder 

"I promise not to think anything; this, with a 
little re-assuring noil, was so much like Jack 
that I couldn't help laughing and said: 

"1 don't care if you do know, there. It 
was eggs in my apron pocket. I thought 1 
could bring them in, and then the hen got out 
into the garden and I forgot all about them till 
I sat dow n in that chair." 

"That was too bad;" said he. 

"Hut it is just like me, for Fin Polly . The 
one that kerosened the lienB you know. 1 hap- 
pened to look out of the window and saw you, 
and heard papa tell you." 

"Well, you do seem to have rather a hard 
time of it." 

'•Hani ? I should think so. Unlucky things 
just sprout up w ithout iny planting them at all. 
Papa says I'm heedless." 

"Never mind, everything will come smoother 
after awhile. And now that I know you are 
Miss Polly Fletcher. I will tell you that my 
name is Wilmot Clay, and I have come to learn 
how to bud trees, and have a little talk with 
your father about taking care of them. I 
think likely you know more about them than 1 

"I have helped papa bud and graft them, 
too. I get along nicely with budding, but I 
tipped over the grafting wax twice and made 
an aw ful mess on the kitchen flooe," 

Just then papa came and I was so glad, but 
not quite so glad as I would have liecn half an 
hour before. I did wish that Hess and Kay had 
come home so that they could have been intro- 
duced to Mr. Clay. Perhaps he would have 
come again if he had met them. 

1 got my new hat for the Fourth, the prettiest 
one I ever had. Jack said it was a stunner! 
Jack came home on an excursion train and he 
was going to walk into town with Hay and I, 
but a young man was coming to take Hess in 
a buggy. Hess was all ready when he stopped 
at the gate and she looked just beautiful when 
she took her seat beside him. Mr. Fairbanks 
is his name, but he is not so good looking as 
Mr. Clay. They were going to start when 
Bess said: 

" Polly, dear, I've left my shawl, won't you 
please bring it? I think I laid it out some- 

I rushed away toward her room, when 1 hap- 
pened to catch a glimpse of it in the sewing- 
room on the machine. I caught it up and ran 
and tossed it into Beaaie'a lap. She thanked ine 
and shook it out, and then all at once her face 
was as red as a beet, and her eyes were full of 
reproach and horror, and everything. 

"Oh, Polly, how could you ? she exclaimed, 
wapsing it up and flinging it out to me. 

1 saw what it was, and 1 wanted to sink into 
the earth: but I only rushed back into her room, 
and there was her shawl on the bed. I looked 
at it six times as I trotted out to the buggy, to 
make sure it wasn't something else. They drove 
oil', and I got myself into the house, flung my 
bran new hat on the table, leaned my head 
against the wall, and began to cry more like 
a funeral than fourth of July. Jack came 
bouncing in, and Pay rustled down the stairs 
buttoning her gloves. 

"Why, good heavens !" cried Jack: "wdiat's 
the matter of Polly?" 

"Are you hurt, Polly?" asked Kay, 

"She's sprained her ankle and can't go; you- 
bet, that's it," said Jack, dolefully. . 

" N011 o it aint," I sobbed, " but you ea an't 
guess what 1 gave Be-e-ss 'stead of her shawl." 

" What was it? Do tell," demanded Ray, 
beginning to look right and left. "Was that 
it? Was it papa's shirt?" pointing to where! 
had flung it sprawling on the floor. 

" Ye-e-s " sobbing harder than ever. 

"Oh, Polly! Hut did Mr. Fairbank see it?" 

" Ye-e-s, that's the worst of it. Be-e-ss 
shook it out a nd Mr. Fairbanks said ' Permit me. 
Miss Fletcher," and was just going to take it to 
thr-o-w gracefully o-over her shoulders." 

July 7, 1883.] 

" Ain't that a prank?" said Jack, with a 
tihout of laughter. " But don't you cry any 
more I'ollykins. They'll just make a joke of it 
and it'll he all right. Do you suppose I would 
want anybody to cry if such a thing should 
happen to the girl I was going to take out rid 
ing? Of course not. I should just think it 
was a high-flying lark." 

" But Bess was dreadfully mortified. I know 
she was. And whatever papa wanted to get 
black and white plaid shirts for is more'n I can 
tell," I said, trying to swallow the lump in my 
throat. r 

"I suppose Bess was mortified just at first," 
said Kay, " but she's got over it by this time, 
and is feeling sorry for you now ; so bathe your 
face and come along. You know you want to 
see the Calathumpian performances." 

We saw the Calatliumpiaus, and 1 had a bet- 
ter time than I expected. When we were eat- 
ing our picnic dinner, Bess was very kind to 
me and let me sit by her,andMr. Fairbanks was 
real jolly, and did not seem to remember that 
anything had happened in the morning at all. 

Mr. Clay was there, and I introduced him to 
the girls. 

Prom the Farm House. 

[Written for Unto, Press by M ud of ill Work.] 

There seems to be a little misunderstanding 
out in the old tree, as I should judge by the 
sharp cries, the swift dartings about and an 
occasional shower of feathers. 

It proves to be what a great many misunder- 
standings are — a decided difference of opinion. 

There has been a fresli arrival of my 
Feathered friends, and they are making a 
vigorous demand for their rights, and more too. 
They have brought their young already fledged 
ami have established a training school. 

We call them the (lolden Orioles, though I 
am not prepared to say that this is the correct 
name for them. The male and female are 
equally handsome. The body of the bird is 
bright canary color. The head shades off to 
a light drab or gray, and has a black stripe 
running from the bill to the eye. The wings 
and tail are black, or nearly so, and the outer 
feathers of the tail are white, giving it the 
appearance when spread of being evenly 
trimmed with white. 1 am not sure that I 
have ever heard him sing. 

This chief attraction is his disposition which 
is decidedly warlike. And yet he is not par- 
ticularly brave, for the plucky little linnet 
holds his own, and I have even seen one of them 
drive an oriole from his perch. His principal 
antipathy is toward the dog, and poor Towscr 
cannot walk under the tree with ever so hum- 
ble an air, but these noisy birds dart down at 
his head uttering sharp harsh cries. But Tow- 
ser's head is safe enough, protected by his long 
ears, and he merely snaps back once in a while, 
as if they were so many Hies. A friend has one 
of these birds caged which she took when very 
young. He makes a very intelligent little pet, 
hut is so quarrelsome he will not endure a com- 
panion. Can any one tell me more about this 
interesting bird ? 

1 have in my possession a hanging nest sus- 
pended from an oak twig. It is six inches long, 
and substantially constructed out of dry grass 
blades, and lined with cotton from the cotton - 
wood. I have been told that it is the nest of 
the oriole. 

I was kindly allowed this morning to see a 
captured coyote, one of a family who have their 
residence underground, not over a mile from 
our chicken-house. He was a young one that 
had wandered a little too far from the hole. I 
was not expecting to see such a graceful fox-like 
looking animal. He was a pale ecru in. color, 
.lotted with little white spots on his back. He 
has a fine brushy tail, large smooth ears, and 
very pretty large brown eyes. But he has a 
vicious looking mouth, plentifully supplied with 
sharp teeth. He was not yet subdued by any 
means, but jumped about at the end of his 
chain as if it would only take him two seconds 
to get out of sight if he had a chance. 

He is a sly one, the coyote. He comes around 
in the pale light of the early morning, just as 
the yellow-legged broilers are coming out from 
shelter, sleepy and dazed. He takes his pick 
and glides away, and he is very apt to keep up 
the run if he is once successful. On the warm 
summer evenings he lurks about through the 
stubble laughing his faint smothered ha ! ha ! 
and throwing the ( sound like a ventriloquist, 
away from his retreat. 

I know, to my sorrow, that for ways that are 
dark, and tricks that are vain, this very same 
coyote is peculiar. 

Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

The Origin ok Waterspouts. — What facts 
were noted of several waterspouts seen in the 
Pacific ocean have been examined by Mr. 
Oeorgc Atwooil, and he concludes as follows: 
The waterspouts on the Pacific were caused by 
n cloud heavily charged with cool moisture 
drifting from the high mountains of Costa Rica 
coming into contact with air currents and 
clouds traveling in a different direction and of 
a warmer temperature, by which contact the 
clouds surcharged with aqueous vapor ac- 
quired a rotary motion, causing them to dis- 
charge a part of their moisture and make them 
assume a cylindrical form, which finally fell by 
its own gravity into the ocean. 


Our Puzzle Box. 

Letter Changes. 

1. Change the initial of a railroad carriage and get 
to injure. 

2. Change the initial of a boy attendant and gel a 
wise man. 

3. Change the initial of a small quadruped and 
get a covering for the head, 

4. Change the initial of a fur-bearing animal and 
get a flower. 

5. Change the initial of an unmarried lady and get 
recompensed. AUNT Sarah. 


t. In place of. 

2. A series of melodious notes. 

3. Devoured. 

4. A false assertion. 

Whole.— Luckily. A. I!. 

Word Square. 

1. Manner. 

2. A scent. 

3. An opening into a building or a room. 

4. Deviates from the right. At'N'i Sarah. 

Cross- Word Enigma. 

My first is in near, but not in far ; 
My second is in rod, but not in bar ; 
My third is in crow, but not in dove ; 
My fourth is in hate, but not in love ; 
My fifth is in truth, but not in lie ; 
My sixth is in cook, but not in fry ; 
My seventh is in wagon, but not in sleigh ; 
Mv eighth is in grass, but not in hay ; 
My ninth is in old, but not in new ; 
My tenth is in false, but not in true ; 
My eleventh is in mine, but not in yours ; 
My twelfth is in sounds, but not in roars ; 
My thirteenth is in pears, also in dates , 
My whole is one of the United States. 

Answers to Last Puzzles. 

Curtailments. — t. Pine, pin. 2. Ideal, idea. 

3. Growl, grow. 

Diamond. — 1. 

I< K D 
1. K I' E K 
1) E N 

Cross Word Enigma. — Milledgeville. 
Decapitations. — 1. Pit, it. 2. Plane, lane. 3. 

Pair, air. 4. Pear, ear. S- Meat, eat. o. Maid, 
aid. 7. Wall, all. 
Hidden Animals. — r. Rat. 2. Dot;. 3. Horse. 

4. Cow. 5. Coat. 6. Cat. 7. I.icn. 

Only a Cent. 

Uncle Harris was a carpenter, and had a 
shop in the country. One day he went into the 
barn where Dick and .loe were playing with 
two tame pigeons. 

" Hoys," hesaid, " my workshop ought to be 
swept up every evening. Which of you will 
undertake to do it ? 1 am willing to pay a cent 
for each sweeping." 

"Only a cent !" said Dick. "Who would work 
for a cent?" 

" I will." said Joe. " A cent is better than 

So every day, when Uncle Harris was done 
working in the shop, Joe would take an old 
broom and sweep it. And he dropped all his 
pennies into his tin savings bank. 

One day Uncle Harris took Dick and Joe to 
town with him. While he went to buy some 
lumber, they stayed in a toy-shop, where there 
were toys of every kind. 

" What fine kites !" said Dick. "I wish i 
could buy one." 

" Only ten cents," said the man behind the 

" I haven't even a cent," said Dick. 

" 1 have fifty cents," said Joe, " and I think 
I will buy that bird-kite." 

" How did you get fifty cents?" asked Dick. 

" By sweeping the shop," answered Joe. " I 
saved my pennies and did not open my bank 
until this morning." 

Joe bought the bird-kite'anda fine large knife, 
while Dick went home without anything. 
But he had learned not to despise little things, 
and he was very glad to sweep the shop when- 
ever Joe would let him, even though he received 
for his work only a cent. 

Oui< Birds. — It would be well if a little more 
information were imparted in our schools on the 
subject of our birds, song birds especially, for 
the amount of good work done by insect-eating 
birds is something wonderful. A writer in 
Good Words gives an illustration of the enor- 
mous appetite of the bird. A thrush will eat 
at a meal the largest snail that England pro- 
duces, if a man could eat as much in propor- 
tion, he would consume a whole round of beef 
for his dinner. The redbreast, again, is a most 
voracious bird. It has been calculated that to 
keep a redbreast up to his normal weight, an 
amount of animal food is required daily equal to 
an earthworm 14 feet in length. Taking a man 
of average weight, and measuring bulk for bulk 
with the redbreast, and assuming a sausage nine 
inches in circumference to be a fair equivalent 
of the earthworm, it is found that the man 
would have to eat 67 feet of such sausage in every 
twenty-four hours. By these two examples it 
will be seen what slayers of insects our birds 
are, and it seems almost beyond belief that 
they should be slain. If information such as 
the above were more widely disseminated, we 
should hear less of the practice, injurious as it 
is wanton, of bird's-nesting and bird-catching, 
in which Iwys and young men take only too 
much delight. 

Hints on Sleep. 

The question of chief importance to most peo- 
ple in these overwrought, wakeful days and 
nights is how to get good sleep enough. Dr. 
Corning drops a few simple hints which may be 
of value. In the first place, people should have 
a regular time for going to sleep, and it should 
be as soon as can well be after sunset. People 
who sleep at any time, according to convenience, 
get less benefit from their sleep than others; 
getting sleep becomes more difficult; there is a 
tendency to nervous excitability and derange- 
ment; the repair of the system does not equal 
the waste. The more finely organized people 
are, the greater the difficulty and the danger 
from this cause. The first thing in order to 
sleep well is to go to bed at a regular hour, and 
make it as early as possible. The next thing 
is to exclude all worry and exciting subjects of 
thought from the mind some time before retir- 
ing. The body and mind must be let down 
from the high-pressure strain before going to 
bed, so that nature can assert her rightful su- 
premacy afterward. Another point is, never 
to thwart the drowsy impulse when it comes at 
the regular time by special efforts to keep 
awake, for this drowsiness is the advance guard 
of healthy, restorative sleep. 

Sleep is a boon which must not be tampered 
with and put off, for if [compelled to wait, it is 
never so perfect and restful as if taken its own 
natural time and way. The right side is the 
best to sleep on, except in special cases of dis- 
ease, and the position should be nearly horizon- 
tal. Finally, the evening meal should be 
composed of food most easily digested and as- 
similated, so that the stomach will have little 
hard work to do. A heavy, rich dinner taken 
in the evening is one of the things that murder 
sleep. Late suppers with exciting foods and 
stimulating drinks make really restorative sleep 
next to impossible. Narcotics are to be avoided, 
save as used in cases of disease by competent 
physicians. The proper time, according to Dr. 
Corning, to treat sleeplessness is in the day- 
time, and it must he treated by a wise and tem- 
perate method of living rather than by medi- 
cines. This is good common sense, says the 
New York Star, from which paper we copy, 
and doubtless a vast deal of the debility, nerv- 
ous derangement, and the insanity of our time 
would he prevented by more good, restful, nat- 
ural sleep. 

How to Remove Black Worms From thk 
Pace. — A contemporary says : The black points, 
flesh worms, or comedones, which are found in 
the face, and especially near the nostrils, are 
not at all produced by the accumulation of the 
particles of dirt or dust, as has generally been 
believed, but by pigmentary matter, which 
is soluble in acids. The following treatment 
has been recommended: kaoline, four parts; 
glycerine, three parts; acetic acid, two parts, 
with or without the addition of a small quantity 
of some ethereal oil. With this pomade cover 
the parts affected in the evening, and if need 
be, during the day. After several days all the 
comedones can be easily expressed; most of 
them even come out by washing the parts with 
pumice stone soap. The same results can be 
obtained by bandaging the parts affected for a 
long time with vinegar, lemon juice, or diluted 
hydrochloric acid. The acids act like cosmet- 
ics, as they transform the black color into a 
brown and yellow shade, and destroy it gradu- 
ally altogether. 

Poisox in Potatoes. — No person should buy 
their potatoes of grocerymen who let them stand 
in front of their stores in the sun. Potatoes be- 
longing to the "Solanum" family, of which the 
deadly night shade is one of its full brothers. 
All branches of the family contain more or less 
of that poisonous narcotic, called "solanine. " 
The bulb, or potato, contains the least of this, 
unless they are exposed to the sun, which rap- 
idly develops this element. Long exposure to 
the light, without the direct sun, will develop 
the solanine in the potato, and make an article 
unfit for food. But exposure to the sun is so 
injurious to the potato, making it not only un- 
palatable, but actually injurious to health, that 
any grocer for the offence of selling potatoes 
which have been exposed two or three days to 
the sun ought to be indicted for selling 11 11 
healthy and dangerous human food. —Albany 

Chloroforming Through Keyholes, etc. 
— We read now and then of cases in which 
burglars arc supposed to have rendered their 
victims unconscious by holding cloths wet with 
chloroform to keyholes before entering an apart- 
ment. Of course the absurdity of such a fiction 
is sufficiently apparent. Whether sleepers can 
be made to pass from natural to chloroform 
sleep, if the chloroform is held near to the face, 
is still a question. Sometimes the experiment 
has succeeded, but in five experiments recently 
made to determine the fact, every one of the 
sleepers experimented upon woke at the expi- 
ration of three minutes, before they had come 
under the influence of the drug. 

Mos(H ! 'to Oil. — The following is a very 
good mixture for anointing the face and hands 
while fishing: Oil of tar, 1 oz. ; olive oil, 1 oz; 
oil of pennyroyal, 4 oz. ; spk ic of camphor, A 
oz. ; glycerine, .J oz. ; carbolic acid, '1 drachms. 
Mix, and shake well before using. 


IYrke of Cei.eky.— Wash some large-sized 
celery sticks, cook them until quite tender in 
boiling salt and water. When done, take out, 
drain off all moisture, and pass through a hair 
sieve into a basin for use. Melt one ounce of 
butter in a stew pan, add the celery puree, salt 
to taste, a tablespoonful of flour, and two of 
thick double cream; a piece of sugar the size of 
a nut, and a little stock should be necessary. 
Simmer the whole gently until thoroughly 
heated through and thickened. Serve gar- 
nished with sippets fried in butter, or, if pre- 
ferred, on slices of cold beef or mutton plainly 
grilled. The perfection of a well-concocted 
puree lies in its extreme softness on the palate. 
To insure this, it is often wiser to add some 
finely sifted bread crumbs to the already cooked 
vegetable before it is passed through the sieve, 
and work it through together, which does duty 
for, and proves a more efficient agent than the 
flour for all thickening purposes. Cream should 
always he used, there is nothing for its substi- 
tute. Sugar should likewise never, on any ac- 
count, be omitted from a puree, either in a lesser 
or greater degree, according to the taste of the 
consumer, for it helps in no small measure to 
soften it. 

Brewer's Yeast is prepared as follows : 
Seventy-two pounds unkilled malt and a hand- 
ful of hops arc gradually stirred in a clean tub 
containing seven gallons of water of 170' Fab., 
and to this five and one-half gallons of water of 
'200 are added. The tub is then covered tightly 
and left quiet. After some time it is cooleil 
rapidly. This is accomplished by setting hi 
cans tilled with cold water. When the tem- 
perature of the mash has reached 70°, the tub 
is covered again and allowed to stand for some 
twelve hours longer, when one and a half gal- 
lons fresh beer yeast are to be stirred in. After 
another twelve hours have elapsed, pierce a hole 
in the layer formed by the husks of the malt, 
and dip three and a half gallons of the liquor be- 
neath; then stir the whole up and dip one and 
three-fourths gallons from it (husks and liquor). 
This is the mother leaven from which yeast can 
be generated all the year round by using it in 
the way described instead of the ordinary beer 
leaven. To the remainder in the tub add five 
and a half gallons wort of 90°, and make use of 
it within two hours. The mother yeast also 
must be used the same day for fermenting an- 
other portion. 

CHICKEN Soup. — To make chicken soup, al- 
low a quart of cold water for each pound ol 
chicken, ami set it where it will heat slowly, 
not letting it boil, for tw o hours, and then keep 
it boiling slowly for four hours. Turn it into a 
large dish with a tablespoonful of salt and let 
it remain all night. Skim off the fat, strain 
the broth, season with salt and pepper, and let 
it boil half an hour. Then strain it and boil in 
a tablespoonful of minced parsley. Scald a cup 
of milk and a very small lump of soda and stir 
into it a tablespoonful of cornstarch wet with 
cold milk. When it is cooked pour it into a 
bowl with two beaten eggs, stir them together, 
and add a cupful of the boiling soup. Then re- 
move the soup kettle from the fire, add this 
mixture to it and let it stand three minutes. 

Pressed Veal. — Boil a beef tongue the day 
before it is to be used, and a like quantity of 
lean veal, ('hop very fine. Season the tongue 
with pepper, powdered sweet herbs, a teaspoon - 
ful of mustard, a little nutmeg and cloves, a 
pinch of each; season the veal in like manner, 
with the addition of salt. Pack in alternate 
spoonfuls as irregularly as possible, in cups, 
bowls or jars which have been well buttered. 
Press very hard as you go on, smooth the top, 
anil cover with melted butter. When this 
cools, close the cans, and keep in a cool, dry 
place. Turn out whole, or cut in slices for tea. 
It is a pretty and savory relish, garnished with 
parsely or the blanched tops of celery. 

Salt Fish SOUFFLE. — Mash eight boiled po- 
tatoes, and mix with a pint of finely chopped 
salt fish, and add three fourths of a cup of hot 
milk, two tablespoonfuls of butter, a little salt 
and pepper and two beaten eggs. Bake for ten 
minutes, and then add two more beaten eggs 
with w hich a little salt has been mixed, brown 
in the oven and serve at once. 

Strawberry Cream, —To make strawberry 
cream take three pints of mashed berries, strain 
the juice, and add a heaping cup of sugar, and 
then gelatine soaked and dissolved in a teacup 
of boiling water. Add a pint of whipped cream 
and pour into molds. 

EGG Pie. — Hard boiled eggs taste good at 
any time, but never so well as when, like the 
four and twenty blackbirds, they are in a pie. 
Boil a dozen eggs hard, and, when cold, shell 
and slice them and put them in layers in a but- 
tered pic dish, alternating with butter, bread- 
crumbs, pepper and salt, and covering them with 
this mixture. Add a cupful of cream, and 
bake to a brown. 

Lack Bed Furniture.— Lace coverlets and 
pillow covers should not be rinsed in "blue 
water" when washed, but dipped in very weak 
cold coffee. They should be made very wet, 
wrung very dry in a patent wringer, ami dried 
with the greatest quickness, as otherwise the 
coffee will settle, and they will look like a 
symphony in yellows. 



Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Op.ce, 252 Market St;, N. E. cor. FrontSt., S. F 
IS" Take the Elevator, No. li Front St. S» 

Address editorials and business letters to the firm 
individuals are liable to be absent. 

Our Subscription Rates. 

Our Subscription Rates are three dollars a year, 
in advance. If continued subscriptions are not prepaidi n 
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special rates. Four inserti *ns are rated in a month. 

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Kntered at S. F. Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 

A T. dewev. w. b. ewer. c. h. strong 


Saturday, July 7, 1883. 


EDITORIALS. — A Citiernxev Beauty; Oregon Crops, 

\. The Week; The Kvolutiou of the Trotter; Alaska 

Scenes: Competition in Fruit Buying, &. 
ILLUSTRATIONS.— A Cuernsev Portrait, the Gov, 

"Mattel;" Scenes in Alaska llarlnir> ami Kivers of the 

Northwest Coast of America, 9. 
QUERIES AND REPLIES . — l Useaes Among 

Calve-; Moth Catching; The French Wine Crop; Kssex 

Swine; Things we would Like to Know, 8- 
CORRESPONDENCE. Arizona Note-, 2. 
HORTICULTURE.- Horticulture in Nana County; 

Extermination of Insect Pests, 2. 
PISCICULTURE.— Carp Culture, 3. 
THE VINEYARD - Fertilizer- for the Vine, 3. 
PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. — What tla-Crange 

Did; Co-operation and the Grange, 4. 
AGRICULTURAL NOTES — From the various 

counties of California and Oregon, 4 5. 
NEWS IN BRIEF- On page ft and other pages. 
THE HOME CIRCLE. —Wee Haggle (Poetry); 

Polly's California Chickens, 0. From the Farm House; 

The 'Origin of Waterspouts, 7. 

Onlj a Cent: our Bir.l>. 7. 
GOOD HEaLTH. — Hint- on Bleep; How to Remove 

P.lack Worms from the Face; Poi-on in Potatoes; 

chloroforming Through Keyholes, etc.; Mosquito Oil, 


DOMESTIC ECONOMY.- Puree of Celery: chicken 
Soup; Pressed Veal, Salt Fish Souffle; Strawberry 
Cream; Kgg Pie; Lace Bed Furniture, 7. 

of Salt Marsh Land, 10. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Absorption of Oxygen by Iron 
Cement, 4- A Panic in Breadstuff*; The Evil Effects 
oi Tobacco; Progress of Electric Science, 5- Band Saw 
Mills, lO. How Tea Is Adulterated, 11. Meeting Of 
the State Horticultural Society, 13. 


Hay Presses- Haw Icy Bros.' Hardware Co. , S. V. 
Laml^ fur Sale Albert K. Crane, S. F. 

Barbea Wire Htrntlngton, Hopkins k Co., s. Y. 

Spanish Merino Sheep — Mrs. K. Mr. Wilson, K I k GrOTO. 
St. Mary's Hall-Uev. L. I). Manstieltl. Henieia, Cal. 
tiraiii Warehouse -Charles II. Sinclair, S. F. 

The Week. 

The harvest is well muler way, and new grain 
is arriving more freely. The quality of that which 
has come in so far has been for the most part 
line as to plumpness and size, but a little dark 
in color. Reports of the yield contain notes of 
surprises of both kindsT-the thrasher bringing 
out sometimes more, sometimes less, than was 
expected. Trade is lifeless, for it is the holiday 
time, the period of midsummer, quiet and indo- 
lence, and this fact is reinforced by the unfavor- 
able condition of foreign markets. 

The week has been barren of events except 
those wrought out by the occurrence of Declara- 
tion Day. The city has been arranged in the 
usual coat of bunting, and the pomp of parade, 
the flow of patriotic eloquence and the displays 
of pyrotechnics have occupied the popular sight 
and thought. In the interior there have also 
been celebrations and various other observances, 
and the day has been generally enjoyed and 

Alaska Scenes. 

On the opposite page are several line views 
of Alaska scenery. Figure 1 is a view of the 
town of Sitka. Figure 2 shows Sitka harbor, 
looking seaward with its numerous wooded 
islands and protected anchorage. Figure 3 
is one of the legendary carvings found at Fort 
Simpson and other localities. These images are 
not worshipped, but are rather historical or 
legendary. Figure 4 is an Alaskan river scene, 
the houses and huts of the villages clustering 
along the bank. Figure 5 illustrates AVrangel. 
These localities are all becoming well known 
through frequent mention of them in tin- public 

Competition in Fruit Buying. 

There is much general satisfaction at the 
prospect of competition among large fruit buy- 
ers as is foreshadowed by the collapse of the 
canners' combination, which was mentioned in 
last week's Prkss. AVhether this proves true 
or not, or even if the contending canners should 
patch up a truce there is the promise of the 
drying interest bidding for the fruit and thus 
helping values in those parts where large dry- 
ing establishments are at work. The San Jose 
Herald shows that the Santa Clara growers 
have a promise of an active market: AVhatever 
the San Francisco canners may agree upon, it 
is evident that San .lose orchardists will receive 
good prices for their fruit because there is a 
local demand for it by several who are exten- 
sively engaged in drying. Last year these driers 
handled prunes almost exclusively, but this year 
they have bought a large number of apricot or- 
chards and are making preparations to handle 
all they can buy. There is a lively competi- 
tion among them, and prices are on the rise. 
They bought ten days ago for one and one half 
cents per pound, but sales this week are for two 
cents and some over. It was generally 
understood that the canners were going 
to pay one cent for apricots, but the 
orchardists claim that since the com- 
bination is broken they expect to get from two 
to three cents per pound, and they further 
claim that there is a fair margin for driers at 
three cents. Prune drying is assuming vast 
proportions in this valley; last year's crop was 
quickly disposed of anil it made not a particle 
of difference in Eastern market prices. The 
production of California is nothing in compari- 
son to the amount imported annually, and until 
we can lay some claim to a competition with for- 
eign grown prunes our few thousand tons will not 
affect the world's market. It is stated that 
O'Banion k Kent have sold the prune crop on 
their Saratoga orchard to one of the drying men 
in the Willows for three cents per pound. Mrs. 
Bradley has sold the prune crop on her orchard 
two miles west of the city for $350 per acre. 
The prunes grown without irrigation are the 
best for drying, yielding more dried fruit than 
those grown on irrigated land. 

The Evolution of the Trotter. 

A few weeks ago we gave an interesting study 
in the evolution of the trotting horse by Prof. 
\V. H. Brewer, of Yale College. Prof. Picker- 
ing makes the data collected by Prof. Brewer 
the text to certain deductions to show what 
the future trotter will do. The only trouble 
with such prophecy is that perhaps the horse 
will not do it. There may be barriers in the 
forms of natural limitations which the animal 
economy cannot overcome. But the reasoning 
is ingenious and the results interesting even if 
they are never realized or never reached except 
on paper. Mr. Pickering finds that the 
speed of the trotting horst is increased at 
a nearly uniform rate of -U seconds per 
mile in ten years, and that, at this 
rate, in the year 1907 a horse will trot a 
mile in two minutes, and in "204.") in one minute. 
This improvement cannot, however, go on in- 
definitely, and so Mr. Pickering thinks that 
the convex curve which he now finds to 
represent with tolerable fairness the improve- 
ment in the horse's speed will soon become a 
straight line, when the speed will remain 
stationary, and may even be converted into a 
concave curve, with a corresponding falling off 
in the horse's developement. Another point 
which lias struck Mr. Pickering in his exami- 
nation of Mr. Brewer's tables is the rapid in- 
crease in the number of trotting horses — an 
increase which, if continued at the present 
rate, will, in the year 1900, supply the country 
with 10,000 horses that can trave" 
•2:30 or less. 

red in a glass of sweetened water gives a most 
delicious lemonade. Some of the parties visit- 
ing Santa Catalina Island should procure cut- 
tings and seed of the various interesting plants 
from that place, and our enterprising nursery- 
men should introduce them in general cultiva- 

A Sf.tti.ei;'s Si cckss. — Many of those who 
begin iu a small way and go to work zealously 
to build up small farms on Government land 
are prospering this year. The San Luis Obispo 
Tfdmne tells of the experience of Iv W. Xohl, 
who took up, last August, a quarter section of 
( iovemment land, in the San Jose valley, in 
that county. The ground was covered with 
chaparral which had to be cleared off. He now 
has fifteen acres of corn, at this date, June 25th, 
standing as high as his head, seven acres of 
wheat which will yield forty bushels to the 
acre, two acres of ambee sugar cane, one third 
of an acre in broom-corn, one acre of potatoes 
and one acre in alfalfa. He also has a small 
orchard of fruit trees which have made a growth 
of five feet this season. He sowed some Arabian 
millet which did not come up well; his alfalfa 
seeded nicely, the ground being covered with 
it. He has now a fine prospect for a home. 
He might have stayed around a town and 
cursed the country for half a century without 
finding any place like that. Work did it. 

Salt Maksii RECLAMATION. — On page 10 of 
this issue may be found another excellent arti- 
cle on salt marsh reclamation: the author being 
John W. Ferris, of Stockton, who has a rich 
and varied experience in this kind of work. 
The information given to the public by Judge 
Stanly and Mr. Ferris would have been worth 
thousands of dollars to each of them a few 
years ago if they could have bought it then. 
They are pioneers in systematic work of this 
kind in this State, not that they began first but 
they have succeeded best. They grappled with 
the problem firmly where others dallied or gave 
out, and they have done a great public service 
in placing the results of their experience where 
all can have the benefits thereof. 

Disease Among Calves. 


Intkkks'1'im; Native Fruits. -Dr. Qnstav 
Kisen gives the Fresno I'< pidilicaii a very inter- 
esting paragraph on certain native fruits which 
he found on one of our off-coast islands. He 
writes : Ten years ago wespent three months on 
Santa Catalina Island, off the coast of Los An- 
geles. Many of the creeks and canyons of that 
island, especially round a place then owned by 
a Mr. Howland, from Wilmington, were covered 
with beautiful groves of native cherry trees. 
The cherries were a splendid dark-brown, and 
sweet, with an agreeable acid. If this cherry 
was properly cultivated and introduced in our 
nurseries, no doubt it Mould prove a great 
acquisition, being a native and adapted to our 
climate. Santa Catalina contains many wonder- 
ful plants, among others the lemon berry, a 
shrub covered with small hard berries whi^li on 
the outside are covered with a thick layer of 
crystallized acid. A bunch of these berries stir- 

A dairyman living in this township informs us that 
a disease has broken out among bis calves which 
threatens to take some of them off if not arrested. 
The first appearance of the disease is a cough, which, 
after about two weeks, makes the calf so sick that it 
quits eating. This is followed by heavy hreathing 
and discharge of matter from the nostrils. The gen- 
tleman mentioned has been dairying for twenty-nine 
years, and never noticed this disease before. A dairy- 
man in Marin county informed him that an acquaint- 
ance of his in the same county had lost about ioo 
calves this year from the same disease. Now won't 
the RuKAL Prkss tells us what the disease is and 
gives us a remedy for it ? — Pcialuma Cimiier, 

The disease is evidently that known as 
" husk," or " hoose," which was written up at 
length in the Hi kai. Pkkss of October 7, 1882, 
by Mr. Robert Ashbumer, the well known 
breeder of San Mateo county. Those who keep 
the Ri'KAi. on file may turn back to that issue 
for full information. For others anil for the 
benefit of our Petaluma exchange we will briefly- 
state the leading points of the disease, its cause 
and treatment. 

" Husk," or " hoose" has been known for a 
long time. The early writers, as Youatt, con- 
sidered the malady catarrhal in its character 
and pronounced it the effect of a cold taken by 
the animal. More recent investigations show 
that the trouble arises from the presence of 
parasitical worms in the air passages, which, by 
their irritation, cause the cough and the diseased 
conditions of the bronchial tubes and lungs. 
Prof. Law, in his recent work, "The Farmer's 
Veterinary Adviser," after describing the 
growth of the worm, etc., says: 

' 'The symptoms iu calves are essentially those 
of bronchitis, with the difference that the whole 
herd is affected and mucus coughed up, contain- 
ing worms either singly or rolled up in bundles. 
There is at first only a slight, rather husky 
cough, repeated at irregular intervals. There 
follows dry staring coat, embarrassed breath- 
ing and advancing emaciation. Soon the cough 
becomes frequent, paroxysmal and suffocating, 
with expectoration of mucus and worms. 

"In the worst cases death may result in ten 
or fifteen days after the onset, though more 
commonly it is delayed two or three months and 
recovery may take place. 

"Prevention — In localities and countries to 
which the disease is new, the parasites should 
be killed out by the continuous medical treat- 
ment of the diseased animals, or if necessary 
their destruction, and the separation of all 
horses, asses, mules and cattle from the infested 
pasture or its vicinity, and from any stream of 
water running through or close to it, as well 
as from all fodder, roots, grain, etc., grown on 
such land, for several years after. In infested 
localities, calves and foals should never be pas- 
tured on lands recently occupied by older stock 
of the same kind, or allowed access to water 
used by such stock. Sheep, goats or pigs may- 

be safely fed on such land. Avoid overstock- 
ing. Drain the land to clear off pools or wet 
spots. Keep the young stock from infested or 
suspected pastures while wet with dew or rain, 
and from clover and allied plants which, by 
their moisture, arc liable to harbor the worm. 
Suspected beasts should be kept apart from the 
healthy, and from healthy pastures, until sub- 
jected to thorough and continuous ^treatment. 
The carcasses of the dead should be very deeply 
buried; or better, the lungs and windpipe re 
moved and burst to ashes. All exposed ani- 
mals should be well fed on a diet including dry 
grain, and should be allowed salt to lick at will, 
this being destructive to the young worms. 

"Treatment — Feed liberally on linseed cake, 
roots, oats, or other nutritious diet, to which 
may be added a mixture, in equal parts of sul- 
phate of iron, gentian and ginger, in proportion 
of four ounces to every 10 calves of three months. 
To destroy the intestinal worms, give eveiy 
morning fasting, a tablespoonful of table salt, 
or an equal amount of oil of turpentine, shaken 
up with milk. For the lung parasites, place 
the affected animals in a close building, and 
burn pinch after pinch of flowers of sulphur on 
a piece of paper, laid on an iron shovel, until 
the air is as much charged with the fumes as 
they can bear without coughing violently. The 
administrator must stay with them in the build- 
ing to avoid accidents, and keep up the applica- 
tion for half an hour at a time. It should be 
repeated several days in succession, and at in- 
tervals of a week for several weeks, so as to kill 
the young worms as they are hatched out in 
successive broods, and not until all cough and 
excitement of breathing have passed should the 
animal be considered as safe to mix with others, 
or to go on a healthy pasture. " 

Moth Catching. 

EDITORS Pkkss: Early in the spring I saw 
in your paper an account by some one (I have 
forgotten the name) of catching the codliu moth 
with a mixture of vinegar, molasses ami water. 
I tried it about six weeks since and failed to 
catch any, ami concluded it would not do; 
but on the 20th inst. I hung a can in each of 
29 apple and pear trees. On the morning of the 
21st I had 224 moths; on the 224, 174 ; 23d, 7.'1 ; 
24th, 111; 26th, .'100; 20th. 312 ; 27th, :t78, and 
this morning 248. making 1,820 moths in eight 
days, besides quarts of other moths, flies, yel- 
low jackets, etc. 

If neighbors would all join anil work at the 
same time, could they not nearly, or quite ex- 
terminate them in this way ! or, at least, save 
the most of their apples and pears? I strain 
the liquor out of the cans into a watering pot, 
and jar the moths, etc., out of the dipper 
strainer into coal oil, through which they sink 
to the bottom, and are snrely killed. I use the 
same liquor over and over, adding to it as it is 
used up. I mix the liquid, one part molasses, 
four parts vinegar and eight or ten parts water, 
ami use tin cans holding about a quart. 1 hang 
them on limbs with a wire, filling the cans one- 
third to one-half full. Cans without any flange 
or crimping at the top are best, so that the 
moths will all pour out, as if any arc left in 
the can they arc liable to fly away. I have no 
doubt it would lie best to put two or three, or 
more, cans in large trees. — L. I. Fish, Mar- 
tinez, Cal. 

The French Wine Crop. 
KiiIToks Pkkss: 1 find in the RURAL Pkkss 
of June ilth the reporter's statement, credited 
to Mr. Blowers, that "six or eight years ago 
France made about 18,000,000 gallons of wine." 
June 23d it was corrected, and I li, 000,000 gal- 
lons given. Thinking the amount a great deal 
too small, I referred to the reports of the United 
States Commissioners to the Paris Kxposition in 
1SI17, and edited by William I'. Blake, Com- 
missioner of the State of California, and find in 
substance this statement: Viticultural produc- 
tions of France extend over 5,016,062 acres, and 
produced in )8li."> Iseventeen years ago) 1,616,- 
744,482 gallons. The city of Paris alone con- 
sumes, annually. 70,2OO,O0O gallons of wine. 
Iii 1800, France exported 70,270,288 gallons of 
wine. France hail 111 1807 in vines about .">, 
616,662 acres. California has 100.000 acres, 
less than one-sixtieth in bearing of the acreage 
of France.— W. C. K., National City, Cal. 

Essex Swine 

Editors Press:— Since writing the article in the 
PRESS about the value of Essex Swine, 1 am deluged 
with letters from parties in all pans of the State, 
making inquiry as to where they can procure pure 
Kssex swine. If some parties East owning and 
breeding these swine would advertise in the Pkevs 
they would soon work up large sales. If 1 had a 
good hog ranch 1 should want no better business 
than breeding some thoroughbred hogs for sale. I 
bred them for twenty years and made more money at 
it than at anything else in the slock line. The PEERS 
must circulate pretty generally among the farmers of 
the State I should judge. J. S. TlHIU I s. 

Santa Clara, Cal. 

Kssex swine should certainly be advertised. 
We have frequent inquiry for them. 

Things We Would Like to Know. 

EDITORS PEESS : — Please inform me through \oiir 
paper if you know how to kill morning glory in a 

vineyard.— Henry Petersen, Dixon, CaL 

Editors Press; Will you or some poulterer inform 
us the cause, cure and preventive for the following 
fowl disease: The liver becomes enlarged and 
ulcerated, and the chicken droopes a few days then 
dies. Please oblige by an answer. — k., Auburn, 

Editors Press : — What proportion of sand, lime 
and cement makes the liest concrete for cisterns and 
water pipes? How is artificial stone made? — G. W, 
Lewis, Ballard, Cal, 


j[J © F^l (B U b T U R/c b G[ N G I J^l E E R 

Reclamation of Salt Marsh Land. 

Kmtoks PrKSS. — 1 have read with a great 
ileal of pleasure Judge Stanly's admirable 
artiele on "Salt Marsh," in your edition of 
the lfith inst, and finding, from the numerous 
inquiries I received, that there is a growing 
interest in the question, and feeling, like the 
.fudge, under many obligations to the PBBSS, 
it will afford me much pleasure to give my 
general experience. 

The reclamation of our tract, situated at the 
southern end of San Pablo bay. and about mid- 
way between San Rafael and l'etaluma, was 
commenced in the spring of 1 8*8. 

The greater portion of the land is an alluvial 
deposit, with here and there a patch of the 
undesirable peat formation, anil a rather large 
proportion of the still less desirable pond holes. 

it is safe to say that all the land carrying a 
good strong growth either of samphire or 
spear grass is susceptible and deserving of 
reclamation; the best land being that freest 
from peat, and genu ally characterized by a 
growth of scroll brash, locally termed 
" grease-wood. " This class of laud is 
generally found farthest from the hills or up- 
land, and whilst occasionally found in compara- 
tively uubroken stretches, has usually a great 
number of "creeks" throughout it, the su- 
periority of the land undoubtedly being largely 
owing to the deposit of alluvial matter from 
their repeated overflow. 

The peat land is tough, obstinate and unyield- 
ing, and very retentive of its salt, but makes 
ultimately good land; the "ponds" we formerly 
lielieved to be valueless, but their area gradu- 
ally contracts, and a growth spreads all over 
them after two or three years, and we now 
think ultimately they may make good land. 

Where the natural growth is the coarse three- 
cornered " tule," we consider the formation too 
recent for practical use, though, as this land is 
almost invariably sediment land, it will proba- 
bly ultimately show excellent results. 


The size and general cross section of the 
levee is determined by a few governing and 
self-evident facts. 

For several years I have had a close observ- 
ance kept of the highest flood waters, and where 
free from the influence of local fresh water 
streams, during that time, have had nothing 
shown on my gauge over two feet six inches 
above the average land level, on the banks of 
the main creeks where the levees are located. 
This bight, indeed, has but once been reached, 
and that under a peculiar combination of influ- 
ences, viz — spring tide, when the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin were in big flood, local streams 
all booming, and a gale from the southwest 
banking up the waters of the bay. A carefully 
maintained bight of four feet will then, 1 be- 
lieve, be sufficient, but so great is the shrinkage 
of the water-charged material that, unless con- 
stant addition be contemplated for a year or 
two, levees should be built at least five feet 
above the average level of the creek banks. 

The inevitable cracking of the levees, as the 
material contracts, can only be satisfactorily 
met by periodical and sufficient harrowing 
of the levee surface, and as a harrow cannot be 
advantageously worked on a slope steeper than 
three to one, the levee to be maintained after 
making proper allowance for settlement, should 
be four feet high, with three to one slopes and a 
rounded top, and the only reduction to be per- 
mitted is m the inside slope, which may, if the 
most rigid economy is imperative, be reduced. 


The key note of success with salt marsh as 
Judge Stanly plainly and clearly points out, is 
the after drainage of the land. The mere ex- 
clusion of the sea is only half the battle, and 
where nothing further than this is attempted 
the best result will most certainly not be at- 
tained; indeed it is safe to say disappointment 
may be looked for. The maiu drains are ad- 
vantageously afforded by the ditchesfrom which 
the material to build the levees has been taken, 
and should be nowhere less than Ave and pre- 
ferably seven feet deep. Such a depth prohibits 
manual labor, as main drains on such flat land 
must have considerable bottom width, or flood- 
gates would be needed at too frequent intervals. 

My lirst effort at a machine for the purpose, 
resulted in something crude and eumbers<,nie, 
but able to do entirely satisfactory work, and, 
moreover, compete fairly with the prize per 
cubic yard of China work, without reckoning 
anything for the immense advantage of the ad- 
ditional depth of ditch. 

I am satisfied, when the need is made known, 
now that the requirements are all formulated, 
California!! ingenuity will speedily develop a 
machine fully adapted to the case. The loca- 
tion of the levee will depend entirely on the 
nature of the creek bank, and the depth of 
water in the creek. The deep-water channel 
will nearly always be found in the concave 
bend and points invariably run uito shoal 
water. A safe general rule will be that the 
levee must be set back so far from the edge of 
the creek that the arbitrary 3 to 1 slope, pro- 
duced, shall strike the creek bottom. Inside, 
the bottom of the completed ditch should be not 
lessthan two feet from the slope of levee for every 
foot of ditch depth. The need of the appar- 
ently extreme ditch depths insisted upon will 
be more apparent when it is explained that 
within two years of reclamation, the land 

remote from creeks will be found to have 
subsided two feet. 

A very common mistake has been made in 
deeming those tracts only worthy of reclama- 
tion, where the ratio of acres reclaimed to the 
mileage of levee was great. Originally our 
lands had as much as 1300 acres in one body, 
but the main drains we have found necessary, 
have in construction virtually afforded a series 
of cross levees until we find our largest tract 
at present contains but 300 acres, and 1 believe 
200 acres is about the size that will be found 
most convenient. 

Flood Gates 

Flood gates should be placed, if possible, 
where an inside slough will afford a reservoir 
to collect water between tides and permit a 
rapid discharge at low tides. As a rule, one 
mile on each side of a gate is as far as water can 
with advantage be led. 

The most serious mistake 1 made in reclaiming 
our tract w as in setting the flood gates too high. 
Believing that a three- foot ditch would snffioexor 
drainage, it did not appear necessary to set the 
gates very deep; now, however, 1 never fail 
to set the bottom of agate to the low-water 
level, and as water naturally flows over water 
with less frictional resistance than over w ood, 
a few inches lower promotes a better discharge. 

It would be difficult to describe a Hood gate 
without a detail drawing, buta clear understand- 
ing of the principles to be observed will indi- 
cate nearly enough what is required. The 
whole matter depends on reducing to a mini- 
mum the frictional resistance to a free flow of 
water, and in carefully setting and adjusting 
the whole structure that it be impossible for 
water to follow the plane surfaces and cut away 
the soil and ultimately permit the gate to sub- 
side, upset or blow out. The closed flume pass- 
ing under the levee should, therefore, be as 
short as possible, and a flaring apron at eacli 
end gives the water a free run in, and obviates 
the cutting that would take place at the dis- 
charge end of gate. 

Whenever the flume is so large as to require 
framing timliers, the sheeting proper must be 
outside to prevent the pressure of wet earth 
tilled in tearing it from the timbers, but an in- 
ner lining of inch stuff must be given, or the 
succession of breaks and eddies set up by the 
timbers will rednce the How one-half. The 
lower apron sets below the flume proper to 
avoid the necessity of a sill above the floor of 
Bome. An automatic gate at the lower end, 
hung sufficiently high to obviate the possibility 
of the gate swinging up with an incoming tide. 
A dead gate at the upper end of flume to close 
in case of accident to the other. The flare of 
the lower apron must be started directly from 
the end of flume, and the usual offset one sees 
avoided, as in the eddy set up by such offset, 
drift wood, etc. , carried through the flume is 
sure to be returned, and damage to the gate 
constantly occurring. Not less than .four 
carefully driven rows of sheet piling are re- 

In the proper setting of the floodgates and in 
the construction of such dams as may be neces- 
sary, the assistance of an experienced man is 
imperative, as a very slight mistake may be very 
costly to rectify. 


I entirely agree with Judge Stanly that the 
first plowing should be set about as soon 
after reclamation as the land is able to 
carry horses. The first 800 acres of salt 
marsh I plowed, cost me for labor, horse feed 
and repairs to plant, including the; tilling in by 
hand labor of the smaller creeks, so that horses 
could cross them, S-J.70 per acre ami land sub- 
sequently plowed after it was badly cracked, 
cost, I imagine, very little short of |10. 

There is I know a popular theory that the 
cracking of the land is beneficial to it, and that 
drainage is thereby promoted. This I entirely 
disbelieve, and all benefits from the rising of 
moisture in the soil by capillary attraction of 
necessity barred. 

On one point, and I believe on that one only 
I must take issue with Judge Stanly: I don't 
endorse his deep plowing at the start. What lit- 
tle experience 1 had of deep plowing at the start 
resulted in big chunks of matter as hard as ce- 
ment, utterly intractable until slaked down by 
at least two seasons atmospheric influences, and 
utterly prohibitive of crop. My first year's 
plowing was as nearly as I could get it, three 
inches deep, though to get a furrow, this was of- 
ten four and sometimes six inches in places. 
Each succeding plowing we go a little deeper, 
and ultimately, I am quite satisfied, deep and 
thorough cultivation will be desirable. I fancy 
this difference of opinion may be explained 
though, for I notice the judge justifies his prac- 
tice by stating that he seeks to bring up some 
of the underlying sediment to mix with an up- 
per stratum of peat. With us the soil is not 
layered in this way; we have generally a sedi 
ment formation with spots of peaty matter. 

The Ladow or Randall harrow s are either of 
them good to break the furrow, but better than 
either is the Chicago revolving or screw harrow, 
an implement that can be recommended strongly 
for salt marsh land so soon as its makers offers 
it at something like a reasonable price. 

I find oats the liest first year's crop on salt 
marsh; next to oats rye or barley, and, last of 
all, wheat. People musn't look for big crops 
the first year. The land is cold and sour, and 
unless the season be especially adapted, little 
more than an indifferent hay crop will be got. 
The second year, however, if the land be prop- 
erly drained and cultivated, excellent crops can 
be looked tor. I have this year a field of oats, 

100 acres — the second year from reclamation — 
that is, I believe, as good as can be desired; at 
all events, my father, who is an old country 
farmer, says he never saw a better lookiug crop 
in his life. 

The land grows excellent qualify barley. I I 
sold last year, to a local brewer, l"i0 tons at 
Sl.:t7!, on the land, and Mr. Peters, of Stock 
ton, told me that, excepting in color, which 
was not first rate, it was as good a sample as he 
saw last season. We have a considerable area 
in wheat, but cut it for hay each year. It 
grows a first-rate stand of hay and ma- 
tures all right, but the sample is indifferent 
and the tops of the heads have a pinched look 
to them. 

We are now heading ">00 acres of barley that, 
bar one or two pond holes, looks like forty 
bushels to the acre. 


1 am entirely of Judge Stanly's opinion that 
pasture is the ultimate use of the land, but it 
should have, I think, not less than three years' 
thorough cultivation before being laid down to 


Bach year we sow trial plots of different 
kinds of grass seeds, and have found hitherto 
the perennial rye grass (Lolium i>ercnnel a long 
way ahead of anything else This year, how- 
ever, orchard grass, timothy, mesquitc and red 
clover are all making a good showing. We have 
just cut forty acres of rye grass for seed to lay 
down further pastures, and whilst I was per- 
fectly familiar with rye grass for years in 
land, it is the finest stand I have ever 
seen. By the way, our experiments show- 
that it is much better to lay down 
grasses with a moderate seeding of grain, 
cutting the whole early for hay. A field of 
about 12 acres that was sown alone seemed to 
lack the shelter of the grain when young, and is 
inferior to the balance. 

Stock of all kinds thrives remarkably well on 
s ilt marsh pasture. 

In conclusion I would beg those who are be- 
coming interested in salt marsh land not to be 
lievc there is any big bonanza in it. It requires 
money and time to make it a success. Having 
proper money spent upon it, however, and 
allowing proper time for the necessary process 
of sweetening a naturally cold, sour, water 
charged soil, I believe to be a very good in- 
vestment, and as I have no land for sale, this 
opinion need not necessarily lie looked upon 
as i xjiarle. 

Figures, I believe, are likely to be of greatest 
interest to those contemplating reclamation. I 
would state, therefore, that an entirely suffi- 
cient levee averaging three cubic yards to the 
foot forward, built from a ditch six feet deep 
and including the necessary dams and flood gates 
will cost them about S2,000 per mile, and that 
the cost of handling salt marsh land, including 
the initial reclamation, drainage, providing 
fresh water and buildings, and the first break- 
ing of the land, will aggregate little short of 
S25 per acre. 

It should be plainly understood that there is 
necessarily a great difference in the land. Some 
salt marsh has, I am aware, a great deal of alkali 
in it; all of it probably has more or less in spots. 
I refer, however, to the land generally about 
San Pablo bay and confluents, where little but 
salt has to be feared. 

My father, who lives on our tract near No- 
vato, Marin county, authorizes me to say that 
it will afford him pleasure to show our levees, 
etc., to any one contemplating reclamation; not 
that we assume by any means to know all about 
it, but that from what we have accomplished 
and from the mistakes we have made, some- 
thing at all events may be learned. 

John W. Fkrris. 

Stockton, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 

UHWTIi'ATioN, liver ami kidney diseases an cured l>y 
Brown's lion Bitters, «hi<h ewichea the- blood, nnil 
strengthens the whole system. 

MARBLE Vknkers. — Another substitute for 
w ood finishing in the line of veneers has made 
its appearance. A patent marble veneer com- 
pany has been formed in New York City for 
the manufacture of pliable veneers, that perfectly 
imitate n arble or any variety of wood, and can 
be applied to any surface, no matter how ir- 
regular. The advantages are apparent. It is 
predicted that it has a profitable and possibly 
brilliant future. 



Now I-iattin 


Pronounced the most 

Perfect, Durable and Comfortable 


Especially adapted for Hospital*, 8etniuariee, Hotels 
and Lodging Houses, and Is Incomparably Sor rior to 
ant other Bed ; is light, easily handled and cannot get 
cut of order. 

Manufactory, 946 Howard Street. 

[July 7, 1883 

Band Saw Mills. 

The band-saw mill, says the Wooil h'orlrr, 
is evidently the mill of the future where valu- 
able hard-woods arc to be cut. Even now the 
novelty of this style of mill has almost worn off, 
and they are being set up in nearly every part of 
the country. That this mill is looked on as the 
coining mill is evidenced by the fact that there 
are not less than half a dozen prominent ma- 
chinery builders who have recently brought them 
out, or are preparing to. 

The product of a band-saw mill sells for a 
better price than the product of a circular saw; 
but it is not every person who can run a band 
saw for cutting logs. The man who success- 
fully engineers a band mill is always capable of 
doing first-class work, and with the advan- 
tages his machine possesses over the circular 
mill for nice work, there is little wonder that 
his product sells for more. There is likely to 
be a loud call for competent band-saw millers 
withiu the next few years. 


The blood is the foundation of 
fife, it circulates through every part 
of the body, and unless it is pure 
and rich, good health is impossible. 
If disease has entered the system 
the only sure and quick way to drive 
it out is to purify and enrich the 

These simple facts are well 
known, and the highest medical 
authorities agree that nothing but 
iron will restore the blood to its 
natural condition ; and also that 
all the iron preparations hitherto 
made blacken the teeth, cause head- 
ache, and are otherwise injurious. 

Brown's Iron Bitters will thor- 
oughly and quickly assimilate with 
the blood, purifying and strengthen- 
ing it, and thus drive disease from 
any part of the system, and it will 
not blacken the teeth, car* }ead- 
ache or constipation, and is posi- 
tively not injurious. 

Saved his Child. 

17 N. Eutaw Si., Baltimore, Md. 

Feb. 12, 1880. 

Gents:— Upon die recommenda- 
tion of a friend I tried Brown's 
Ikon' Biuaag as a tonic and re- 
storative for my daughter, whom 
I was thoroughly convinced was 
wasting away with Consumption. 
Having lost three daughters by the 
terrible disease, under the care of 
eminent physicians, I was loth to 
believe that anything could arrest 
the progress of the disease, but, to 
my great surprise, before my daugh- 
ter had taken one bottle of Bkown's 
Iron Hitters, she began to mend 
and now is quite restored to former 
health. A fifth daughter began to 
show signs of Consumption, and 
when the physician was consulted 
he quickly said *' Tonics were re- 
quired ;" and when informed that 
the elder sister was taking Brown's 
Ikon Bitteks, responded "that is 
a good tonic, take it." 

Apokam PitEirs. 

Brown's Iron Bitters effectual- 
ly cures Dyspepsia, Indigestion and 
Weakness, and renders the greatest 
relief and benefit to persons suffering 
from such wasting diseases as Con- 
sumption, Kidney Complaints, etc. 


The Solar Heat Power Company 
of California 

Solicits corresjiondciice from persons in need of Steam f ir 
Power, Hot Water, or Heated Air for Canning or Drying 
Fruits and Vegetables, for boiling Syrups, Borax, etc. 


Is simple and effective; requires no fuel and almost no 
attendance; can be applied to all descriptions of Engines, 
Fruit liriers, etc., anil is fitted with simple and cheap 
I -vices wherein it may he kept in opera tf SB when the 
sun does not shine. Address 

Solar Heat Power Co. of Cal., 

220 Sansome St., - San Francisco. 



Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

jaT Oommunl cations Promptly Attended to. 
OOHB A SONS. Suoceaton to Coan a Bawoar 

July T, 1883.] 


How Tea is Adulterated. 

The New York Tea Appraiser has completed 
the investigation of the cases of teas brought 
to this country by the Flintshire, and found 
that a large proportion of it is grossly adulter- 
ated. He to-day presented his report to the 
Collector, showing that he had rejected 3,100 
packages, Which if sold in the market might 
have there realized about >!-2,000. These teas 
consisted of greens of all colors, sizes and de- 
scriptions, some of which were mixed with 
sand, some with gravel, others composed of 
exhausted leaves, and still others being com- 
posed of dirt and paste rolled into pellets. 
Above five hundred packages of colored Japan 
dust were also rejected on the ground of high 
color and the admixture of mineral substances, 
intended to make the tea heavier in weight. 
This tea was also brought to this country by 
water, on board the Flintshire. 

The Collector and Appraiser of the port of 
St. Louis have forwarded to Davies samples of 
the so-called tea sent to this city by way of San 
Francisco. The examination has clearly shown 
that the stuff was only wild leaves, indiscrim- 
inately collected and dried and sent to this 
country to be palmed off as tea. This was in- 
tended to be sent to a part of the country re- 
mote from the regular markets, and there dis- 
posed of as tea, regardless of the fact whether 
or not it was an injury to consumers. Davies 
said this morning that the new crop now ar- 
riving overland appeared to be of good quality. 

The Bkst Material for. Joists. — It is claim- 
ed by many builders that wood joists, encased 
in plaster, are proof against any ordinary fire, 
and for many reasons are much preferred by 
them to the ordinary regulation fire proof iron 
joists. Strips are attached to the joists, ov(r 
these strips of iron are run, and on these the 
plaster is spread. The theory is that in any 
ordinary fire these joists thus treated will be 
lire proof, and only when the fire has reached 
such a fury that the building must go any way 
will they be affected. Here comes in one of the 
advantages claimed for them. When a building 
is being burned by a furious tire the iron joists 
expand and crush out the walls, and do other 
damage. The wood joists would simply be 
burned up without injuring the walls at all. — 

To Remove the Odor From Petroleum. — 
The disagreeable odor from petroleum or beimne 
may be removed, according to F. Urazer, by 
allowing it to percolate through animal or wood 
charcoal, or by treating it with sodium carbon- 
ate or lead carbonate. Another plan, which is 
recommended, is to employ a solution of bi- 
chromate of potassa, acidified with sulphuric 
acid, with which the benzine is agitated. A 
subsequent washing with water is necessary. 
A simpler plan than any of the above, that we 
recall having seen recommended, is to agitate 
the benzine with milk of lime, freshly prepared, 
which is reported to be very effectual. 

WASTING Oil. — One difficulty with tyros in 
the use of machinery is the wasting of oil by 
its to profuse use. It often happens that a bearing 
will heat when supplied with too much oil that 
will run cool when supplied with the proper quan- 
tity. The reason is that when the lubricator 
is partly worn it becomes sticky : it resists "re- 
moval ; it remains tenaciously between the 
shaft and its bearings ; whereas too much of it, 
usually thin and limpid, serves to "wash the 
bearing," and let the part into closer contact. 

Mental depression , weakness of the muscular system, 
general ill-health, benefited by using Brown's Iron 

Origin - of the Universe. — The well known 
Parisian editor, M. Moigno, has written a paper 
mi the synthesis of the heavens and the earth, 
hi this he makes the deduction that everything 
originated from ether, which first generated 
hydrogen. To an impulsation of ether he at- 
tributes the existence throughout the universe 
of the action of gravitation. 



The Best Spring Medicine and Feautifier of 
the Complexion in use. Cures Pimples, 
Boils, Blotches, Neuralgia, Scrofula, Gout, 
Rheumatic and Mercurial Pains, and all 
Diseases arising from a disordered state of 
the Blood or Liver. 


J. H. GATES c*3 CO. 

417 Sansome St., S. P. 

The High Arm, Light Running 




The Pioneers of Progress, after 37 years' experience, come to the front once more with 


ttrlctlv PIrit-Class in Construction and Appeirance Entirely New, Handsome, Easy 

Running and Durable 


*»- Delivered, freight paid, to any P.. I!. Station or Steamer Landing on the Coast. . 
* X g AGENTS WANTED. Xe Liberal allowances made for old machines m exchange. 



9, 1 1 & 13 First St.. San Francisco, Manufacturers' General Agent. 


The ONLY Cleaner awarded FIRST PREMIUM at the Cali- 
fornia State Fair in 1882, and manufactured only hy 

H. D. Nash & Co., 

No. 906 K St,, Sacramento, Cal. 

Any other Cleaner claiming to he the Nash & Ci'TTS 
will, upon trial, prove to he a fraud. 

The Nash & Cutis Ci.kaxk.k, manufactured by H. D. 
Nash & Co., is fully WARRANTED to 


Our NEW WHEAT GANG OF SIEVES is made of zinc 
and patent rolled wire, and will discount any thing; we have 
ever used heretofore in 

Separating Oats, Barley & Cheat from Barley or Wheat. 

Send for Descriptive Circular to 

H. D. NASH & CO., 

906 K Sireei, - - Sacramenlo, 

Only manufacturers of the Nash & Cutts Grain Cleaner 
in California. 

£3T Also, Cleaners for attaching to Thrashing Machin ~ 


The best and 
nv st com jrfete device 
ever invented to 
hold Sacks while he 
irg filled, to he at- 
tached to Separa- 
tors, Fanning Mills, 
Seed Cleaners, Bar- 
ley Mill*. Feed 
Mills, CornShpllers 
and Flouring Mills; 
also for granaries 
and warehouses, 
saving much time 
and Khor wherever 
sacks are to be 
failed. Drops t h e 
sack instantly when 

I claim the fo'low- 
ing n ints as being 
superior to all 
others ever in- 
vent* d: 1. The 
frame or holder 
moves easily on a 
pivot, so that the 
sa<k, when half full 
or full can be 
shake n up and 
down as much as 
you please to settle 

the grain, without detaching the sack. 2. When it i.s desired to remove the Bask, a simple backward movement instantly 
detaches all the hooks and throws the hoider hick under the chute. 3. One movement of the hands attache* the sack. 
4. One m .venieut of the hands detaches the sack. 5. It is more eisiiy operated than any other. 6. There are no springs 
in its construction. 7. It never gets out of order. 8. It saves all the grain. Threshers and others who have for yean 
spoiled their tempers by the old-fashioned method of trying to hold sacks open by means of sticks, will hail this invention 
with enthusiasm. Agents loanted in every county, Send for Descriptive Circular and Fiice Lists. Address W. E. 
SHELLENBEEQER, or GEO. BULL & CO., 31 'Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Will effectually rid of eeale any steam holler, and, at 
ong as used, prevent its accumulation. EsDecially 
recommended to parties owning THRESHING MA- 
CHINES. Is entirely free from acids, acting as a pre 
servator of ihe iron and a lubricant. Is recommended 
by the "Scientific American" as the best known. Ha* 
been used in the U. S. Mint of San Francisco for the 
past two years. Send all ordors to 


220J McAllister St., - San Francisco 
George Flournoy of the fl of Flournoy, Mhoon it 
Flournoy, Attornsys-at-Liw, bove address. 


Or Two-Wheeled Phaeton. 

Its points of superiority are Easy Riding, Easy Draft, Sim- 
Dliciiy. Neatness, Strength and style of Construction, there 
being no multipli :ty of spring, or other complicated parts to 
get out of order. 

43TIt is fu.eished with Pole a-d Shafts, or Canopy Top; 
As Easy changed as a buggy pole; Six different styles. 


WORKS, Rutherford, Na Pa Co., Cal , by H. UOKTOf, 



1 17 Market Street, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.. 

PAP infringements promptly prosecuted. Rights of Royally 
late i for sale. 

1 AT LAS works i 

Lgj te J^ >.INDIANAPOt.tS. IND.. U. S. A. t 





A Non-Poisonous Preparation for the Pre 
vention and Cure of the SCAB. 

The General Health and Condition of the 
Sheep Promoted by Its Uee. 

Price Reduced to $t per Gallon In 5-ttalIon Pkgs. 
One Gallon makes 00 Gallons or Dip. 

This Specific for Scab is composed princpally of Bui 
pbur and Tobacco, tbe Sulphur being held in .solution by «n 
entire'y new process. It has none of the objectionable fea- 
tures of a Lime and Sulphur I>ip, and iu i s use the grower 
has the benefit of a Sulphur-Tol ac o preparation, without 
the evil t fleets consequent upon the use of lime It is easily 
mixed and applied, requiring no boiling; is ce*tain in erf c; 
is free from poison; will put the »kin in a healthy coudi i .u 
and will improve the character and growth of the vool. 

CFPvit up in one-gallon and five-tallon paok&ges. 



(Formerly (J. E. Williams & Co.) 

Stockton, - - Califor i a 

Carry Engines and Boilers in Slock for Immediate Delivery. 
H. P. GREGORY & CO., Agents, San Francisco, Cal. 


arc sent anywhere on trial to operate ngaii st a 1 
other Presses, the custom- 
er kc ping tlie one th t 
suits best. No one has ever 
dared show up fl' y oilier 
Press, ns Dedcrlck's Press 
known to lie beyond 
. competition, and will bale 
w all t» ICO the rapidity of 
any other. The only way 
J inferior machines can be 
AjZZrzsj sold is to deceive the in- 
experienced by ridiculously 
f lse st dements, and thus 
fell wit hunt sigh tor seeing, 
id swindle the purchaser. 
' Working any other Press 
' alongside of Dcderick's al- 
(wavs si lls the purchaser n 
, y*j Doderick Press, and all 
"■^know It too well to show 
up. Dederick Hay presses and prepurcd Wire lialu 
Ties in stock. Address, for circular, 

Hawley Bros. Hardware Co., S. F. 


CAUTION! — The public are hereby respectfully cau- 
tioned againa t certain inferior articles c.Iled "Electric" 
Trusses, which are being hawked about the country by 
TRUSS, which has been in use nearly ilgh t years, is the 
oi. ii/ genuine Electrc-Magnctic Truss in the world, and 
the only one that will properly reta n a Rupture. Circr.- 
BELT CO., 704 Sacramento St., San Francisco, Cal. 


"Farmers' Headquarters." 


Rates, $1.25 to $2.00. 
Free Coach from all Railroad and Steamboat Stations. 

A. & J. HAHN. Proprietors. 

Gilt Edge Cards, elegM.tlv printed, 10 cents. VAN 
EUSSUM 4 CO., 79 Naawu St., New York, N. Y. 




[July 7, 1883 



Telegraph Institute and Normal School, 

The Practical IiusiiH-s> Traiuitv ScIwhjI of California for 
the young and middle-agi-d of botb 8t*xo«. Excuses are less 
thau oue-lmlf the usual rates. Excellent board in private 
families from :?8 to £10 per month. Courses of Study- Full 
KusiuesB Course, full Normal l 'nurse, Heview Course. Sj>ecial 
fJoOX86B, Tt-achcrs' Course. Preparatory * 'ourse. Telegraphy. 
The "College Journal" will hv sent, jtoKtpaid, to auy address 
F. K. i'L LatJKJU Principal. Stockton. Cal. P. o. Box 15. 


1534 Mission St , San Francisco. 

CM, Boarding & Day School lor Young Men & Boys 

Prepares for College and I'niversitv. For Information, 
a hirevs REV. E. B SPAULDINtf, Rector. 

Hopkins Academy, 


Rev. H.E.Jewett, Principal 


Begins Tuesday, August 7, 1883. 


St. Catherine's Academy, 


Sisters of St. Dominic, 


Terms -Board, Tuition and Washing, ii-'O ™er Annum. 

The Academic Y<ar contists c( one t«rm, 

Commenclnir August 1st. and closing about 
lite ■■■ !<!<! le of June. 

Parents may rest ta'ntled ".hat every attention consist- 
ent with the spirit 01 a llrra hut mild government, will be 
paid to the; of the young ladies pliced at this 
Institution. Lcttors of Ir.qu'ry may be (durcssed to the 


P. 0. Box 490, 

San Jose, Cal. 

First-class. Centrally located. Well equipped. Full 
corps of Teachers. All branches belonging to the modern 
Business College taught. 

£3T Send for Circilar. j*? 


933 Post St., San Francisco. 

Day and Boarding School for Young Ladk ? and Children. 


The next Term will Commence July 18, 1883. 

Mme. B. ZEITSKA, A. M . 



Twenty-Fifth Session Begins 

Wednesday August 1. 18S3. 

. Send for Catalogue. 

A. E. LASHER, A. M„ Principal. 




1 020 Oak Street, - - Oakland, Cal 

Next Term will begin .11 "LY -'.">. 

MISS B. B. B1SBEE. Principal. 



The next term of this well-known Institution will 

commence on 
Wednesday August 1, 18*3, 

For Circulars giving particulars, address 


Mills Seminary P. O., Alameda Co., Cal. 




With full graduating course, and ric|iartmcnts 
of Modem Languages. Music and 
Art. will oonunejioe on 

Thursday August 3, 1883. 

it'' For Catalogues with full partic ulars, for 
adinissIon/Mldresfj k 
Rkv. 1,-DELOS M AN8FIEM), A. M. , M 


Berkeley, Cal. 


For Catalogues or other information, address S. S. 
HAKMdX, Berkeley, Cal., or E. J. Wicksox, 414 Clay- 
Street, San Francisco. 



Greatest Economy with Perfect 
Simplicity in Operation. 

Manageable Range of Heat from 130 to 
220 or more Degrees. 


No Sweltering of Fruit in its Moisture 


No Poisonous Sulphur Bleaching Needed. 


The Flavor and all the Peculiarities of 
Fresh Fruit Retained 

Fruit Trays, Fruit Presses and Ladders 

• in Hand and Made to Order. 
H, For t'uici laks and Information, Address 


Proprietor Ely-Meeker Sun Fruit Drier, 

Fifth and Bryant Sts., - San Francisco. 

Summer Resorts. 



Cheapest, Most Efficient and Economical 
Boiler in use ! 


lhis Generator is now in use by a large number of 
farmere and cheese makers, and in connection with 


Ha9 SL'PERSLDED all others where it his been uacc. 


Never fails to kill all varmints when properly set. 
Price $2.50. 

Woolsey's Improved LAWN SPRINKLER. 

Cheapen and best in use. Price $5. 

For further particulars, address the Inventor and 


Gllroy, Hal. 

m > Good land that will raise a crop ever} 

II All § year, oyer 13,000 acres for sale in lot* to 
U 111 I I suit. Very deairabli Fruit, Cine, Grain, 
LnllU Vegetable, Hay, and Pasture Land, 
Near Kailroad ami Bacramento river; i.'l to :<30 per acre. 
Wood and water convenient. C. S. Title perfect. Send 
stamp for illustrated circular, to EDWARD FKISBIK, 
Proprietor of Heading Ranch, Anderson, Shasta Co. , Cal. 

/Etna Hot Mineral Springs 

nsrcrw open. 

Situated 10 miles east of St Helena, in Pope Valley, 
Napa County. 
These waters closely resemble the Ems of Germany In 
analysis and salutary effect 

Board and Baths, $10 per Week. 
The I t: i Springs 8tage will leave St. Helena daily 
(Sundays exc pted), at If. t, connecting with the 8 A » 
train from Han Francisce, ana arrive at the Springs at 5.30 
r. M. Ajip'y for rooms and pamphlets to 

\\ . B L1DELL, 
Udell Port Offlc", Napa County, Cal. 

Highland Springs 


Lake County, 



Having purchased the entire interest in this )1 autre 
resort (which ia unsurpatEcd iD scenery, climate and 
variety of mineral w„tjrs in America or Europe— tie 
waters guaranteed to relieve all diseases am nable to 
treatment by mineral waters), ercc.ed new cottages, and 
secured the services of Mrs. E. H. Worth, of S.n Fran- 
cisco, as mation, we hone to give satisfaction to our 
patrons. Telephone connects with Telegraph oltioe at 
Ke'sey ville. Post Office and Wells, Fargo .v. Cu 'a Express 
Office at the Hotel. Fish and wild game in abundance. 
Teams and saddle horses to le*. at reasonable rate*. Good 
hotel and cottage accommodations. Board per d»,v, 92; 
per week, $10 to $14, including baths. 

Koi ti!.— Take boat at Market Street wharf, San Fran- 
cisco, at 7:5 A. M , via Sin Ra'ael to Clovcrdale, thence by- 
Stage direct to Springs in alt •moon of same day ; Of take 
boat at Market Street wharf on Tuesdays, Tliurcdays 
and Saturdays at 8 A u., via Oakland, Napa, to C-listoga, 
thence by stage to Kelseyville, where private conveyance 
is in readiness for Springs lane day. Fare, single ticket, 
16.25; round trip, 111 50. 


Sole Proprietor. 

Analysis of three out of 25 Springs at High- 
land Springs, Lake County, Cal. 

Names of Springs Skuzer .... Di'Tcu .... Magic. 

Temperature 04.8° F 70.5" F. . s-2 i- F 

gr. per gr per. gr. per 

gal. gal. gal. 

Chloride of Sodium 0.723 1.862 1.290 

Bicarbonate of Soda 12.796 18.348 21.763 

Bicarbona'e of Potash 0.489 0.770 0.644 

Bicubonateof Lime 52.045 67.302 60.411 

Bicarbonate of Magnesia. . . 34 . S72 67.634 70.243 

B'rarbonate of Icon 1.267 1.311 1.087 

Bicarbonate < f Manganese. . trace trace trace 

Silica 5 245 7.126 7.398 

Alumiia 1.565 0.117'tl 

Org»nic Matter. trace trace trace 

Free Carbonic Acid 100.250 87.822 74.46S 

Total 809.252 242.321 227.367 

Analyzed by W. B Rising, Profesior of Chemistry, 
L'niversitv of California. B rke ley, June 2, 18S2. 

Clear Lake and Calistoga 
Stage Line, 

Carrying U. S. Mail and Wells, Fargo & Co s 
Express. . 

San Francisco to Lakeport 

In 11 Hours. 

I'asst n^crs lca\ e San l-'ram-isco daih l>\ Fern Hue from 
Market street wharf at S.i, M. , arriving at Calistoga at 
11:1.', v. «. Coaches leave Calistoga at 12 M. daily (Sun- 
days eXOdptedX On Tuesdays, Thursdays anil Saturdays, 
leave Calistoga for Lakeport via Middletoun, GlenbfOOR, 
Kelsevville and Soda Bav, returning alternate davs. Th s 
Is the Mi is'!' DIRECT LINK from sa.n FRANCISCO to 
LAKF.roRT, and the most picturesque and romantic route 
on the Coast. From Mt. St. Helena it affords the traveler 
a beautiful view of the far-famed Napa and Russian lti\er 
Valleys and mountains of the Coast Range; and from Cobb 
Mountain, the great Clear Lake region in front, and the 
Pacific in the distanee. This line connects with stages for 
BAV. on Mondays, WiOiiosrlMi'g ■till Friday stages leave 

Calistoga at 12 M.' for M I DDI.EI'i >W\. lil'ENOO, LOWER 
LAKE and SULPHUR BANK, returning alternate davs. 
This line connects at Lower Lake with stages for Seigler, 
Howard, Adams and the celebrated BAKTLKTT SPRINGS. 
These lines are STOCKED wi th SLX-HQRSE CONCORD 
COACHES, and handled by the most careful and experi- 
enced drivers. 

Tickets for sale in Lakeport, at W. W. Greene's Hotel, 
John Clark, Agent; Kelseyville, at Wells, Fargo At Co.'s 
office, A. A. Slocum, Agent; at C. Pi It. It. office, Market 
Street wharf, also at No. 2 New Montgomery Street. San 
Francisco, Sain. Miller. Agent. Hound trip tickets from 
Lakeport to San Francisco and return, *12. Single trip 
tickets, 16.50. 

Passengers for SODA BAY \ ia Calistoga, purchase the 
Lakeport ticket for *6.50. Fare to Lakeport, Kelscyiille 
and Sisla Bay all the same. 

W. F. FISHER. Proprietor. 

Callsloj-*. Cal. 

2,000,000 GRAIN BAGS 


Grain and Hops Sold and' Bought on Commissiofi. 

SAM l EL PHILLIPS, Member of Grain Exchange, 
Room 19 Stock Exchange Building, : : Pine St., S. F- 

Commission Merchants. 

Grangers Business Association, 


No 38 California St. SAN FRANCISCO. 

Consignments of GRAIN, WOOL, DAIRY PRODUCE, 
Dried Fruit, Live Stock, Etc., solicited, and liberal ad- 
vances made on the same. 

Careful and prompt attention paid to oid>ra for the 
purchasing of Grain and Wool Sacks, Wagons, Agricul- 
tural Implements, Provisions. Merchandise and Supplies 
of all kinds. 

Warehouses and Wharf, 

At "THE GRANGERS,'" Oontr* Coeta Co. 

Grain rsciivid oh storaoi , for shipmxrt ajtd for 
sals on coksionbrkt. Insurance effected and liberal ad- 
vances made at lowest rates. Farmers may rely on 
their grain being closely and carefully weighed, and on 
having their other interests faithfully attended to. 


* I.IMIill 



Late Miller a Co. 



(Successors to MILLER a CO..) 
It D tvl, si . n*sr Market. San Francisco 

Personal attention f^iven to all sales, and to filling any 
orders for 


And Otber Ranch Supplies. 


Commission Merchants 

And Dealers in 

Green and Dried Fruits, 

Grain, Wool, Hides. Beans. Potatoes. 
404 & 406 DAVIS STREET, 

P. O. Box 1986 SAN FRANCISCO. 






Wholesale Grooers, 




Front Street Block bet. Clay a Washington. San Franc! ao 
tM~ Special attention given to country traders. JH 
P. O. Box 1940- 



(Successors to J. W. GALE a CO..) 

Fruit and General Commission Merchants, 

And Wholesale Deal<>r« Id CVifornU and Oreeon Produce, 
Also, Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans, Potatoes, Cheese, Kggs, 
Butter and honey. 

RimaIs Q+nnoc No. 402 Davis Street, and 
Drll/K OlUlco- 120 Washingrton Sc., a. F. 

Prompt KeturuB. Adranoe Libermlly on Consign men U. 


Grain, Flour, Wool, Etc. 

[Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange] 
ail and 218 Clay St., S. P. 
sW Liberal advances made on Consignments 

DAVI8 & 8UTT0N. 

No. 7ft Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

Ripsrihobs.— Tradesmen's National Bank, N. T.; Kit- 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y.; C. W. Reed Sacra- 
mento. Cal.; A. Lnsk s Co.. San Francisco. Cal. 

J. E. SnooBE st. H. W. Woodwabd. Tevxtus Bkalk 


Wool Commission Merchants 

And Agents for the sale of all kinds of Lire Stock. Ad- 
vances made on Consignments. 

405 Montgomery 8t., SAN FRANCISCO 

Stock Yards, South San Francisco 

July 7, 1883.] 


Meeting of the State Horticultural 

The regular .1 une meeting of the State Horti- 
cultural Society was held at No. 40, California 
street, June 30th, Vice-President, A. F. Hatch, 
in the chair. 

A. B. Provines, of Cloverdale, was elected a 
regular membei, Messrs. A. H. Wehband John 
A. Little, of Oakland, and A. T. Perkins, of Ala- 
meda, were proposed for membership. 

The Secretary announced publications re- 
ceived from the Chief Signal Officer at Washing- 
ton, also prospectuses of a new work on orchard 
insects by M. Cooke, late Chief Executive 
Officer of Sacramento. 

The Society returned a vote of thanks to W. 
IJ. .lessup, of Haywards, for the donation of 
a handsome blackboard for the use of the 

Quality of Canned Fruit. 

The Secretary read the following from Leon- 
ard Coates, of Napa: 

Canning or APKIGOTS..— The Riverside Horti- 
culturist has received the following from Brockton, 
Mass.: Much harm is done to the apricot business 
by the manner in which the fruit is frequently put up 
for the Eastern market. It is well known that there 
can hardly be found a more delicious fruit than the 
apricot, as we find it in Riverside and vicinity, but 
when cans are opened here, in a great many in- 
stances, and from complaints which I hear, it seems 
that in a majority of cases, the fruit is so poor that 
it is considered unfit for the table. The general 
complaint is that the fruit is too green to be palat- 
able. I have never heard a complaint that the fruit 
was too ripe, or that it is found broken in conse- 
quence of over ripeness. It is of great moment to 
apricot growers, that as the fruit is being introduced 
into our markets east of the Rocky mountains, it 
should be of the best quality. If good fruit could 
Ik- universally found here the consumption of apricots 
would increase a hundredfold almost immediately. 
There are two canneries in southern California 
whose fruit is invariably good, and these brands 
find a ready market at high prices. It might be so 
with all. 

The above clipping from the San Francisco 
Bulletin, scarcely needs any comment. But the 
question is of such a vital nature, that it be- 
hooves all interested in horticulture to probe it 
to the bottom. The grape-growers of Napa, 
not long since, took very active measures in 
denouncing the practice, and making public the 
names of those who were found to use glucose in 
the manufacture of their wines, or to otherwise 
adulterate it, thereby tending to destroy the 
reputation of the purity of California produc- 
tions. No less culpable is the action of those 
canners who will persist in using such fruit as 
is referred to above. The State Horticultural 
Society should take this matter up, and like the 
St. Helena grape-growers, not hesitate from 
any false feelings of delicacy , to proclaim publicly 
the names of those who resort to these prac- 
tices, which are so detrimental to the prosper- 
ity of the State. 

Some fruit of a Vacaville brand was opened 
in my presence a short time ago. This brand, 
winch was very elaborate, proclaimed the fruit 
to be "cherries." It was not "cherries," and 
it was sometime before we could decide what 
it was. By arguing negatively, that it was 
not plum, or peach, etc., and from the pit, we 
concluded that it was apricot. It had no flavor 
or color of the apricot, was no larger than a 
small plum, and had been put up perfectly 
green. What excuse could there be for this? 

In going over one of the largest canneries in 
the State, in the vicinity of the bay, I saw last 
year, the same kind of trash being used. 

Will the fruit growers of California allow 
the reputation of their fruits to be ruined, that 
a half a do/en canners, be they "combinations" 
or individuals, may get rich '! 

It is gratifying to see that a better class of 
fruit is being put up in southern California. 
For their own interests, as' well as for the 
interests of the State, may they continue in 

A Committee and Its Report. 

After discussion, in the course of which Mr. 
WCbster remarked that some action should also 
be taken to show that the society was also op- 
posed to the marketing of poor fruit by the 
growers, it was decided, upon motion, to ap- 
point a committee to prepare resolutions on the 
subject. The chair appointed Messrs. Coates, 
Webster and Jessup. After due deliberation 
the committee reported as follows: 

WHEREAS, Many complaints are heard from the 
East, and among our consumers and dealers in Cali- 
fornia canned fruits, of inferiority in quality; and 
whereas, it is to the interest of both raiser and part- 
ner that the reputation of our fruits should be jeal- 
ously guarded; therefore, be it 

Resolved, By this society that the marketing of in- 
ferior and unripe fruits by the grower and the can- 
ning of like qualities by the canning establishments 
of this State, should be and is hereby condemned by 
this society as ruinous to the fruit interests of Cali- 

Resolved, That the practice among canning estab- 
lishments of this State of putting up inferior and un- 
ripe fruits and labeling them with false brands, is 
hereby condemned and those engaged in this dis- 
reputable practice should be exposed. And further, 
we earnestly urge upon all fruit growers the im- 
portance of greater care in the pruning of their trees 
and thining out the fruit when small, on overbearing 
trees, to the end that a better quality maybe assured. 
— T. V. Webster, Wm. H. Jessup, Leonard Coates 
■ — "committee. 

The motion to adopt the report of the com- 
mittee led to some discussion. 

Mr. West stated that the fact of there being 

40,000 cases of canned apricots on hand would 
be a good lesson to the canners, but also thought 
that much blame attaches to the growers. 

0. B. Shaw stated that unripe Hungarian 
prunes had been canned to represent the yel 
low egg plums, and Isaac Collins said it was 
being done this year. 

W. H. Jessup stated that canners are in the 
habit of calling for unripe and improper fruit, 
which they intended to sell as the best. He 
had sold sixty tons, by order, of unripe Hunga- 
rian prunes, which he said his hogs would not 
eat. He added that by selling green fruit the 
grower loses twenty per cent of the weight, 
which he would have if the fruit was left to 
ripen. In the same connection, Judge Black 
wood, who had lately visited the Fast, said 
that while there he had purchased some Cali- 
fornia canned apricots, which he found to be 
hard and the syrup tasteless, necessitating both 
cooking and sweetening before they were pala- 
table. He also stated that there was much 
complaint in the Fast that the California raisins 
were not sufficiently dried. Dealers in Detroit 
will not handle them, as they will not keep. 
The packing and grading are good, but the rai- 
sins, which may keep through fall and winter, 
will always sour by spring. Judge Blackwood 
proposed the following resolution: 

Resolved, That those interested in the production 
of raisins should take greater care in drying and fit- 
ting then] for the market than they have done 

The resolution was added to the list above, 
and the whole was adopted. 

Some discussion ensued on the drying of 
raisins, by Mr. Blowers, Mr. Hixon, and others, 
the sense of all speakers being that there would 
be no trouble in making raisins with keeping 
qualities if the grapes were properly and suffi- 
ciently cured, and then put in sweat boxes be- 
fore packing for market. 

Chestnut Growing. 

Mr. West, of Stockton, said he knew of sev- 
eral different orchards of Spanish chestnuts 
where the trees were doing well. Mr. Cooper 
reports his trees bearing well at Santa Barbara. 
He had heard of prolific single trees here and 
there on the foothills. In the valleys he thought 
the conditions not favorable to the chestnut. 
He suggested that more time be given to look 
up the facts on the growth of chestnuts. 

On motion, the subject was laid aside for the 
next meeting, and G. P. Rixford and Mr. West 
requested to prepare a review of the subject. 

Diseases of the Peach Tree. 

The secretary read the following: 

E. J. WlCKSON, Secretary State Horticultural 
Society: — I am sorry that I cannot be with you at 
your next meeting, as 1 am very much interested in 
the peach tree. I have about twelve acres of them. 
In my orchard there is a granite rock, and about the 
rock has been the camping or dwelling place of 
Indians. The hard granite is "scooped" out in 
many places, some holes being eight or ten inches 
deep and as smooth as glass. At this " camp" the 
made soil is two to three feet dee]), very black when 
wet and of a dull gray when dry. About this twenty- 
five or thirty of the trees do not do well. The leases 
are about one quarter the usual size, the trees fruit 
but little, and that little very small and of poor 
quality, ripening four to five weeks liter then other 
tre es in the same row. The row s of four varieties of 
peaches cross this place and all act alike. 1 planted 
two or three apricots there; they make a fair growth 
in the spring, and their second growth is very sim- 
ilarly affected. Some of the peach trees, where they 
have been bruised or pruned exude a reddish guni, I 
would like to know the cause of this trouble and the 

I bought some apricot trees at San Bernardino 
three years ago and some at Los Angeles two years 
ago that gum badly, while those of my own propaga- 
tion do not gum at all. A few of those that gum tin- 
worst make the strongest growth. Is this trouble- 
likely to kill the trees, and is there a remedy? 

San Diego, Cal. J. M. AsHEK. 

The society heard the letter with interest but 
could not assign any cause for the phenomenon. 

In introducing the discussion on peach tree 
diseases, Mr. J. Shinn remarked that facts seem 
to indicate that peach-tree diseases are spreading 
and new ones appearing; He considered, how- 
ever, the leaf curl and the mildew, the two seri- 
ous diseases, and it is a fact that they do not at- 
tack all varieties. Some varieties curl so badly 
that a crop does not come once in three years. 
These varieties should not be planted, but those 
which curl but little should be chosen. There 
are enough of these to make a succession of fruit 
from early to late. As to mildew, those varie- 
ties which have no glands on the leaf stem and 
are serrate-leaved, are sure to mildew nine times 
out of ten. These sorts seem lacking in consti- 
tutional vigor, and are consequently subject to 
mildew. '1 hese varieties which have well-form- 
ed glands on the leaf stems and do not have ser- 
rate leaves will not mildew except they be neg- 
lected or otherwise abused. We must plant a 
line of peaches which have glands and which 
are not subject to leaf curl. 

A New Peach Disease. 

Mr. West exhibited specimens of a new 
peach disease, which first appeared in the rich 
district near the Mokelumne river, and has 
now extended to the vicinity of Lodi and 
Stockton. Thousands of trees have died. The 
gum first exudes from the bark even of the 
small twigs. Mr. West thought it was caused 
by curl-leaf or following an attack of curl-leaf. 
Mr. West spoke also of the damage done by 
knots appearing on the roots. This disease is 
quite widespread. 

Mr. Collins thought the gum disease was ow- 
ing to excess of water, either naturally of by ir- 
rigation, and that the knots in the roots were 
caused by some ingredient in the soil which 

was injurious to the root. He thought the soil 
should be analyzed. 

Erastus Kelsey, of Merced Falls, said that 
peaches in his district sometimes curled, but 
never enough to lose a crop. 

Mr. Coates, of Napa, said the curl was gen- 
erally quite bad in his district, but a few 
varieties were exempt. Hale's Farly always 
brings fruit and next best is the Farly Craw- 
ford. Nearly all other varieties will lose a 
crop sometimes by curled leaf. He thought 
more fertilizers should be used. Wood 
ashes and bone meal he considered good. 

Mr. Collins, of Haywards, said his Salways 
lost all their leaves this spring, but new leaves 
came, also a fair amount of fruit. He thought 
proper drainage the greatest need of the peach. 
He has trees growing by the bank of the creek, 
and they curl but very little. The roots are 
about two feet above the water in the winter. 

Rev. Mr. Perkins, of Alameda, cited the case 
of a tree in his yard, on sandy, well-drained 
soil. He had heard that soapsuds would cure 
it. He applied hot soapsuds to the tree for 
four Mondays in succession, and the tree has 
experienced a wonderful renewal of foliage. 

Some members said they thought the tree 
would have renewed its foliage withe ut the 
soapsuds, but the application was undoubtedly 
good for the peach tree on general principles. 

Mr. Hatch told of an old peach tree which 
he had grafted over with Farly Crawford, and 
since then it had not curled. He prunes it 
heavily and applies ashes. 

Dr. Gibbon thought the curl-leaf was due to 
an exuberance of growth followed by a cold 

Black-Cap Raspberries. 

B. D. T. Clough, of Niles, showed a hand- 
some tray of black-cap raspberries, which were 
tested by all present. Mr. Clough remarked 
that the berries themselves refuted the claims 
that this fruit cannot be grown here, but 
whether it would be a profitable culture or not, 
is a question. 

The subjects for the next meeting will be 
"Chestnut Crowing," by Mr. Rixford and Mr. 
W est, and "Cranberry Growing," by Mr. Klee. 

Singular Explosions. A singular accident 

and one of a somewhat alarming character re- 
cently occurred at one of the ironworks estab- 
lishments in Middlesboro, England. A large 
slag ball was taken from one of the furnaces 
and tipped over upon the slag heap when it in- 
stantly exploded. Three large pieces of the 
half molten slag were thrown high into the air, 
and,' in falling, crushed through the roof of the 
railway station near by, falling in the imme 
diate vicinity of several passengers waiting for 
the train. The query naturally arose how was 
the explosion produced '! Another equally sing- 
ular explosion is reported as having recently oc- 
curred at Lancaster, Texas, where a bin con- 
taining about :{,0()0 bushels of cotton seed re- 
cently exploded, as supposed, from the genera 
tion of e.-i-sc-s. 


At the Point of Death. 

A clergyman in Smith Haven, Mich., who 1 
greatly benefited by Compound Oxygen, ami who 1ms 
u-eil his influence to induce others to try it, writes as 
follows: "An elderly lady here, who is now able to see 
to her household affairs, was long at the point of death 
From Consumption. A day Or two since she walked out 
a distance of four blocks. All are expressing surprise 
concerning lier recovery. The Oxygen is doing more for 
these eases than all the physicians." Our Treatise on 
< i >u 1 1 ii n i in 1 Oxygen, containing large reports of eases and 
full information, sent free. Address Dks. Stakkky & 
Palen, 1109 and mi Qiratd St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

A1J orders for the Compound Oxygen Home Treatment 
directed to H. K. Mathews, mm Montgomery street, San 
FraneiscO] will be filled on the same terms as it sent, 
directly tons in Philadelphia. 

Covering Fabrics With a Film ok Tin. — 
A recent French process consists in permeating 
fabrics with a solution of tin. A mixture of 
zinc powder and dissolved albumen is first made, 
and spread over the fabric with a brush, and, 
after drying, the stuff is passed first through 
superheated steam, then through a solution of 
chloride tin. In this way an exceedingly thin 
layer of tin is spread over the whole side of the 
fabric, which is thus rendered waterproof, and 
protected against ordinary rough usage. 

Complimentary samples op this paper are 
occasionally sent to parties connected with the 
interests specially represented in its columns. 
Persons so receiving copies are requested to 
examine its contents, terms of subscription, and 
give it their own patronage, and, as far as 
practicable, aid in circulating the journal, and 
making its value more widely known to others, 
and extending its influence in the cause it faith- 
fully serves. Subscription rate, $3 a year in 
advance. Extra copies mailed for 10 cents, if 
ordered soon enough. Personal attention will 
lie called to this (as well as other notices, at 
times, ) by turning a leaf. 

Imi'Ortant additions are being continually made in 
Woodward's Gardens. The grotto walled with aquaria if 
constantly receivi ig accessions of new fish and other marine 
life. The number of sea lions is increased, and there is a 
better chance to study their actions The pavilion has new 

varieties of performances. The floral department is replete, 

and the *»ild animals in good vigor. A day at Woodward*! 
Gardfena is a day well spent. 

To lv ■ i.i. Flier and Othhb Annoying Insbcts "Buhach,' 
California grown Insect Powder, is a never-failing remedy 
Sold by Druggists and Grocers everywhere. 

Over 180,000 Howe Scales Sold— Hawley 
Pros.' Hardware Co., General Agents, San 

Dewey & Co., American and 
Foreign Patent Agents, 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent Reissues taken out ; 
Assignments made and recorded in legal form ; 
Copies of Patents and Assignments procured ; 
Examinations of Patents made here and at 
Washington; Examinations made of Assign- 
ments recorded in Washington; Examinatio n s 
ordered and reported by Telegraph; Rejected 
cases taken up and Patents obtained; Inter- 
ferences Prosecuted; Opinions rendered re- 
garding the validity of Patents and Assign- 
ments; Every legitimate branch of Paten 1 . 
Soliciting promptly and thoroughly con- 

Our intimate knowledge of the various inven- 
tions of this coast, and long practice in patent 
business, enable us to abundantly satisfy our 
patrons; and our success and business are 
constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals — 
thereby facilitating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secure, 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Baden, Peru, 
Russia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Denmark, 
Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemburg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Granada, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
where Patents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European countries, 
but the drawings and specifications should be 
prepared with thoroughness, by able persons 
who are familiar with the requirements and 
changes of foreign patent laws — agents who 
are reliable and thoroughly established. 

Our schedule price for obtaining foreign patents, 
in all cases, will always be as low, and in 
some instances lower, than those of any other 
responsible agency. 

We can and do get foreign patents for inventois 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country) 
sooner than other agents. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. We are familiar 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more correctly judge of the 
value and patentability of most inventions dis- 
covered here than any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the seat of government, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than to applicants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents may be 
lost by extra time consumed in transmitting 
specifications from Eastern agencies back to 
this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

We take great pains to preserve secrecy in 
all confidential matters, and applicants for 
patents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions will be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars of in- 
formation to inventors, free. 

Home Counsel. 

Oar long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the invention; 
already patented; hence we are frequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing to them the san e 
thing already covered by a patent. We an; 
always free to advise applicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applicants 
which will interfere with their obtaining a 

We invite the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men ia 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short call 
at our office. 

K ivnittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the Government, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not only lost their money, 
their inventions also, from this cause and con- 
sequent delay. We hold ourselves responsii le 
for all fees entrusted to our agency. 


W j h?ve juperior artists in our employ, and 
all facilities for producing tine and sa*is r a ;tory 
''lustrations of inventions and machinery, for 
newspaper, book, circular and other printed il- 
lustrations, and are always ready to assist 
patrons in bringing their valuable discoveries 
into practical and profitable use. 


United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining and Scientific Press and Pacific 
Rural Press, 252 Market Street. Elevator.. 
12 Front St., S. F. 



[July 7, 1883 

Lands for Sale and to Let 


Land and Town Co. 

offers for Sale, in Tracts to Suit, 

50.000 ACEES 

Of the Choicest Fruit Lands in Southern Caiifon la. 
Also deBirable lots in 


The Pacific Coast Terminus of the Southwestern Trans- 
continental Railway System. Lots and I/inds sold on 
S IX YEARS CREDIT. Special inducements to Colonists. 

Long Credit! Low Prices! Easy Terms! 

For Maps and full particulars call on or address 

CHAS. L. HARRIS, Superintendent 

National City. Cal. 


The most delightfully situated colony in 
Southern California. 

Remarkably healthy, being 2,000 feet above 
the sea level. 

Wholly devoted to fruit culture, and espe- 
cially adapted to oranges and raisins. 

Advantages of church, school, store, depot, 
hotel, stage line, telegraph ami telephone. 

Illustrated Circulars on Application. 






sffifc. I mil.- from Madera Railroad Station, Fresno Co.; 

fmgC i iir.iiroin Fresno Canal; 12U acres planted in 
-i foreign grape vines \. years old -Gordo 
Blaneo, < harbono, Burger, Zinfandel, flulle Blanche, 
Trousseau, Maturo, Vcrdal and Muscatel. 
Also, Orchard of 1.000 Apricot Trees, 

And Xursery with 250,000 Prime Orafe C til/iugs. 
Tlie property could not he in finer order, and when the 
vines come into bearing, should paj for itself in t«oor 
three seasons. Jf 1'riee, s20,mm. 

Agricultural, Grazing and Timber Lands, 

Improved Farms, Orchards and Vineyards for sale in vari- 
ous counties throughout the Staff. 

jyt'irculars on application, for full particulars, ap- 

P ' 5 l ° ROBERT WALK1SSHAW, Real Estate Atrcnt, 
40; .Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 



And Tract. 

Over 1200 acres choice Fruit and Vineyard 
Land; fc>5 acres in bearing Vineyard, 20 
acres bearing Orange Orchard. 
20 acres Peaches, Apricots, 
Pears, Walnuts, etc. 
Water Right sufficient for entire tract. The tract Joint 
Redlands on the east, Old Sa» Bernardino on the west 
and Lugonia on the north A large portion consists of 
the "Red Soil," pronounced the finest in the Stale for 
fruit cult-ire. Climate equal to any in Southern Cali- 
fornia. Railroad depot (Brokside) on 3. P. R. R. about 
a mile and a quarter from ranch house. Will be sold as 
a whob or in tracts to suit, on easy terms. 

For particulars apply to the owner, on the premises, 
or address him at San Bernardino Postothce. 




Kxtra Quality Rndless Belts, Steam find 
SucTon Hose, Air. Oil and Brewers 
Hose Car Springs, Valves, 
Uasfcets. Etc.. Etc 


R. H. PEASE, Jr., ) AaK ». T , 
;Uf!YOX, I " » 

S. M. RU 
f 77 St blU MARKE 

Berry & Place Machine Company, 

DA X> \TXP T A f'V I ] _ . . 

PARKE St LACY Proprietors. 

No. 8 California Street, 

San Francisco, OaJ 

importers and Dealers in every Variety of 


Stationary, Portable and Hoisting Engines and Boilers. 


Shingle Mills, Emery Grinders and Emery Wheels, Gardner Governors, Leather 
and Rubber Belting and Packing, together with a general line 
of Mining and Mill Supplies. 
ttt Cataloeuea and Price Lists famished on application. Jgm 




Vice President .,n.t C.n.ial -Manager tiEORCE W. FR1NK 

.Secretary F. B WILDE 

W. P HABER, Correspondent, Fresno. 

EASTON & ELDRIDCE. Auctioneers. 

22 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 



Sub Agencies at Each County Seat of the State. 


7,000 Acres of Choice Irrigated Vineyard, Fruit and Alfalfa Lands 

Within THREE .MILES of the FlonrisliiiiK Town of 

IB 11 JEFC ES s nxr o, 



.11 LV 7, 1883, 

I'UKR, H. M. 


PreenoOUy, Ki 

! Will sell at Aueto 

EJbeiml UrettH 

Ten Sections of the Choicest Vine, Fruit and Alfalfa Land in the State. 

JdiniiiK fche Fresno mnl Central Colonies, ami being part of the Hank of California tract. Also, sertion -J.*., township 
16 south, ramru BO 6Mt a ver\ ohoioe traet, selected from a large body of laml. 

The land it* level, slightly Inclining towards the west; free from brush, alkali ami other impediment;*. The soil 
is a rieh sand\ loam, of yreat fertility, and will stand free irrigation without hakiiiK- 

The climate is as tine ami healthy as can he found in the world: no fever and ajruc or other malarious disease. 
Kor throat or lung complaints, the dry air of this section always relieves, and often cures. Kor invalids seeking 
health the merchant, mechanic or DTOfeOOlonflJ man, who i- tired of the constant strain and ilnnh/er> Of city life 
this county offers a QJbVeuof rest. Here is every element necessary for the establishment of attracti\c, enjoy feblfl and 
profitable homes. 

Tlie SYSTKM OF IRRIGATION is such that each owner of land will he ahle to take water from a main canal on 
his own land. 

Also, the WASHINGTON COLONY CHEESE FACTORY is a substantial adobe baildfns;, constructed on lotas 
for the purposes Ofl cheese making, and built hy day's work. Tliis huildin^ is w id I suited to factory purposes, or would 
make a tine wine cellar, or fruit dry er, or cannery , which are necessities in the vicinity including Cottage with 10 
acres and water right. 



Kxcursioii Trains will leave San Francisco at 9:30 a. m. and 4 p. m. for Fresno City. Tickets for the BBCUfsfanl 
will he on sale at San Francisco, Oakland, Stockton, Sacramento, Lathrop and of Pacific Coast Kami Bureau, 
Ban Prafwiseo. Tickets lorlhe Hound Trip, S7— good for nine ilays. 

Most Litoeral Terms ! 

TITLK l'KHFK<T. One-fourth cash; tia lance in one, two and three years; interest, eight per cent per annum. 

;r For farther details, catalogues and maps, apply to the _ 


W. P HABER. : : : : : : : : : Fresno, Cal. 

ST., San Fraucleco | 

To Farmers and Stocltmcn 

You well know me vinue of our B. K. 11 Home Liniment. It has been used for years Ihroiurliout the entire 

Pacific Coat.., and has found without an cqua! as a Liniment for man and beast. We have now added to 

our list of medicines lie H. H. H Hoof and Healing Ointment," and the "H. H. II Comlluon Powders." No 
■teak raiser, once having used ou 1- medicines, will ever be without Ihem in the house. For sale everywhere. 

We: H. H. H.lMart Trade ;H. H. H.;Marlc Tradel-H. H. H. : Mark 

Hoof and Healing Ointment HORSE LINIMENT. Condition Powders, 

For llrittlp Hoi.fV, 
Fever in Feet, 

i 'nutracted Hoow, 

Q tarter Crack.-, 
Collar Cialls, 
Harness Clalis, 
Mud Fever, 
Kto., Ktc. 

H, H. 

Sole Proprietors. 

Tbe moBt effectual liniment 
ever used for 
Callous Lumps, 
Old Sores, 
Stiff Joints, 

Wiodgalls, Kto. 


Sole Proprietors. 

For I u ward strains, 
H ide Bound, 
Loss of Appetite, 
Yellow Water 
Poll Evil, 
Colds, Kto. 


Sole Proprietors. 





Hay, Stock, Portable Platform, 
Butter and Counter Scales, 
Trucks, etc., 



Fairbanks & Hutchinson, 

No. 401 Market St . San Francisco. Cal. 

Hale's Perfect Mole Trap ! 


Ground Moles or Gophers 

In Lawns, Parks, Gardens and Cemeteries. 

Tmih in warranted to U the 
I" -r am) most Lxjinph'U* Molt* 
Trap ever invented, and m 
-nperior t«» nil others in the 
following reMjiectM: 

t >\\ tug to the arran^enictiN 
for bolofng the iqiriag. it la 

BsWior >et than RAJ other 


Tlie construction of the 
1 1 up h lOCO that it will caU-h 
uiolea v\ ben quite deep in the 

Ilu- jMiintw of the piiiH Ih*- 

Lnn OOOftafltl) in Um ground, 
it cannot catch or injure lit 

lit chickens or ain tlouiestie 

Cannot he blown mvr by 
the rind, or injured in an\ 
manner DJ rain or HRMVL 

4'annot "startle" or injure 
the operator bj springing 
while heiiijf s»-t; and hein^ 
made entirely of metal, ean 

not warp, twist or gat out of 


11m ground not beinf <H*> 

pOrbed in an> \\&\ , it ean be 
setxerv close tosmall plautx 
or Mowers without injuring 

There being no pin or other 
ohstriK-tioii )>rojeeting into 
the run, there is nothing to 
disturb or Frighten the mole 
until caught. 

1-tT Full direction* for setting sent, with each trap.**/*, 

Price, $2 75 Each. 


ffholewls siiil Krtail Dealer In flssds, rlortiourtaml Tools, 

tirecnlioiiHc S\ rinirvs, vU\ 

317 Washington St. San Francisco. 

A new m*n- 
Ufkl aod r«f- 
ereucs book 
on all sub- 
jects con- 

ected with successful Poultry snd Stock nisiD? on ths 
Pacific Coast. A New Edition, over 100 pages, profusely 
illustrated, with handsome, life-l'.ke illustrations of tbe 
different varieties of poultry and lire stock. Price by 
mail, 60 cents. Address PACIFIC RURAL PRESS Of. 
fire. Sar. Franclnfn January. 1882 

Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and prices on application to 

Baden Station - - Ran Mateo Co. 

The Mexican Colonization Company. 

acres of the tin. -t farming lands in Mrxico, State of Chiapas. 
District Socomlsco, now opened for settlers. No better for 
cotfee, sugar can*>, corn, tobacco, indigo, rice grass, and 
bence stock of all k iods, as Hell as a great variety of fruit, 
vegetables, etc Tbe climate is healthy aod delightful A 
large oolony will leave here, under the most favorable con- 
ditions, on the 15th of October, proximo. All arrange- 
ments are oo iplete For further particulars api-ly to J. J£. 
(JLKMKNTS. General Agent, 506 Battery ML. San Fntnalaoo 



Xt> Commit fion Chargrd. 


234 Montgomery Street, 

Good Crops Every Season 
Without Irrigation. 

Free by mall, specimen number of "The Cal\fornian Heal 
SuttUe Exchange and Mart," full of reliable information ou 
allinate, productions, etc . of 

Address " F.XCHANGE AND HART," SsnU C'rut, Oal. 

July 7, 1883] 


B^eede^s' Direct© 

Six lines or less in this Directory at 50c. a line per month. 


MRS. M E. BRADLEY, San Jose, Cal. Breeder 
of recorded thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle and Berk- 
shire Hogs. A choice lot of young stock for sale. 

PETEB SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Oal. Importers and Breeders, for past twelve years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

BOBERT BECK, San Francisco. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Jersey Cattle. Herd took si\ premiums of the 
eleven offered at State Fair, 1881. 

GEORGE BEMENT, Redwood City, San MateoCo., 
Cal. Breeder of Ayrshire Cattle. Several fine young 
Bulls, Yearlings anil Calves for sale. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for circular. 

Station, S. P. A N. P. K. R. P. <>., Penn's Grove 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish Me- 
rino Sheep and Berkshire Sw ine. 

F. J. Barretto, Downey, Cal., importer and breeder of 
registered Jersey Cattle and their grades. The largest 
herd on the Pacific coast; upwards of 1.10 head of the 
most desirable and fashionable strains of milk and but- 
ter cattle. Alpheas, Pansys, Ednas, and others, have 
taken many premiums whenever exhibited. Both sexes 
for sale at low prices. 

SYLVESTER SCOTT, Cloverdale, Sonoma Co., Cal. 
Breeder of recorded Thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle 
and Spanish Merino Sheep. Jacks and Jennets for sale 
at reasonable figures. 

P. J. SHAFTER, Olema, Cal. Breeder of fine Jersey; 


FOR SALE— ISO head of fine Hams. George W. Han 
cock, No. 020 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Red Duroc 
and Berkshire Swine. High graded Hams for sale. " 

E. W. WGOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Cal. Importers and breeders of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Merino Sheep. City office, No. -tlx California 
street, S. F. 

J. B. HO YT, Bird's Landing, Solano Co., Cal. Breeder 
and importer of Shropshire Sheep, Hams and Ewes for 
Bale. Also cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 


O J. ALBEE, Santa Clara, Cal., Poultry Fancier. 
Irish is. B. H. Game, McDougall Pitt Game, H. Leghorns 
and Langshans (Croad's strain). Box 289. 

J. N, LUND, Corner Webster and Booth Sts., Oakland 
P. 0. Box U6. Breeder of ThorougHhred Poultry, Ply- 
mouth Hocks, Brown Leghorn*, Light Hrahmas, Lang- 
shans and li. B. R, Game Bantams. Kg"g8 and fowls 
for sale. . 

D. D. BRIGGS, Importer and breeder of first-class 
Fancy Poultry. Langshans, W. F. Black Spanish, Black 
Hamburg's, White Dorkings, White Leghorns, IVkin 
Ducks. Send for circular. Han .lose or Los Gatos, Cal 

MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Pure bred 
Fancy Poultry. White and Brown Leghorns, Plypioutl 
Rocks, Langshans and Houdans. Eggs and Fowls. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouse and Embdeii 
Geese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leadinj 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

MRS. M. E. NEWHALL, San 'Jose, Cal. Bronze 
Turkeys, Brown Leghorns, Langshans, Plymouth 
Rocks, Pekin Ducks. Fowls and Eggs in season. 

IMPROVED EGG FOOD, -l tt>. f 40c.j 3B»s.,*i; 10 
tbs., 92.60: 25 lbs., |5. B. F. Wellington, 425 Washing 
ton St., S. F. . Also agent for Perfect Hatcher Co., of N. V 


JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs, are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of IV: 
oughbred Berkshire of stock imported bj Gov. Stanford 


J. D. E>JAS, Sunnyside, Napa, CaL Breeder of Pure 
Italian Queens. Comb Foundation, Extractors, etc. 

To Owners an d Dealers in Live Stock. 

We respect fully solicit your consignments of LIVE STOCK, for sale on Commission, either dressed or on toot 
guaran teepig Collections and 


We have ample STOCK YARDS, on our own premises, and the largest Slaughtering Facilities on the Coast. 

Correspondence regarding Sale or Consignments of Live Stock, will receive our 
prompt attention. Advances made as required. 



Proprietors Black Point Provision and Slaughter Houses. ) SAN PRA ncisco pal 
City Office, No. 125 and 127 California St., near Front, i " 


in all countries, and under all conditions, 


For Wool, and Wool and Mutton Combined, 
of the World. 

Laurel Ranch, 

Only one hour's ride from San Francisco 
makes the Breeding of these 
Sheep a Specialty. 



For Sale this Season. Prices same as former years. Address, 


Haywards, Alameda County, - California. 

Or K. W. PEET, Managing Agent, V. 0. Box, 1 164. 


1 An English Veterinary Surgeon and Chemist, 
now traveling In this country, says that most 
of the Horse and Cattle Powders sold here 
are worthless trash. He says that Sheridan's 
Condition Powders are absolutely pure and 
immensely valuable. Nothing on earth will make hens lay like Sheridan's Condition Powders. I>ose. I teasp'n- 
tul to 1 pint food. Sold everywhere, or sent by mail for 8 letter- stamps. I. a JouNSON <fc Co., Boston, Mass. 


Jersey, Durham and Holstein Cattle. 

Thoroughbred English Berkshire Pigs. 
Also Poland-China Pigs. 
Pacific Coast Poultry and Stock Book. 

New edition, over 100 pages. I J rce, by mail, 50 cents. 
Address, inclosing stamp. 


Los Angeles, Cal. 


A.JACKSON, King's River, Cal. Fine Holy Land or 
Assyrean tmeens and Nucleus; great layers and w orkers 
Write for particulars. 


Big Hedge Poultry Yards, 



20 Hoadans, 25 Black Spanish, 

20 Langsh>ns, 50 Buff Cochins, 

50 Brown Leghorns, 100 Plymouth Rocks, 
50 White Leghorn >, 25 Golden Polands. 

For further particulars address as above. 

Calvert's Carbolic 


83 per Gallon, 

After dipping the Sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
Btroyiug Le vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON, 
S. F., Sole Agent for Pacific .Coast. 

Splendid! 6 Lat*st Style chromo cards, name, 10c. Pre 
mlum with t packs. B. H Pardee, New Haren, Ct . 


Importers and Breeders of THOROUGHBRED 


Choice RAMS and EWES for Sale. Ranch at Fulton, 
Sonoma county, Cal., and N P. R. R DIRECT TO THE 
RANCH, via uuernevide Branch at Fulton. Address 


Fulton, Sonoma Co., Cal., or 418 California Street, S. F. 

My Berkshire8 are Thoroughbred, and" selected with 
great care from the best herds of imported stock in thc- 
United States and Canada, and for individual merit care 
not bo excelled. My breeding stock are recorded in the 
"American Berkshire Record," where noire but pure trod 
Hogs are admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rates. Oor 
respcnleuce solicited. 

18th and A Streets, Sacramento City, Cal. 

Beet Pulp for Cattle Feed. 

The Standard Sugar Refinery 

Can furnist - sufficient Food to keep over 400 head of 
Cattle througnout the entire year. This Feed is excel- 
lent for Dairy Cows, or for fattening Cattle for Beef. 

Liberal Terms will be made for a long term of years. 

For information please write or apply in person to the 

. E. H. DYER, Gen. Supt,, 

Alvarado, Alameda Co., Cal. 

May 10. 1883. 


A situation on a Stock Ranch by a young man lately 
from the East. Is capable of taking entire charge, or 
would lease a ranch with or without stock. Address 

"aANCHBR," Pacific Rural Prees. 

For sale at oar I . rni at .Uvuutaiu View, 

From our Thoroughbred tJerkshire Boar and Sow, which we 
imported froru Errgland in 1880. Pigs from Imported Boar 
and Sow. $25 each; from Imported Boar and Thoroughbred 
Sow. $10 to $20. Our Imported PigB are af nice Pigs as there 
are in the State. Address: I. J. TRUMAN, San Francisco 




Unscrupulous persons, envious of the Fame and World- 
wide Reputation of 


Are, by fraudulently imitating the style of packages even 
to forging the very trademark of the Imperial, endeavor- 
ing to put upon the market 

Worthless StufT of No Value to Fowls, 

Under a name so similar to the Imperial as to be easily 
mistaken for it at first sight. We take this means of 
cautioning our uumerous customers against the fraud. 

The Imperial Egg Food is now used in every part of the 
United States, and its sale on this coast is simply won- 
derful, our order book showing that every customer con- 
tinues to order, while every letter received is a testimo- 
nial for the Imperial. In purchasing, see that you get 
THE IMPERIAL and none other, no matter how nearly 
similar in name and appearance. Send for Circulars and 

Re 1 1« i 1 Prices of Imperial Egg Food :— 1 Pound 
Package, 60 Cents; 2i Pound Package, $1.00; 6 Pound 
Box,l$2 00; 25 Pound Keg, $6.26. 
Sold by the trade generally, or address 
8 New Montgomery St , (Palace Hotel) S. F. 

Spanish Merino 


First Premium Flock for Four Years. Two hundred 
head for sale cheap for cash, or on terms to suit custo- 
mers. *y Orders promptly filled 1 


Address, E. W. PEET, Manager, Haywards, Alameda 
Co., Cal. Box 1164. 


For Jersey Farm, San Bruno : 

200 Young Dairy Cows. 

8 Good Sized Young Mules. 

1,000 Tons of Good Hay. 

837 Howard St., San Francisco. 


WANTED— To rent the coming fall, a Dairy suitabl 
fitted (or can be) for the manufacture of Cheese. I hav 
had seven years' experience in the business in California 
and can give references from leading dairymen in the 
State. Address, 


Modesto, Cal 


Took five first premiums 
out of eight pens exhibited 
at the State Fair, in 1881 
', and 1882. 

Choice bucksand Ewes for 
ff'^ sale. Orders promptly filled. 

PRANK BTJLLARD. Woodland, Yolo Co., Cal. 



Free from Poison. Prepared 

by the Italian Government 

Co. Cures thoroughly the 

remedy known. Reliable testi- ,™ 
mouials at our office. SflN 

For particulars apply to "^k!! 

CHAS. DUISEtrBE AG & CO Sole Agents, 314 Sacramento 
Street. San Francisco 


Blanding Ave., bet. Everett and Broadway, 

Importer and Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Fowls. Lang- 
shans (Croad Strain). American 
Sebrights, Plymouth Rocks, 
Brown and Whi te Leghorns. 
Eggs for hatching. 

CHAS. W. SMITH, Manager. 
Address: Brooklyn, Ala- 
meda Co., Cal. 


One trio Plymouth Hocks 
One t rio B. Leghons, esc 

extra choice . . . .$20 no 

a choice 18 00 

Breeding Pen White Leghorns (cock and five hens), Im- 
ported last, fall as Chicks. |80 less than half the cost. 

Besides a few choice Brown Leghorn and Plymouth 
Rock Hens. 

L. C. BYCE, Petaluma, Cal., 
Importer and llrcederof Thoroughbred l'oultr\. 


For hatching chicbons. Self remilatintr, durable. pracHra 
and easily understood Thlxixtiut a Toy, hut u Practical 
HaMi/acturing Machin?. Can be it< T N in anv Tempkra- 
TU kk As Fanciers, Amateurs and others aie i early to me 
a good, reliable, Self-regu atiug Incubator, that can be pro 
cured cheap, we now off - r ou« that holda 1 50 esrga. 
The Baby Price, SJ*2K. **>,.-nd f.»r Circular 

J. P. CLARK. Sole Agent for the Pacific Coast, 
G jO H ward St., San Francisco. 


Awarded First Premiums 

At Statu axd other Faikh over am. Leading Machines. 

Perfectly Self- Regulating! 

43r$l'2and upwards, 
P. O. Box 242. 

tfiTSend for Circulars. 
I. L. DIAS. 


Price Reduced 


Twenty gallons ■ f flu'd 
mixed with cold water will 
make 1,200 gallons Dip. 

Apply to FALKNER, 
RF.LL k CO.. San Frkncisoo 




From S20 up. Send 
for descriptive price list. 
Thoroaghbved Poultry 
<tnd Kgg*. 

1011 Broadway, 

Oakland, Cal 

To Fish Raisers 

I am now ready to sell Carp which were imported hy 
oe from Germany in 1872, in lots to suit. Address 
J. A. POPPB, Sonoma.CaL 



[July 7, 1883 

Note. — Our quotations are for Wednesday, not Saturday 
the dale which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, July 3, 1883 

Markets are usually of little account on Fourth of 
July week, and this year they seem uncommonly 
devoid of inteicst. The holiday comes right in th 
middle of the week and breaks it all to pieces. 
There has been a little excitement in the wheat 
market because of the reported outbreak of the 
cholera in India, as is described in another column 
but at the same time the foreign and the Eastern 
markets are reported lower. The latest from abroad 
is the following: 

LIVERPOOL, July 2. — The spot market is neg- 
lected, at 8s iod((i9s id. Cargoes are dull, at 44s 
lor just shipped, 44s for nearly due and 44s for off 

Eastern Grain and Provision Markets 

CHICAGO, July 2. — Flour, dull, unchanged. Reg- 
ular wheal, unsettled, lower; QQji. July; 102, Au- 
gust; No. 2 Spring, 99^ ; No. 2 red Winter, 97® 
97'A. Corn, active, weak, lower; 48%, cash and 
July ; 40 "s, August. Oats, cash, firm: options eas- 
ier; 33^, cash; 33 l A(<( 33;Hi. J ulv ; 2< ?%. August. 
Rye, 58(658^. Pork, active, weak, lower; $15 8007 
$15 85, cash and July ; $i6fr/ 16 02 J*. , August. Lard, 
irregular, lower; $9 15ft/ $9 25 cash; $9 ijfaq 17IS, 
July ; 9 35, August. Bulk meats in fair demand ; 
shoulders, $7 ; short ribs, $14. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, June 30. — The market for domestic 
fleeces has the same old unsettled tone and values 
are more or less nominal in the absence of business 
in a proper form to test the situation. Transactions 
are proving very small, and when business is actu- 
ally accomplished 30 cents show s the top rate, though 
some of the most desirable Ohio stock is held tor 
higher ranges. The Texas Wools naturally are most 
freely ofiered as stock commences to increase. Many 
Texas parcels and some of the Southern Wools are 
quite buoyant. Sales include 30,000 lbs. California 
at i9@2o cents; 6,000 lbs. secured at sq(« 68 cents; 
5,000 lbs. scoured California on private terms. 
The Foreign Review. 

London, July 2. — The Mark Lane Express, 
in its review of the grain trade for the past week says: 
Spring sown crops have materially improved, es- 
pecially Peas. Trade during the week was unusu- 
ally dull and quotations nominally unchanged. 
Trade in foreign Wheat is at a standstill. Supplies 
continue large and prices are unaltered, except in 
the case of some inferior sorts, which are is cheaper. 
Flour is unchanged. Maize is becoming easier 
daily. There is no trade in cargoes off the coast. 
There were seven arrivals, two sales, five cargoes 
were withdrawn and six remained. Sales English 
Wheat during the week 41,425 quarters, at 42s 3d 
per quarter, against 19,490 quarters, at 46s 1 id for 
the corresponding week last year. The Corn trade, 
the Times says: Is more active because of the in- 
creased demand in the United States. Owing to the 
new tariff many shipments w ere made to take advan- 
tage of the new scale of duties. 

Freights and Charters. 

The following is a summary of the engaged and 
disengaged tonnage at this and adjacent ports, and 
on the way to this port yesterday morning: 

1883 188? 

Engaged tons in port 2H.40U 36,680 

Disengaged 75.270 3:1,730 

On the way ' S88,J0C 860,410 



Total 387,430 

Increase 20,686 

Tons under engagement to load Wheat. . 117,656 

• Includes 19,668 tons for Wilmington, t 4,738 tons new 
crop loading. 

There were l ] vessels under engagement at this 
port to load Wheat, and none at neighboring ports, 
of which four are for the new crop loading. 
There are v> disengaged vessels at this port and none 
at neighboring ports. Th* engaged and disengaged 
tonnage, as above, has a Wheat-carrying capacity 
for 155,600 short tons, against a capacity for 99,600 
tons on the corresponding date last year, being an 
increase of 56,000 tons. The bid and asking rates 
for Wheal cargoes were reported as follows: 

Bid Asked 

Iron — Liverpool direct 52s tid 

Iron — Cork for orders to United Kingdom. .55m od 

Iron— Cork or Continent 

Wood— Liverpool direct 47s !iil .".ns o.l 

Wood Cork for orders to United Kingdom. 50s Od 52s (kl 

Wood— Cork or Continent 52s «d 55s Od 

New York Hop Market 

N'l.w YOKK., June 30. — There is not the least indi- 
cation of any improvement in the demand and sales 
of over 10 or 20 bales at a time seem something very 
rare. About 40 cents is the general figure and it 
would take a very fine article to bring more money. 

BAGS — Hags are still at low figures, ( alcuttas be- 
ing quotable at 7(0 7z»c. 

BARLEY — Feed Barley is reduced ajfctfctl-. 
and brewing, through a scarcity, advances 2j^c $ 
ctl 'Trade is dull and slow. We note sales on 
t all : Buyer season- too, 96c; 200, 95%c; 300, 
q5J4cv Buyer '83—300, 90c; 100, 90j»c; 100. qo^c; 
100, 90 he; 200, 90', «\ Seller season — 100, 83V4C 
Seller '83— 400, 83 7 «c; 900, 83^; 200,84c; 100, 
84j'8c; 200, 84^0,. Sales at 3 o'clock showed a re- 
covery in futures, as follows: Buyer '83—200, 91c; 
300, ot >ic; 100, ytiiC Seller season — 100, 84c. 
Seller '83 — 100, 84^'; 100, 84^'c; 100, 84>ie; 300, 
84K.C; 200, 843* c; 200, 84 "a c; 200, 85c; 100, 84 7 8 c; 
too, 84 ftc; 200, 84 ^bC. 

BEANS— Pea Beans ha\e improved .1 little. Other 
kinds are unchanged. 

CORN — Corn is dull and low. Nebraska Corn is 
obtainable as low as $1.50 $ ctl. 

DAIRY 1'RODCCK— Butter is improving, the 
best now reaching 26c. Supplies are large, but are 
working off well. Cheese is still very low and 

EGGS — Kggs are within last week's range. 

FEED Bran is 50c lower $ ton. Other feeds 
are unchanged. The range for Hay is as follows: 
Wheat, $I3<« 14; wild, oat $13(0 14; barley, $12(313; 
stable, $i2f« 14; cow, $n(a 12; alfalfa, $7(o ; 8 f ton. 

FRESH M EAT — There has been a reduction of 
lie $ lb on beef, all around. I'ork is also a fraction 
lower, while Live Hogs are unchanged. 

FRUIT— Fruit receipts open light this week. On 
Monday, only two or three houses received Cherries, 
and they will soon be out. Currants, Raspberries, 
Blackberries and Strawberries were also in very 
light supply. Arrivals from everywhere were light, 
and the commission stores were nearly empty before 
noon. Peaches went off quickly at good prices' 
Apricots sold higher, as the cannersare very anxiotC 
to secure them, even at advanced prices. Plums 
and Pears were scarce. I'igs alone were dull. 
Crabappfes came in from M. Madge. Sacramento 
River, and were held at $1 basket. 

HOPS — The rate seems to be 20(0 30c fli. 

OATS — Oats are quiet and sales few. Prices are 
the same as last week. 

ONIONS — Red Onions are unchanged. Some 
eilverskins now arriving sell about roc |f ctl. above 
the reds. 

POTA TOES Choice potatoes have advanced 
and bring $1.25 p ctl. Then' are still many poor 
ones in, some selling as low as 25c Jt? ctl. 

PROVISIONS— Lard and Eastern hams have 
regained he Th from the recent decline. 

POULTRY AND GAME— Hens, roosters and 
broilers have all advanced 50c per ctl. Ducks have 
declined the same amount. 1 urkeys are doing a 
little better, and game is higher. Venison is now 
coming in again. 

VEGETABLES— Vegetable arrivals are rather 
light. A few changes in price are noted in our list. 

WHEAT - The market is dull and transactions of 
no moment. A few sales on call were as follows: 600 
seller '83, $1.55; too, $f.55%; 300, $1.55 V t ; too, 

$i.S5^; 2 °°. $'-55h. 

WOOL— Sales have been moderate at the prices 
in our table of quotations. The railroad has ordered 
a concession in overland freights (to take effect July 
1st I with a view of moving some of the low grade 
wools now 011 hand. The rate is to be on the slid 
ing scale, as follows: 1%C $ lb on Wools costing 
12c and less, 2c on Wools costing 18c and less, and 
a^c on all grease stock costing over 18c (.•»' It'. Sales 
reported during the week foot up ov er 500 000 lbs 

Domestic Produce. 

.1 nly 3, 1883 



BEANS AND PEAS. Pecans 14 m 

Bayo. ctl 5 50 in - Peanuts 7 OT> 

Butter 4 25 in 4 50 IFillierts 14 111 

Castor i« 4 00 I ONIONS. 

Pea 2 75 (o 3 20 Bed 60 fi> 

Ked 4 00 (" 4 40 Silverskin. new. 65 111 

Pink 4 00 in 4 40 Oregon in 

Large White. ... 3 00 ■<< POTATOR8. 

Small White. .. 3 25 m 3 25 New, ctl 

45 1 

1 25 

Lima 2 75 .« 3 25 Early Kom- 87|ft» 1 00 

Khl Peas.ulkeye 2 50 i« 3 00 Petaluma... 

do green -to 


Southern 3 c.i 3} 

Nurthani 1 c ii 


California 4 <» 4i 

t tormao Ska 7 



Cat fresh mil. lb. 23 m 24 

do Fane; br'nds 25 ... 2ti 

Pickle roll 25 ot X 

Firkin, new 22J(n 25 

Flail 11 B 17 m 20 

New York 


Cheese, Oal., II.. . 
dn boxed, .si 

i 'al.. fresh, doz. . 


Eastern, by ex . . 
Pickled here.... 


Hrau. t<.u 14 GO ("1 


25 OT< 
■ i" 
25 in 
- IS 



— (0 




do Kidney 

do Feachblow. 

Jersey Blue 

Cutfey Cove 

Kiver. red 


do Dreg in 

Peerless — in 

Salt Lake 

Sweet — (a> — 


Hens, doz 7 50 in 8 50 

Roosters 7 50 ("10 00 

Broilers 3 IX) (3 5 50 

Ducks, tame.... 3 50 m 7 5(1 

1 ieese, pair 1 25 o' 1 50 

Hustings 1 50 (it 2 00 

Wild (iray. doz 1 75 ... 2 (Kl 
White do.., 75 in 1 00 

Turkeys, lb 22 in 24 

Dressed. . <" 
Turkey Feat hers, 
27 I tail and wing . 10 (B 20 
Snipe, Eng.,. doz. 2 00 i» 2 SO 
50 I do Common 75 ■» 1 oo 

Corumeal 35 511 m3« no Quail 1 50 to - 

Hay 7 00 i« 14 00 Rabbits 1 50 to 1 75 

Middlings 20 IK) ("22 00 Hare 2 25 to 2 50 

Oil Cake Meal.. "'35 IKI Venison (d — 

Straw, bale. 50 ot 70 PROVISIONS. 

FLOCK, Cal. Bacon, 

Fruits and Vegetables. 


TUISDAV, .Inly 3. 1»83. 


pples. box 50 OT I 

..pricnts, box... 66 in 1 
Bananas, bunch. 1 50 m 2 
Blackberries. ehtlO (10 "ill 
Cherries, cht...l3 0(1 ml5 
Cherry Plums.bx 75 <« 
Ooaoaauta, loo.. I on 6 J 

Cmbannles, bskt i" 1 

Cranberries, bbl 15 IKI dl7 
Currants, eat... 5 00 m 7 

Figs, box 

( Jooseberrics, 
Qrapes, box.... 
Limes. Mex. ... 

do Cal., 100.. - Iff 
Lemons, OaL.bx 2 00 vr 3 
do Sicily, box. a 00 I" 10 
do Australian. — <^ 
Oroxrae, CftL,bx 1 00 m 2 
do TabJU M..18 00 i"20 
do Mexican. . . i" 
do Panama 
Peaches, box 

Pears, bskt 

Pineapples, doz. 4 oo w H 

Plums 50 in 1 

Raspberries, chtlO 00 "11 

Ssnwberries.chtll " in 


Apples, sliced, lb 7i(« 
do eva|H>rated. 10 (" 
do ipiartered .. 7 <" 


Blackberries . . 



Figs, pressed.. . . 7 I" 
do loose 5 in 

Nectarines 11 m 

40 ui 
4 hi 


» 80 „iio 


90 hi 1 
'5 I" 1 

11 «r 
14 I" 

I to 

12 Iff 


do pared 

15 III 

Pears, sliced 

8 to 


| do whole 

6 to 





do pitted ... 

11 III 


a iii 


Raisins. Cal. DX 

1 75 (ii 

2 00 

do halves 


do qnavten . 


do eighths... 

- (ii 

Xante Currants. 

8 ii' 



Asparagus, box. 2 00 m 

Artichokes, doz. 10 W 

Beets, ctl 1 00 iii 

Cabliage, 100II.S. 1 00 m 

( 'arrots. sk 37Aiii 

( 'aillitiower. doz. 1 50 m 

Celery, doz 50 (« 

Cucumbers, box. 1 00 <<i 

Oarlic, II 

do poor 

Green Corn do/ . 

( teetsa Peas 

Lettuce, doz 

Mushrooms. 1m. \ 
i >kra, green. Hi 

Parsnips, Hi 

Penpen, II 12. l t" 

do Chile W 

Rhubarh l 50 v< 

Squash, Marrow- 
fat, ton 40 00 in 

S.jiiasli, Summer 

Imx 30 (•? 

String Beans ... 2^(11 

Tomatoes. Ikix . 2 00 OT 

Turnips, ctl 75 Hi 

2 50 

1 OT 
10 to 

2 ii' 
10 |.r 
— <f» 
75 OT 

1 hi 

3 (KP 


2 75 


3 (Kl 

Retail Groceries, Etc. 

Butter. Cnlifor 
uia Choice, lb. 
( 'andles, Adm'tc 
< Iheese 


I lorB Meal, Hi. . . 
Coffee, green — 
tilled Apples, lb 

Prunes. Cel.. 

Figs. Cal 


Flour, extm Cass 


Lard, Cal 


I tils. Kerosene. . 
I ly-Hters. can. do/. 

Tl kshav, .Inly 3, 1883 



15 in 


17 i.i 


25 i.i 




23 i.i 


10 I" 




a ot 


15 (ii 


8 (ii 
7 ot 

8 00 to 
18 OT 
20 to 
50 I" 

2 (Kl I'l 

I Rice 

Sugar, W h i t e 


Light Brow a. . 

Soap, Cal 

Syrup, S. F 


Tea, tine black.. 

Finest Japan. 

Wines, old Port, 3 50 OT 5 00 

KriMM'h Claret... 1 00 OT 2 50 

Cal doz hot.. 2 (XI OT 4 50 

Whisky, OK, gal 3 50 "i 5 00 

French Brandy . 4 IK) m 8 00 
Yeast Powder, 

do/. 1 50 OT 2 00 

75 (ii 1 10 
50 in 1 IKI 
55 «i 1 00 

Bags and Bagging. 

iBBfXd I'kli'F-s | 

Ti eshav. July 3, 1883. 

KugHKh Stand- 


ard Wheal 

HeanaD. 60 inch. 

1 'nl Maiiuiii-'tiiie 



Hand Hewed, 

40 inch 



— (* 

Wool Saeks 






Machine Swd. 

49 OT 


12 ot 


Standard Oun- 





If, OT 


Machine Swd, 

Bean Bags 






Twine. Deerloki 

Flour sks. babes 


7 e* 

i i.r 

l % 

Detrieks AA. 



Extra. City Mills 5 50 in 5 65 
do Co ntry Mills 5 00 in 5 50 

Superfine 3 75 ot 1 Oil 


Beef, 1st 1 1 ual , lb 74«' 

Second 64m 

Third 5i(W 

Mutton 4 i.' 

Spring Lamb... bito 

Pork, undressed. 6lt« 
Dressed 10}in 

Veal 7 OT 


Barley, feed. ctl. 90 OT 
do Brewiug.. 1 00 la 
Chevalier 1 30 m 

Buckwheat 3 00 to 

( '..I'll, White 1 Bt OT 

Yellow 1 60 i.' 1 IS 

Small Round. i'l 1 65 

< lats 1 85 in 2 00 

Milling 2 20 mi L'5 

Rye 1 30 i" 1 35 

Wheat, No 1. 

a., No. 2... i aita 

Choice milling 1 65 (u 

Dry 17 

Wet salted 9JOT 


Bw'swax, It. 274*1* 

Honey in comb. 12 ot 

Extracted, light. 7 OT 

do dark. 5 ot 

Oregon 20 to 

California 20 OT 

Wash Ter 20 OT 

old Hops I" 


Walnuts, Cal.. th 9 <«f 

do Chile.. 7J(ii 

Almonds, hdshl. 8 to 

Soft shell 13 OT 

Brazil Wot 

Heavy. II 15 (ii 

Medium 16 (If 

Light 16 ot 

Lard 14 OT 

84 Cal Smoked Beef 141(il 

7 Shoulders ajdi 

6 Hanis. Cal 15 (a 

5 do Eastern 16*ot 


8 Alfalfa lllftx 

10? do Chile to 

10 Canary 5JOT 

Clover, red 14 .. 

924 White 45 in 

1 07* Cotton 20 in 

l 40 Flaxseed 2f(« 

Hemp 4JOT 

Italian RyeOraws 25 (a 

Perennial . 25 m 

Millet, ( ienuan.. 10 ot 

do Common. 7 iff 

Mustard, white 2 (a 

Brown 3 in 

1 57.'.ot 1 62! Rape IJot 

55 Ky. Blue Unas . 20 ot 

2d quality 16 i 


30 (« 
10 OT 
8 hi 

Sweet V. Glass 

l Irchanl 20 m 

Red Top 15 £ 

Hungarian 8 i 


Mesouit. . . 
Timothy . . 


< rude, lb 

Relined UJiii 

30 semso 1883. 

San Joaqmin,.,. 

< 'alaveraa 

11 Northern, free . 
8 Northern, bun y. 

n i ii'egou Beaten . 
14j «1" valley... 

12 1 

8 OT 

13 in 

20 in 

22 ... 

18 hi 

17 i" 

San Francisco Metal Market. 



1'HI KS 

Astimonv Per pound 

la«»N American Pig. soft, tun 

Scotch Pig, ton .... 

American White Pig. ton 

i iregon Pig, ton 

Clipper Cap, Nos 1 to 4 

Refined Bar 

Horseshoes, keg 

Nail Rod 

Norway, according to thickness. . . 
Stkkl English Cast. II 

Black Diamond, ordinal-) sizes... 



CurrcK Ingot 

Sheet .... 

Sheeting, tinned. 14x18 



< )ld 


( ement. 100 Hue 

L>:aii Pig 




shot, discount 10 

Buck, V bag 

Chilled, do 

Tln Pi.atks Charcoal 


Bauca Tin 


1 C. charcoal Hoofing, 14x2u 

Zinc By the cask 

Sheet, 7x3 ft. 7 to 10 lb. less the cask 

Nails Assorted sizes 

(^1 1. kSM.VKH By the Hask , 

Flasks, new 

Flasks, old 

IMV. July 5. 1881 

32 00 hi 
.26 00 i.i27 00 


Crystal Wax 15 O 

Stearic Acid.... 14 w 

Eagle 12 01 


Asstd Pie Fruits. 

24 II. cans 2 25 m 

Table do 3 50 in 

Jams and Jellies 75 ot 

Pickles, hf gal. . . 3 25 (11 

Sanliues, ijr box. 1 67 in 
Half boxes 1 90 t>. 

Merry, Faull 4: 
Cos Preserved 
Beef, 2 It., doz. 3 25 m 
do 4 lb. doz... 6 50 ot 6 

Preserved Mut- 
ton. 2 lb 3 25 111 3 

Beef Tongue 5 75 1" 6 

Preserved Ham, 
2-lb. doz 5 50 ot 5 

Deviled Ham, 1 

lb, doz 3 00 111 3 

do, 4 lb, doz... 2 50 i" 

Bi meless Piggs 

Feet. 3 It 3 50 K. 3 

2 lb 2 75 111 

Sped Fillets, 2 It.. 3 50 ... 

Headcheese, 31b 3 50 ('• 

Australian, ton. 8 50 to 9 

Coos Bay 6 00 (« 

Belliughaiu Bay in 

Seattle 7 00 in 

Cumberland ....13 00 i.i 

Mt. Diablo (a 

Lehigh in 

Uvanool in 

West Hartley ... 10 00 in 

Scutch 9 00 OT 

Scrauton ot 

Vancouver bud, "i 
Wellington. ..10 00 in 
Charcoal, sack.. f" 

Coke, bu in 

Saudwich Ids, II. 

Costa Rica 


General Merchandise. 

| W llol.KSAI.K. | 

Tl ksiia v, July 3. 1883. 

Portland 3 75 ... 4 00 

17 NAILS. 

Assrtd sizes, keg 3 75 to 4 00 

Pacific Clue Co s 

Neatsft, No. 1. 1 00 OT 
Castor, No. I... 1 05 OT 
■to No 2... 95 m 
Baker's AA . . 1 30 m 
Olive, flag-noil.. 5 25 m 5 75 
f owiel 4 75 I" 5 25 

2 501 

3 DO 




Palm. 11 

a .« 

Linseed, raw, bbl 

60 i.i 


65 in 

< 'ocoautit 

60 in 

China Nut, e*. . . 

70 ot 


1 40 OT 

Coast Whales .. 

35 (" 


1 00 (ii 

Petroleum, 110 . 

18 hi 


do 150. 

28 i.i 



Pure Whit,- Lead 




4 l'i 


Paris White .... 

Veuetian Red. . . 

Averill mixed 

Paints, white 

and tints, gal.. 

2 00 OT 

l Jreen, blue \ 

12 in 
12 in 
18 in 
15 in 


( iroiui.l. in cs. , , 

Sac to Dry Cod . 

do in cases. . 

Eastern Ctsl 

Salmon, bbls, . . . 7 00 m 7 

Half bbls 3 50 in 4 

1H. cans 1 124m 1 

Pkld Cod. bbls.. OT 

Half bbls in 

Mackerel. No. 1 

Half bbls 

In kits 

Ex Mess, kits. 3 00 ot 3 
Pkld Herriug, kg 1 75 m 2 
BoatoO Smoked 

Herring 05 m 

Plaster, Golden 

□ate Mills. . . . :i no ... 3 

LaudPlastcr.tonW 00 ml2 
Lime, S. Crux, bbl 1 25 ot 1 

Cement. Rosen- 
dale 1 75 in 2 

6 to 

7 in 
7 to 

8 50 in 9 
1 70 in 1 

Ch yellow 3 00 ot 3 50 

Light red 3 00 in 3 50 

Metallic roof . 1 30 ot 1 61) 
KICK 42m 5 

Hawaiian 4lm 5 


Cal Bay. ton... 14 00 (u22 (Kl 

Common 6 50 ml4 00 

Carmen Isl.l .14 CO ..'22 IKI 
Liverpool, tine .14 (Kl IflrJO no 
SO A I'. 

Castile. II 10 ot 

14 Common brauds 44m 
14 Fancy bramls .. 7 m » 

Cloves. II 374«i 40 

t 'assia 19 (n 20 

Nutmegs 85 (n au 

Pepper < iralu .. . 15 (n III 

Pilueutii 16 OT 17 

74 Mustard, Cal , J 

50 I It., glass 1 25 in 

00 ! SUGAR, ETC 


| Cal Cube. II. 
Powdered. . 
Fine Crushed. 

11 Jm 

t.ranulateil II' 

111 m 

65 in 

Golden i 
Cal. Syrup, kegs 
Hawaiian Mo- 

Tl. \ 

Young Hyson, 

Moyune. etc. . 
Country peeked 

Ounpowder &. 

I In | "I 111 35 OT 

Hyson ..... . 35 to 

Foo Chow O... 
Japan, medium 

40 i 

27 'in 

36 in 



on 500 bags: Drop, V bag 

- - tft 

4 OT 



16 in 


14 in 

. 15 (ii 


12 ... 


22 in 

37 ot 


. 22 ot 


. 17 in 

5 iff 

. 7 OT 

8 (if 

9 in 

; 2 10 in 

. 2 30 in 

. 2 50 (ii 

6 35 

7 55 
6 25 
. .25 IK) 
..25 IKI in 
, . 6 50 OT 
.. 19 to — 
. 90 to 
. 3 30 OT 4 75 
,. 27 in 

10 to — 
. . 1 55 OT 




lie Leather, heavy, II 


Jodot. 8 to III Kil. doz 

11 to 13 Kil 

14 to 16 Kil 

Second Choice. 11 to 16 Kil 

Simon I'llmo. Females, 12 0. 13 Kil.. 

14 to 15 Kil 

16 to 17 Kil 

Simon, 18 Kil 

20 Kil 

24 Kil 

Kips. French, It. 

Cal. doz 

French Sheep, all colors 

Eastern Calf for Backs, It 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, 

For Linings 

Cal Russet Sheep Linings 

Boot Legs, French Calf, pair 

Good French Calf 

Best Jodot Calf 

Leather, Harness, 11. 

Fair Bridle, doz 

Skirting, lb 

Welt. doz. 

Buff, ft 

Waxed, side 

. July 3. 1883. 
. . 30 in 32 
. . 25 in 28 
..:«; iki in46 oo 

. 50 00 1.16O IKI 
. .65 00 i'i72 00 
. . 40 00 ."65 00 
..52 00 i.i56 00 
..60 00 ot 64 00 
..66 00 |ii88 00 
. 57 (XI m 
..60 00 iff 
..88 00 9 
. . 85 in 1 20 
. ,55 00 1.16O 00 
. 12 00 in 15 00 
. . 1 00 in 1 25 
. . 9 00 ii' W 00 
, . 6 50 («' 10 00 
. . 3 00 i" 5 50 
. . 4 40 (it 
. . 4 00 OT 
.. 4 75 in 5 (Kl 
. 35 in 40 
.45 (Kl 1.166 IKI 
. . 33 in 37 
. .30 00 in 36 (X) 
17 in 20 
.. 19 in 20 

Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Onnreeted Weekly by Si tkii A Co I 

San Fuamtmi'o, July 3, 3 v. m. 

Silver, }. 

UoLU Bars, 890W910. Sii.vkk Baku. IOotIB per cent, 

Ext'Hasok on New York. 30 premium; London, 494(.i4aji: 
Paris, 5 13 francs per dollar Mexican dollars, 87Jw88 
Nkw YuKk (4 fast l euli, 120. 

Brown's Bronchial Troches, as a reined] tot 
Coughs and Throat Troubles: "Great service in sub- 
duing Hoarseness. ' itev. Dan/el Wise, .Vetc yorA'. 
"(treat h relieve any uneasiness in the throat." S. 
Curry, Teacher nf Dralurg in Boston i'nirersity. "In- 
dispensable to nie, having used them through all Dry 
ministerial life. " A'civ C. S. Vedder. Charleston, S, C 

Successful Patent Solicitors. 

As Dewey fi Co. have been in the potent soliciting bca' 
neas on this cosei now for so many years, the firm' name 
is a well-kuowu one. Another reason for its popularity is 
' a great proportion of the Pacific coast patents issued 
by the Government lia\e boon procured through tb el r 
agency. Thay are, therefore, well and thoroughly posted 
ou the needs of the progressive industrial clsaoes ol this 
coast. They are the best pasted firm ou what has been 
done mi all branched of industry, and are able to Judge of 
what is new and patentable. In tins they a great 
■idvanta.'e, tvhich is of pi-acticil dol'ar and exult \alue to 
Mieir clients. That is this understood and appiec'.atod is 
e.ideuced by 'he number of patents issued Uironejv ' he'r 
flllM IIIP.I Paras P. tent Agency (8. E.) from wc=k ;i> 
week and VetT to \a\r 

Oi k attention has been called to the remarkable curative 
properties of Bumham's Abietene. it is not a compound' 
but a pure distillation from a peculiar kind of fir balsam. 
It is really one of nature's remedies Used both internally 
and externally. Asa specific for croup it stands without a 
rival, and does away with the nauseating effects of hive 
syrup and emetics. Cures colds, coughs, sore throat, rheu- 
matism, neuralgia, kidney troubles, etc. Used asa liniment 
or bruises, burns, stiff joints, sprains, poison oak, etc., it 
has no superior. For circulars and testimonials of its merits 
address \N'ni. M. Hickman, druggist, Stockton, Cal. Kor 
ale bv all druggists. Price, 50 cents and $1 per bottle. 

Our Agents. 

Oft* Frikmik can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

(i. W. McGhkw — Santa Clara county. 

M. P. Owgx— Santa Cruz county. 

J. W. A. Wkioiit— Merced, Tulare and Kern counties 

.Iarkii C. Hoao California. 

Ii. W. Ckowkll -Arizona Territory 

M. H. .loHKl'll- Eureka, Nev. 

I. M. Lkiiiv -Los Angeles, San Bernardino and San 
Diego counties. 
A. C. Knox- Oregon and Washington Ter. 
J. J. Bartkll -Yolo county. 

Business Offices and Sunny Rooms to Let. 

Wc have some desirable rooms to let adjoining the 
iflices of this I paper, w hich will be rented on favorable 
terms. Stair entram-c, No. 252 Market St. Elevator, No. 
12 Front St. Parties wishing ottices, etc., will do well to 
call and sec them. DEWEY it CO. 

Farmkhs wishing to employ Engineers for Thrashing 
Machines, also men to drive Header Wagons, also harvest 
men and nicn fur all kinds of work, will do well to call 
on or w rite to .1. F. Cltt tSKTT & C( ). , Employ incut Agents, 
628 Sacramento St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Anorll's Liver Pills cure rheumatism and headache. 

July 7, 1883.] 




Ye s. it. is undoubtedly ajrood plan to take with you to 
the Summer Home a well selected set of Music Books (or 
Singing and for Playing. 

For Singing, takei 


Enlarged EDITION. (82, hoards, or $2.50 cloth.) The 
hest miscellaneous selection of popular songs, with 
accompaniment, extant. 


(*2, boards, 82.: T>0 cloth.) Best and only collection of 
the world-wide, famous Plantation, Jubilee and Min- 
strel songs. 


(IE, boards, or #2.50 cloth.) Admirable assemblage of 
the sweetest sacred lyrics. Piano and Organ accom- 

For Playing, take: 


(#2, boards, or 82.50 cloth.) New and very well chosen 
collection of Piano pieces of medium difficulty. 
GEMS OP STRAUSS. j (Each 82, hoards; 82.50 
GEM« OP THK DANCE. I cloth.) The mt.v 1 Tight- 
est Piano music published. Descriptions of 'M other 
first-class collections sent on application. 

iv phkss and nkaw.y Ready, m Grand Book of 
WAR SONGS, for camp (ires and all G. A. R. 

meetings. Look out (or it! Any hook mailed, post- 
paid, (or retail price. 



C. II. DIT.SON & CO., 

- 867 Broadway, New York. 

Guide to Silk Culture. 

A Useful Manual for Beginners. 

The "Silk Growers' Manual," by W. B. Ewer, contains, 
in a condensed and clear form, instructions for the seri- 
culturist. We advise our lady friends to buy a copy. 
Fresno Kxpositor. 

Kurnishcs in a brief and explicit manner all neccssan 
information in the matter of silk culture.— San Joee 

An interesting compilation to encourage home silk 
culture in California. Everybody should read it. 
A ndereon Enterprise. 

Anyone interested in silk culture will find this full of 
\aluahle information. Sun Joii'/uin Valley Review. 

Kurnishcs all necessary information to begin the silk 
business. — Marysvillr Appeal. 

It is a \ery interesting little work, and well worth the 
price. Memli rino Beaeon. 

It is worthy the perusal of all interested in silk culture. 

Concord Sun. 

Copies of "The California Silk Growers' Manual'' 
mailed from this office (or 25 cents each. 


San Francisco Savings Union 

682 California Street, Corner Webb. 

For the hall year ending with June 30, 1883, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of tour and thirty-two one- 
hundredths (4 H2 100) per cent per annum on Term De- 
posits, and three and sixty onc-hundredths (3 60-100) per 
cent per annum on Ordinary Deposits, free of taxes, pay- 
able on and after THURSDAY, 12th July, 1883. 


The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending June 30, 1888, the Board of 
Directors of the GERMAN SAVINGS AND I.OAN SO- 
CIETY has declared a dividend on Term Deposits at the 
rate of four anil thirty tw o onc-hundredths (4 :»2-M0)per 
cent per annum, and on I Urlinarv Deposits at the rate of 
three and six-tenths (3 li In) per cent per annum, free from 
Federal Taxes, and payable on and after the 2d day of 
July, 1883. fix order, 

GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 

BEAN'S HAY STACKER is guaranteed to do 
more and better work than any Hay Machine in the world. 
Our Nkw Loadkr everywhere receives the highest. praise. 
All need our stack roof. Send for Circular. 

J. H. BEAN * SON, Decatur, Ills. 




Stiff Joints, 
Callous Lumps, 
Wind Galls, 
Poll Evil, 
Splint, etc., etc. 




National Horse Liniment 

Is the Best in file Market, and 
will do all we claim for it. 

For sale by the trade generally. 

Price, 50c. and $1 per Bottle. 

JOHN R. WILLIAMS, Proprietor, 



The "STAR DERRICK" (recently patented) remedies 
the defects existing in other patterns. Manufactured 
with or without Nets, as de9ired. 

Marster's Self-Feeder. 

MARSTERs' SELF-FEEDER has the only combina 
tion of slide* t' at insures a regular feed . More in use in 
the San Joaquin Valley then all other styles combined! 
Weighs only 2!>0 pounds and ri quires but little power to 

in it. 

The Regulating Windmill, 


The Regulating Windmill "TEMPEST" has reithe! 
W.igbt., Sp'ings nor Levers in its construction. Do not 
buy a Mill simply because it is a Mill, but 

Call and Examine the " Tempest " 


Manufactured and for Sale by 


Cor. California and Washington Sta., STOCKTON, CAL. 

Photograp heR 

183 El Dorado Street, 
Bet. Main and Levee, STOCK! OX, CAL. 

All Styles Pictures known to the art executed, of su 
perior excellence, artistic in position and brilliant in 
finish. Special attention to children. 


Is the Best Pump In tne \vorld. Another 
New Improvement is Lewis' Patent 
Spray Attachment. 

Can change from solid stream to gpraj instantly. Regu- 
lar retail price, *fl. Weight, 4J lbs. Length, :ii inches. 


111 Leidesdorft St., S. F. 
P. S. A sample can he seen at this office. 

Agents Wanted 

A Library In One Volume. New, authentic and ex- 
haustive. The largest, handsomest, most comprehensive 
and best Illustrated Work on Live Slock ever issued in 
this country. 

rndorsed by Veterinary Surgeons and the Agricultural 
Press everywh' re. The "Object Teachi.,g" stock Book 
for every day use. 

The "American Farmers' Pictorial Cyclopa)dla of Live 
Stock," embracing Horses, Cattle, Swine, Sheep and 
Foultry, including Departments on Dogs and Bees; being 
also a Complete Stock Doctor, combining the effective 
method of Object Teaching with written instructions 

For Terms and Circulars applv to J. DEWING & CO. 
420 Bush St. San Francisco Cal. 

all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order. 
51 BealeSt., I T» \TJ yDnPIJ 9. Hfl 1 Patentees & 
San Fran'co. » t, W. JVIiUUll U OU, ( Sole Prop' rs. 


Extra inducements will he offered for a few active can 
vassers who will give their whole attention (for a while 
at least) to our business. Apply soon, or address this 
office, giving address, age, experience and reference. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 

No. 252 Market St., S. F, 

B P8S 

5oi t lGlTol;it 

BUKNTlKIt: PRESS OFFICE, 252 Market (Eleva- 
tor^ Front), S.F. Pamphlet for Inventors irer. 



In the Market. 

Write for 


Giving Pull Information 


Nos. 2 and 4 California St., 

San Francisco. 


Highest Honors ever Taken in America Awarded to the 


Awarded the First Prerai- 

"i Traction at Man 

hind State Fair after test 
trial of :i hours at Haiti 
more, (let. '.'it, inn i. Dela 
ware State Fair, 1882. 
Pennsylvania State Fair, 
1882. Also highest award 
af tiir Great Internationa I 
• 'otton Exposition, at At 
lanla, Ga., after a field 
ti^t, f,,r Superior Merit. 
1 >'■< ■- 29, 1881. Sil vet Medal 
at Charleston <s. <'.) Fair 

Dec. 188-.'. Gold Medal at 
Pennsylvania State Fair, 
1 882. 

TlIK PumtLBfla was {he 

onlj Traction E ngi n e 
among five competitors 
that made the trip success 
fully in the Sesqui-Centen- 
nial parade, held in Haiti 
more, October II, ISSn.J 

First Premium on I'kkii- 
i.kss at Richmond, Va., 
in 1881 and lxs-_>. 

On Every Field where Practical Tests and Actual Worth were MaJe the Standard of 
Merit. The "Peerless" manner Still Bears on its Folds the Motto 


'Hie PEEBLES* won the $500 Gold Premium after a full trial and expert test at the nth Industrial Exposition. 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 1881. The World challenged to produce its equal in practicability, construction, stj le anil finish, 
For further particulars, address 

Vt±£ G13ISBR M'F'G CO . Wavnpsbwn Pa. 

JOHN CAINE, Sole Proprietor. 

NOT ICE Arrived and A>ill pcsitively he sold at lower rales (ban ever, ten carloads of 


Studebaker Wagons and Carriages, Buggies, 

All Kinds of Agricultural implements. 



fClg^Globe Foundry Steamboat and Mill Machinery a Specialty. 

Address JOHN CAINE. Globe Iron Works, P. O. Box 95. StocktoD, CtsJ. 

MISSION ROCK DOCK Only "PEBBLE" Establishment. 


Grain Warehouse, 


65,000 Tons Capacity. 



CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO., - Proprietors. 

OFFICE 318 California St., Room 3. 

WILLIAM NILES, Un Angeles, Cal. ThorpUghbr 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs, Circulars free. 


Superior VV-od aud Metal Engrav- 
ing, Electrotyping and Stereotypy 
_ _ ' !ng done at the office of the Mining 

is a SciiNTiric Pbui, San Fraucisoo. at lavorable rati* 

Muller's Optical Depot, 

185 Montgomery St. near Bash. 

The most complicated cases of defect 
Ive vision thoroughly diagnosed, free ol 
charge. Orders by mail or express 
promptly attended to. 

Compound Astigmatic Lenses Mounted to 
Order Two Hours Notino. 

IIIQT RPPFIVPn • Excelsior, Boots, and i . S 
JUG I nbvtl w bl/ ■ standard Honey Extract 
Wax Extractors; Bingham's Smokers and llmicv Knive*; 
Cook's Manual ol the Apiary. Price,$1.25. .1. j). EXAS 
Sunnysidc (Napa I'. O.), Cal. J 




Wheeler's Patent Cannery ! 


Fruits, Jellies, 

Jams, Vegetables, 

Meats and Fish 

As Well as to Large Canneries. 

It imparts Superior Flavor ! 
It is Economical of Labor and Fuel . 
Its Productions will Bear Stronger Tests 




Challenge Contradiction. 

No Processing Required to be Learned ! 

Management extremoly Simple; can be 
Imparted by a few minutes' 


Sole Agents on this Coast (or the 

Empress Fruit Jar 

Best and Cheapest ever offered to the public. 

Have always 00 hand Tin Cans, Solde'ing Irons, Soldei 
Peach, Apple, and Pear Peelers, Packing Cases 
for Glass, and, in fact, everything 
requisite for canning 

T. A. MUDCE. Agent, 

414 Sac men to street. 

Sun Francisco. 


Improved for 1883. 

Lightest, Easiest Handled and Most Economical Header ever sold on this Coast" 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue and Price List. 

H. C. Shaw Plow Works, 

Or TRUMAN, ISHAM & CO., Agents, San Francisco. Cal. 

[July 7, 1883 




Self-Reg ulatlng 


Is recognised as the 

Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 

Solid Wroughtriron Crank Shaft with 
DOtrsLi siARiNoe for the Crank to 
work in, all turned and run in adjust- 
able babbitted boxes. 
Positively Self-Regulating 
With no coil springs, or springs of any 
kind. No little rods. Joints, levers, or anything ol the 
kind to get out of order as such things do. Mills in nso 
8 to 12 years in good order now, that have never 01 it one 
cent for repairs. All genuine Enterprise Mills for the 
Pacific Coast trade come only through this agency, and 
none, whether of the old or latest pattern, arc genuine, ex- 
cept those bearing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out 
for this, as inferior mills are being offered with tes- 
timonials applied to them which were given for ours. 
Prices to suit the times. Full particulars free. Boat 
Pumps, Feed Mills, etc., kept in stock. Address, 



San Francisco Agency. LINFORTH. BICE 
& CO., 333 St 325 Market St., S. F. 



We, the undersigned having used and ImMI th< 
ncuuico it the beet ever made. First— Been wo it in 


And can be put in position for use by ONE ■** f S<conr! — 
No trouble is experienced or time lost in working ft, 
Third — Twico the amount of work can be done with i . in 
a day than ANY 0111 til DERRICK I i USE. Fourth— 
We take great p easure in recommending it to the publi -. 
and feel CO indent it will give general .aii.faction. It ca. 
be used the same as a wagon— being mourned on w berth 

W. L. Cami-bK'.l, Elliott, 
W. II Cumminos, Ua t, 
Wu Pkahson, v- hi, |>ii, 
J. C Saw br, Gait, 
W. H. RirrsRkL, Gait. 
■Iar B. Ft RN18H, Gait, 
,1. II. Fkrris. Gait, 
Kn. K. Wrioiit, Gait, 
0*0. W. Ilumiso, Gait, 

I) Vam)Rrhoo(, Gait, 
R. S. Mini, lone Ci'.y, 
John IIaolk, Gait, 
Ba t Damkls. Gait, 
T. .1. Holmks, Gait, 
Pat. Connolly, Gait, 
1. P. Holmrs, Gait, 
J. A. Williams, San Job- 
>|Uiu County. 

L. T. MITCH ELL, Gait, Cal. 

GRANGERS' UNION, Agts., Stockton. Cal. 

O. W. HARVEf, Traveling Agent, 


Leffel's Iron Wind 

Manufactured by 

E. C. 
& CO, 

Springfield, Ohio. 

State where you saw zhe Advertisement 
*^"Send for Catalogue and Prices. "» 


S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 

rnve« Coach to and from Honoe .T. "W. BECKER. Proprietor 




lanfoctured only if 
Batchelor & Wylie, 


Ilaiiuturltircd nnly h\ 

Batchelor & Wylie, San Francisco. 

During the past four years thousands of these imple- 
ments have been sold and are in use to-day. and there is 
Dot an orcba'd, vineyard or hop-yard that has been cul- 
tivated with them but what Is in tkufkct < oniution. 
No plowing it* ne<*essar v. No ridges or dea-i-fur- 
rowa are made, s i the tmrface is smooth and mellow. 

Send for our New Circular of 18S3 describing these Implements, and also our WHEEL CULTIVATOR and BEKDKR. 
and containing Testimonials from the leading Orchardfsts of the (State 

N. It. — Any responsible person can take any of our goods out on trial and return them if not satisfactory. Call 
and look over the new Implements. 

Mien-; Itirtl, Jr l 
Itiillun and OrU-i 
IlfThl and murine 

msm Id board, with 
p»t*e iWiwtraU-d Prei 

_ m nii.un m- 

, Void r«n» l, Vermun, Fren< h- 
I \ lew*. Kummcr, wintfr, m , 

ISMS, all In beautiful. -olurt on Mil 
1 r name in fan. y *erlpt type, 10c. A W 
rrder. Ajet-nt<« 

muLf M JM-r «-t*Ti». Full particular* and latiinlfs for Sc. Stank 
CAXTON IMUN'iINV CO., > ort lil'onl, Conn 

Silos Reservoirs, Head Gates. 


RAN80ME, 402 Montgomery St., S. F..Sond for Circular 

Grain Separators! 


Your attention i.<* railed to our 

Improved Grain Separator 

Which we attach I" Thrashing Machines. 

We have tho only machine that has made a 

Complete Sin tea of Cleaning the Grain /rem the 
I'll rasher in the 1-ield .' 

And »< CHALLENGE THE WORLD to test our ma 
thine for Spebo Qi'ality of Work, 

We are prepared to fill Orders on Short Notice. 




Liberal Terms to Dealers. 

J. W. EVANS, General Agent 

29 POST St.. 8. F., Cal. 










Curvature of the Spine, Wry-Neck, An- 
chylosis, Club Feet and Bow Legs. 

Trusses and Cratches, Elastic Stockings for Varicose 
Veins. Supporters and Bandages of every description, 
also, Inventor of the Celebrated Autenwrieth'B Club- Foot 
Shoe. Send for circulars. WM. AUTBNRIKTH, 
71 West Sixth Street. Cincinnati, Ohio. 


NuulUJf'tf Run Clovkr 
Blossoms, and extracts pre- 
itarcd from the blossoms curs 
Cancer, Salt Khcuin and all 
diseases arising from an impure 
state of the blood. It all) also 
clear the complexion of all 
pimples, eruptions, etc. Is a 
sure cure (or Constipation, 
Tiles and many other diseases. 
>oth laxative and tonic. For full particulars, address 
C. NF.KHII.VM, Box 4_>2, San Jose, Cal. Residence 
Third Street. 


The Topping Portable Evaporator will dry 
II kinds of fruits and vegetables. Four different sizes, 
with heater attached, all ready for use. They will pay 
for themselves in from one to two weeks. Here Is proof": 
Say we take a No. U dryer, that dry a 10 bu. per day: in 
ti days, 7 lbs. to the bushel on the average, is 4 MO lbs. 
per week. At the present prices, U9Je. per lb., this is 
S j'i >u, which more than |>ays for the dryer the first 
week in use. riease figure for yourself. atUcer, Corcr, 
Apple, l.u.i. and Potsio Parrirn. S> i j ■ I for fir- 
liars, H. TOPPING, Marlon, N. T. 

July 7, 1883.] 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 




Thrifty, Well-grown, Fruit, 

Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

Palms, Bamboos, Shrubs, Roses, etc. Small Fruits, In- 
cluding a large variety of Grapevines, for table, for 
wine and for raisins. 


Of newest and best varieties for market and for profit. 

Descriptive Catalogues will be sent as follows: 

No. 1. Fruits, Grapevines, Berries, etc 3 cts. 

No. 2. Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Roses, etc 3 cts. 


San Jose, ----- California. 

[Established in 1875. J 


Sarcoxie, Jasper Co., Missouri, 


Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees, Forest Tree Seed- 
lings, Deciduous and Evergreen, Fruit Tree 
Storks of Apple, Peach, Tear, 
Cherry, Plum and Ouirire. 
We are prepared to bud 800,000 Peach Seedlings to the 
Leading Varieties of Peaches, Apricots and Plums. 
Prices per 1,000 for Peaches, 815; Apricots and Plums, 
$20. Packing free. Budding commences June 1st. None 
but healthy stocks used. No Yellows! Secure orders 
with one-tenth cash. Balance before shipment. 

ifS? Our Price List, containing everything we grow, 
will he ready early In July, and will contain Kailrnad 
Freight Kates to leading points. Write for it. Free. 


n« ^Turnip 






179-183 MAIN STREET, 


200-206 Randolph St.Chlcago, II' 


Established In 1858. 
I grow all kinds of hardy Fruit Trees, Evergreen Tree 
and Shrubs, Shade Trees, Roses, Flowering Shrubs 
Plants, etc. Grown wi'hout irrigation, clean and 
healthy. The demand is likely to exceed the supply of 
some kinds of Fruit Trees. Prices and kindsl will be 
given on appication. Address W. Q. PEPPER, 
Petaluma, Sonoma Coun ty, Cal 


South of Colton. 

Of choicest varieties of Peach, Apricot, Prune, etc, from 
3 feet upwards. They are all on 2-j -car-old roots and true 
to name. Prices lower than Eastern Trees, if eif&aged 
early. Also Bartlett Pears in dormant bud, very cheap. 
DAVE Tl'RN'KR, Colton, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 

Garden Seeds! t;;u<icn seeds: 

TM«>«. mrhkkin, Importer, Whole 
sale and Retail Dealer in Seeds. Trees, Plants, Al- 
falfa, Red and White ( 'lover, Australian Rye Crass, 
Timothy and Orchard (lra-;s. Kentucky Blue Grass. 
Hungarian Millet Crass, Red Top, etc. Also, a 
large and choice collection of Fruit and orna- 
mental Trees. Bulbs, Roses, Magnolias, Palms, etc., 
at reduced prices. Budding and Pruning Knives, 
Greenhouse Syringes, Hedge and Pole Shears, etc. 
Tints. Mehkkin, 516 Battery St., San Francisco. 

Agcnl for K. I>. Fox's Nnrser>. 



E. A. SCOTT & CO., 

Proprietors for the Pacific, 

P. 0. Box 293, Sacramento, Cal. 

Hayes' Fire TrucK. 

1W Circulars Forwarded Free to any Address. .KJT 




/ 1310 TO 1316 MARKET ST.S.F. 


way 'he Southern Planter^ of Richmond, Va., speaks of 
the Rural Press. 

Wager Peach & Kieffer Hybrid Pear! 

We offer a large stock of the ahove new fruits, together with all the leading varieties of 



We are the first to grow the WAGER AND KIEFFER on this f'oast. <3T PRICES LOW. 

a***.. BELL & McMANAMON, 

Corner Tenih & Jackson Sts. - - - Oakland, California. 

Fruit Trees for Sale. 


A very large and fine stock of FRUIT TREE 5 , embracing all the leading varieties of Apple, Pear, Peach, Apricot 
Prune, Plum, Cherries, Small Fru ts, etc., etc. A large assortment of Snade and Ornamental Trees, Shrubbery 
Vines, Plants, et_'. All thrifty and well grown. 

The Kelsey Japan Plum and White French Gooseberry our Specialties. 


New Fruits, Roses, Clematis, Etc., on the Pacific Coast. 

DEPOT Cor. Ninth and Clay Sts.. Oakland. Send for Catalogue and Prices to 

W. P. HAMMON & CO., 

8644 Broadway. ... - OAKLAND. CAL. 




Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Rerl bp 
Bho Grass, Lawn On::, Orchard Crat:, Bird Seed's, ftc. 

WAREHOUSES: ,,_ .,. . „. 

.■5, 117 & 119 Kinzie St. ° fflce - 115 Kl "Z'e St., 

104, 106, 108 & 1 10 Michigan St. CHICAGO. ILL. 





© r= 

a o 

y- CO 






400,000 TREES 

For tlio Season Of 1883-84 


Apples, Pears, Peaches, Apricots, Nectarines, French and Hungarian 
Prunes, Plums, Figs, ami Cherries. Cypress, Gums, Acacias, 
Ornamental Plants and Shrubs, Hoses, (Jreen- 
house Plants, Etc., Etc. 

All Thrifty, Strong Growth, FREE from Scale or Aphis. 

/I*? Ten per cent.. Discount can be reserved on all orders accompanied bj the 
oasfa received before Dbcbhbib 1st. LIBERAL KATES To DEALERS. 

C -A. T -A. 3L O G- UE 

P. O BOX 175 

3T 3R.EE. 

Fresno City, Cai. 











Agents for J. I. CASE HEADER. Agents for the BENICIA HEADER. 

Agents for the WEYHRICH HEADER. 
Bronson Pitts Separators ! Buffalo Pitts Separators ! Gold Medal Separators! 


Agents for the Calawell Wagon. Agents far the Mi/burn Hollow Axle 
Wagons. Agents for Jackson's Feeder and Separator. 


Baling Rope, Baling Wire, Galvanized Barbed Fence Wire. 
Cordage and Blocks. 

Agents for the BEST BARN DOOR HANGER in Use- 

Address : 

The Grangers' Union of San Joaquin Valley, 

280 and 282 Main St., : : Stockton, Gal. 

Do You Want a Barley Crusher? 

■ IF SO, GET- 

i ft 

The only Crusher in the State that will crush SIX TONS per hour, and the ROLLERS ALWAYS RUN OOLD. Foi 

particulars, call on or address 


California St., bet. Main and Market, STOCKTON, CAL-, 

Who also makes a PERFECT ELEVATOR for piling sacks in warehouses or for loading wagons in Ihc field. 

Price of Field Elevators, $io. Warehouse Elevators, $25. 


Porcelain Lined 
and Brass 


Hose Reels 
—and — 
3 LawnSprinklers, 

— fir — 
S ep a rate 


Bucrryb Grain Drills, Broahcast Seedbrs, 
Cultivators, Plow Sulkies, Cider Mills, Lawn Mowers, etc. 

P. P. MAST & CO., 

33 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Send fi r Circulars and Price Lists. 

\V. II. Butt MAN. 

E. Bowman 


Gllroy, Santa Clara Co, Cal , 

KIZER & BOWMAN BROS., Proprietors. 

We have a Lahof, STOCK of Fruit Trees for sale. None 
hut the best drying, canning and shipping varieties culti- 
vated. Also Forest Trees, Hedge Plants, Ornamental 
Shrubbery and 


Our Apricot trees are on Apricot root, nur Pearh trees 
on Peaeli root, and our Plum and Prune trees are on 

Almond root. This, we clai akes the Plum and 

Prune hardier, lunger lived, less liable to sun burn, and 
a more abundant bearer. 



We arc now prepared to take largi I small contracts 

of orchard planting. For further particulars, address 


Qilroy. - - - California. 

Fruit Jars! Fruit Jars! 

The celebrated Peoria Add b nd 


The Best in the World for 
l!i!S!!S!2Bir Keeping Fruit. 


Slffli llll TAKE NOTICE: I have a 

carload (l.u.'.l) do/en) soon to 
arrive, which I offer for sale 
to the Trade and others at the 
lowest figure. 

IIHIIIIMf/l/^^^ numDer f° r fche season 

' 1 •"— limited. First come, first 
ved! All are invited to call. 

xr Also, HUTTER coolers tor keeping butter 
hard without ice. Send for circular. 


Old Stand. 317 .1 Street. Sacramento. Cal. 


Of California, 


Authorized Capital, - $1,000,00 
In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $531,200. 

Reserve Fund and Paid np Stock, »1,17H. 



A. D. LOGAN Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPKLIjIKH Cashier and Managyr 



JOHN LEWELLINO, President Napa Oo 

J. H. GARDINER Rio Vista 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus Co 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara Co 

J. C. MERYFIELD Solano Co 

H. M. LARUE Yolo Co 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo Co 

THOS. McCONNELL Sacramento Oo 

O J. ORE8SEY Merced Co 


A. D. LOGAN Oolusa Oo 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and oondnoted in tho 
usual way, bank books balanced up and statements of ac- 
counts rendered every inonth 

LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 

COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made 
promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 

GOLD and SILVER deposics receiveu 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on 

BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 
and sold. 

Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Jan. 15, 1882. 



[July 7, 1883 

Huntington, Hopkins & Co., 




firiBlerM Galvanized Fciciii 







Seiontific Press 

Patent Agency. 

Inventors on the P&clno Coast will find it greatly to their advantage to consult this olr 
experienced, first-class Agency. We have able and trustworthy associates and Agents in Wash 
iagton and the capital cities of the principal nations of the world. In connection with onr edi 
torial, scientific and Patent Law Library, and record of original cases in our office, we hav* 
other advantages far beyond those which can be offered home inventors by other Agencies. Tht 
information accumulated through long and careful practice before the Office, and the freqnent 
examination of Patents already granted, for the purpose of determining the patentability of 
inventions brought before us, enables us often to give advice which will save inventors tht 
expense of applying for Patents upon inventions which are not new. Circulars of advice sen' 
free on receipt of postage. Address DEWEY * CO., Patent Agents. 262 Market St., 8. F. 





Choice Lands of Alameda County. 

3300 ACRES. 

AU level hurt, rich and deep alluvial soil, of the selected 
fl ..iTi..ii> r.l' Mir S;mt;i Kiht Kaiirhn, well kimwri ay the 

Samuel B. Martin Farm, 

in AlatmMa < V>imt> and a Mo tion where rro|»8 
never fail. The \ teld Is very great and suited to 
all kinds of fanning and fruits. The rainfall is 
large and several streams run through the lands, which 
are also bordered hv and embrace a small |>ortion of 
" thk willows.'' Railroad station one mile; valuable 
improvements. This property will he sold as a whole at 
a low price, offering a fine opportunity for investment, 
yielding a certain large return. All of it is in great de- 
mand by fanners fur oaafa or Drop rent, and for a term of 
years. It will DO offered in tracts of not less than about 4no 
acres, at prices from 8 U5 to si. Mi per acre. A large |»ortion 
can remain on mortgage if desired, at a low rate of inter- 
est; making beautiful bonus and profitable farms. Nr. 
other pro|»erty as good, so near San Francisco, can M 
purchased for less than double the price, and none in «w» 
large a hod\. The failing health of the owner is the only 
reason for idling. Titi.k I'KHrh t. Possession Oi-t. ls{ 


Agent for Country Property, 
410 Montgomery St., S. F. 


An Kxpkbikm km KoKJWAS (man or woman) for .Jelly 
and Jain Department of tin- snl TIIKKN CAUFORKIA 
PACK INC <<>. Address, giving references] anil rases 
united, M. WELSH. Supt., 

P. 0. nox,'.n0fl,ll.os Aiit'cks.'.Cal. 

Friend & Terry 




At Wholesale ami It.tail, ami 
Mnmifat tureil lo Order at Ilie Mills of the 

Also, Doork, Wixhowh, Blinds, Sharks, Siiis'ii.k-, BOMS 



No. 1310 Second Street, near M. 


Corner Twelfth and J Streets, . 


3 O Tin »a«in.mtKKt» 

And Grafted 


u Rams for Sale. 

ijuv Hred from the first ini|inr- 
Vt tation of Spanish Merino 
Sheep to CaHtornia, iu 18M. 
Tliuniukdibrrd ami llitfh 
<!radr Ewes for* sale. I'rices reusouuble. Residence, one 
mile Dorth of Mc( 'uuim-11 s .Statiun, Western Pacific Division 
*' 1' K It P. <> address. 


Klk QrorOi BaoamflBto Oo*i *'al. 


San Francisco, Cal. Age its fjr the Celebrated 


The Cheapest of which are Guaranteed BETTER than the Best of other Presses. 

Coast, for the DKDKKK'K " PKRPKTI'AL" MAY PRESSES, ffi 
Capftvlty, 10 Im Tons |>or Day. 

We arc Sole Agents for the 1'annV 
keep in stock 


Puts lo to 12 Tons in a Car. l'rirc. mounted on Trucks 


PRESS. Warranted to put In Ton* in a Car. Price, mounted on Trucks 

(same as cut) 

Puts in to 12 Tons in a Car. Pri< 

Puts lOto 12 

in a Grain 

$800 OO 
600 OO 

4.'.0 (i'l 

Forms the Bale 
into Sections 

Without Brums 


Kollowiu- we present some plain c uts illnstratini: the manner ill which the PKKl'KTI Al, PKKSS (old. 

pr e — c a the lla\ in BeettoM : 

Fig. 4A. 

Fig. 43. 


Fig. 45. 


Fig. 44. 

Kij:. 42 illustrates the hopper tilled «ith Hay, 
which is pushed down at the center, w hen the trav 
crser is withdrawn, as shown in Kit. 44, and then 
pressed against the solid Hay and forced into the 
chamher, as shown in Kig. 42. 

The Hay overlapping the traverser, aa shown hi 
Wg, 42, is folded dow n hy the sprint' top, as shown in 
Pig. 44, thus souring a smooth and even surfarc to 
the hale. 

Kig. 4:1 illustrates ;i Ms-timi removed from the liulc. 

End > iew. 

Kit.-. * : ' illustrates the 11c.1t and i-onvenieiit niaiiner 
of handling lla.v thus put up, and it* IlllllllagJ) in 

reedimt out. 





'Sis.. THK — 



Tliie Mill tas been in iiee on this Coast for four years.* ft has three times 


And has met with genera] favor, there now being 

Over 125 'of them in Use in .California ! 

It is the meat economical and durable Feed Mill in use. I am sole manu- 
facturer of the Corrugated Roller Mill. The mills are all ready 'to mount to 


kind patronage receive*! thus fur, and hope for a continuance of jibe tame. 

I 1 hank the* public f 

M. L. MERY. Chico Iron Works. 

Chico, Cal. 


113 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

Cards' Rotating Double Glass 
Ball Trap.— Price $10. 

W. W. GREENER'S Celebrated Breech Loading 
Double Guns. 

W. W. Greener'a Trap Gun, 12, 14 or 16 Gauge, $86 
Also Agent* for the 

GLASS BALLS Manufactured bv the California 
Glass Works. 

£3TA full stock of Colt's, Parker and Remington Ouns, Sharp's, 
Eallard, Winchester, Kennedy, Martin end Remington Sporting Rifle*] 
Pistols of all kinds. Ammunition in quantitlea to suit. A libera! 

discount to the tr do. 


Volume XXVI.] 


[Number 2 

Northern Scenery. 

As if vicing with the territorial extent and 
material resources of the Pacific coast, the 
scenery of the country is equally varied, always 
charming and often sublime. Whether by the 
placid waters of some crystal lake, gazing into 
its mirrored depths, or roaming along the ver- 
dant banks of some majestic river of the north; 
whether reposing in some shady grove and 
listening to the silvery music of some babbling 
brook, or following the devious course of some 
meandering creek or rivulet, on its way home 
to mother ocean; whether wandering over hill 
and dale, or contemplating the bright carpet of 
emerald sward, decked with vari-colored flow- 
ers, covering the broad savannas of the interior; 
whether in beholding the awe-inspiring specta- 
cle of immense thundering torrents madly leap- 
ing down from giddy precipitous bights and 
lashed into fury as they fall and break on the 
rocks below; whether wrapt in ecstatic admira- 
tion as from some convenient eminence his eye 
feasts on the whole grand panorama, crowned 
by the cloud piercing peaks • of the distant 
mountains, nowhere else will the tourist find 
scenery more charming or on a scale of greater 
magnificence, in a word, it is Switzerland and 
Italy combined. 

Our engraving represents one of the many 
(•harming and extensive prospects that may be 
enjoyed by one who visits the northern region 
of the Pacific coast, and shows Mt. Hood as 
seen from the Gulf of Georgia. A contemporary 
contains the following pen picture of the scene: 

"The situation is very beautiful, as the whole 
neighborhood is a gently sloping, grassy park, 
inclining ' to the placid sea. In summer this 
spot is clothed with exquisitely colored flowers 
of every hue, shaded by a grove of oak, on 
which hang long pendant fringes of the gray 

"Let the stranger lay down where he will, he 
must, regretfully, and with sorrow, crush the 
beautiful, the delicate and exquisite gems of 
Flora; but ere he does so, let him choose a spot 
where, from beneath the gracefully hanging 
branches of the oaks, he may catch a vista of 
the scenery outside, for there, before him, the 
shimmering waters of the straits of Fuca lie 
smiling in the full blaze of the midday sun, 
when all the world beyond is shut out by a soft 
ethereal cloud, or, it may be the mystic vapor 
in] mirage, is playing a charade by picturing 
Rcenes of spirit land as I oft have seen it do on 
Arab's barren sands. Presently, however, the 
veil dissolves before the retiring sun, and the 
unnumbered isles appear in their varied hues 
from aerial silvery gray to dark and somber 
blue. Thence rising from the sea and breast- 
ing the sky for half the length of view, is the 
high Olympian range, in massive softness, reared 
and smoothly clad in purple, giving rest to the 
wondering eye. Then upward, in admiration, 
the gaze is carried to the countless snow -clad 
peaks, which boldly probe the sky. This glori- 
ous range is only lost to view, or seems to cease, 
in distant Rainier 's needle pointed peaks; then, 
northward, the waters of the sound make the 
break, when, up springs, as if from a mighty 
plain, the hoary Mount of Baker, rearing its 
cold and stately head, turl>aned with a cloud, 
and its white fingers, far up in heaven, pointing 
everlastingly to unknown realms, and silently 
kissing golden and vermillion adieux to the set- 
ting sun. " 

The weather, both in California and the 
East, has this summer been unusually hot. 

California Wheats. 

There is often inquiry from abroad as to the 
wheats which are chiefly grown in California- 
We have named and described them from time 
to time, but our circulation is extending so 
widely and rapidly that new readers are not 
acquainted with old articles. It would make 
an interesting study to collect the data concern- 
ing the rank in which the different wheats 
stand in the general esteem of planters in the 
different sections of the State. ( 'onditions are 
so various that a variety which is put first in 
one district sinks low on the list of another dis- 
trict. If our readers will all take pains to send 
us the names of the varieties chiefly grown in 
their neighborhoods, mentioning first the one 
chiefly grown and so on, wc will make up a 

irig and summer-fallow. The most popular 
wheat with many of our farmers is the Pride of 
Butte. This, like the Proper, is a bearded 
wheat, but unlike Proper it has stiff' straw, and 
is, therefore, well adapted to summer-fallow. 
While all the wheat mentioned has good yield- 
ing qualities, the Pride of Butte is claimed to 
outyield them all. It is a white wheat, and 
does not weigh quite as heavily as the other 
grades, and is not as popular with the millers. 
It originated in Butte county. Chili Club is 
much grown, and is a good yielder on certain 
soils, and is a popular shipping wheat. Touzell 
is making headway in popular favor, is very 
prolific, and is excellent milling wheat; was 
originated here by samples from the Patent 
Office by Mr. Joseph Hardy. Mr. Hardy has 
also originated a new variety which is proving 
to be of excellent quality, to which has been 
given the name of "Hardy Wheat. " All the 
foregoing ate white varieties, and really vary 
but little in quality; We had almost forgotten 
to mention the White Australia. This is a 


statement which will be of a good deal of inter- 
est. Data of this kind can be sent on a postal 
card, and will only call for a few moments at- 
tention from each grower. 

The Sutter County Farm* r has a good para- 
graph on this subject as relating to that county, 
from which we quote as follows: 

The wheat most in favor with our millers i.s 
Proper, which originated in this county. It is 
somewhat earlier than other varieties, and is, 
therefore, desirable for winter sowing. Opin- 
ions differ as to its adaptability to summer-fal- 
low. Its liability to lodge and shell out during 
the prevalence of north winds are urged against 
it. It is a tender wheat when coming up, and 
frequently perishes during freezing weather — 
does better when drilled than sown broadcast. 

Next in quality may be mentioned theGencs- 
see and White Chili. Their general character- 
istics are the same, but the White Chili has 
been grown here for at least twenty years, and 
has degenerated by time and mixture with other 
wheat until it has almost lost its identity. The 
Genessee is a newer variety, and is very popu- 
lar, and both aro well adapted to winter-sow- 

good wheat, but, like the Chili, lias degenerated 
by long-continued sowing. The Sonora is the 
earliest wheat we have, is a good yielder, and is 
chiefly grown where rust is prevalent; is not 
desirable for milling purposes in this State, and 
is, therefore, chiefly shipped abroad. The 
Odessa and other dark varieties are not grown 
in this section. 

Gov kh n m k XT Trek Pl.wttni;. — We give on 
another page some extracts from a report by 
W. A. .Jones, Major of Engineers, U. S. A., 
concerning tree planting upon the Presidio 
reservation, which lies in the northern confines 
of the city of San Francisco, overlooking the 
bay and the Golden Gate. We are glad that 
Major Jones has made the study he has of the 
subject, and hope it will lead to the improve- 
ment of the reservation in the manner proposed. 
The Government should certainly undertake to 
improve its property, as well as individuals or 
municipalities, and no better place could be 
selected for improvement for public benefit than 
the Presidio of San Francisco, 

Loss o{ Water. 

The loss of water by percolation and seepage 
from open ditches occasions a waste which must 
be overcome before the streams do their great- 
est w ork in transforming our southern lands 
into green fields and orchards. The amount of 
this waste is something startling, and it will 
continue until more perfect conductors than 
open ditches are secured. Movements are in 
progress to secure this either by paving and ce- 
menting the ditches, or by using pipe lines as 
are now being laid on the Ontario colony lands 
in San Bernardino county. The Santa Ana 
Herald, of recent date, states that " there is 
considerable talk about the water supply, and 
there are many suggestions, chief among which 
is the proposition to measure water at the main 
ditch of the water company, for all lateral 
ditches, anil thus avoid great loss, which is con- 
tended is the case now, the water running over 
sandy stretches which naturally absorbs con- 
siderable of it. " 

We do not see that this would help matters 
so far as stopping loss is concerned. It would 
merely make the company solid and no.t give 
the irrigators what they need, unless it is im- 
plied that the irrigators must do the saving. 
The Herald also says: " It is also suggested, if 
these lateral ditches were piped all the Water 
which now is absolutely lost could be saved. 
It is stated that of two heads of water turned 
in the Travis ditch, more than three-quarters of 
it is lost in the sand, and by the time it reaches 
the last irrigator, he has but forty five inches 
of water to attempt to irrigate with. This sub- 
ject ought to be thoroughly discussed. Water 
is the life of this valley." 

The Deer Law. 

Effort was made by the last I.egislature'to 
guard against the slaughter of the deer for 
their hides which has been parsued heretofore 
in a most wanton manner in some of the north- 
ern counties. Scores of carcasses have been re- 
ported abandoned and the slayers have pressed 
onward on their murderous course. It is to be 
hoped that the present law, aiming to prevent 
such outrages, will prove effective. 

It will be well for the information of all who 
contemplate deer hunting to publish the law as 
it stands at present, to wit: 

626 * * * Every person who, between the 
first day in November in each year and the 
first day of July in the following year, hunts, 
pursues, takes, kills or destroys any male doct- 
or buck is guilty of a misdemeanor. . Any per- 
son in the State of California, who has in his 
possession any hides or skins of any deer, elk 
or antelope or mountain sheep, killed between 
the first of November and the first of July is 
guilty of a misdemeanor. Every person who 
shall at any time in the State of California, 
hunt, pursue, take, kill or destroy any spotted 
fawn is guilty of a misdemeanor. Every per- 
son who shall take, kill or destroy any of the 
animals mentioned in this section at any time 
unless the carcass of such animal is used or pre- 
served by the person taking or slaying it, or is 
sold for food, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 
Every person who shall buy, sell, offer for sale, 
transport, or have in his possession any deer 
from which evidence of sex has been removed 
or any of the aforesaid game at any time when 
it is unlawful to kill the same, as provided by 
this andsubsequent sections, is guilty of a mis- 

Tut-. Apache prisoners are to go on the San 
Carlos reservation, as General Crook advised, 
and there pladed under military control, in- 
stead of being looked after by the Indian agent, 



[July 14, 1883 


Agriculture in France. 

Editors Press : — Of late the practice is ex- 
tending for graziers ami butchers to purchase 
cattle by weight. It is certainly the fairest 
method for the farmer, which may explain why 
butchers dislike it. Measurement is also 
adopted, experience having proved that the net 
weight of meat is in proportion to the circum- 
ference of the chest. The animal is placed in a 
position so that its two forelegs shall be in line 
and the head as ordinarily. A tape measure is 
passed round the chest, behind the right shoul- 
der, passing to the flat of the left shoulder. 
Note is taken of the figures, and the tape is 
then passed round in the opposite direction. 
The mean of the two totals represents the true 
girth. Supposing the measurement to l>e 70 
inches, that is considered to represent 385 of 
net meat, or the four quarters; if 108 inches, 
1 , :!•_'.■) pounds. There remains only to fix the 
current price per pound to determine the value 
of the beast. In the case of the employment 
of the weigh bridge, for every -J20 pounds 
there is allowed as net meat, for lean stock, 
110 pounds; half fat, impounds: and finished 
off, I3<> pounds. 

An agriculturist in the department of the 
Ardennes purchased 33 acres of land at I .'_'•!() fr. 
per acre, in 1880: he expended on their recla- 
mation, drainage, manures, etc., 1,550 fr. per 
acre, and had it in pasture in 1 882, when he 
turned in twelve oxen to fatten, between April 
and October. The mean daily increase per 
animal in flesh, was seventeen ounces; some in- 
dividual leasts put up as much as two pounds 
i if Been in the rush of spring. In other words, 
every two and one-half acres produced about 
two and one-fourth pounds of meat during the 
ITS days of pasturing, daily, and if the net 
meat were estimated at forty fr. per cwt. , after 
deducting all charges, the net profit was repre- 
sented by only two and one-half per cent on 
capital. Of course, in succeeding years the 
pasturage would be enhanced in value. 

Very much attention is at present being de- 
voted in France to the cultivation of sanfoin. 
It lias produced most excellent results in south- 
ern climates, hot rather than cool, and on soils 
of a calcareous, gravelly or stony nature. Its 
culture has transformed arid soils in Southern 
ranee; in the region of Limoux (Aude) it has 
enabled the poor soils to now bear the 
most luxuriant crops of rich lucerne and 
even clover. Sanfoin came originally from 
the calcareous mountain lands of Europe, and 
hence dislikes tenacious clays and marshy soils. 
It succeeds best after a root crop, potatoes 
especially, and is sown in spring with barley or 
oats. It lasts from six to seven years. The 
beat manure is well-rotten compost: chalky 
soils demand wood ashes or liquid manure. The 
seed ought to present a bluish-gray, or shining 
brown appearance; if the color be dull brown, 
that indicates heating; if pale, such means late 
harvestintr. As the seed ripens irregularly, 
great attention must l>e paid to its saving. The 
plant ought to be cut when the seeds are ready 
to fall, and the best moment is the morning 
when it is laden with dew. After lying a day 
in swath, convey to barn, and only thrash 
at the period when the sceil is required. If 
otherwise, keep it on a cool floor, turning the 
layers over rapidly. The seed loses itsgermina- 
tivc power very soon, and if more than a year 
old, it ought to be preliminarily steeped in water 
at blood heat. 

Some persons sow sanfoin with winter wheat; 
this plan exposes the young plant to the hazards 
of frost. In March or April, as above stated, 
is the usual season. However, it is an excel 
lent plan to sow it with buckwheat in June, or 
it may l>c sown alone in June and a cutting 
made in autumn. About four bushels of seed 
l>cr acre is adequate, but a leaning to thick sow- 
ing is not a fault. Some people cut it when in 
flower, others wait until flowers commence to 
fall. In drying it great care must be taken, as 
the leaves drop off more quickly than those of 
clover, hence it ought to be made into bundles 
before the leaves be quite dry. The yield in 
hay is about two tons per acre; the aftermath 
is generally fed down; two cuttings can be ob- 
tained if the soil can be irrigated. Grazing 
sanfoin, if possible, ought to be avoided; it is a 
plant that does not like the tooth of an animal, 
and above all that of sheep. 

Sanfoin is better in the green than the dry 
state; in the latter, the stems are hard; it has 
the superiority over lucerne never to produce 
hoven in animals. Mixed with clover, sanfoin 
goes well. An acre of sanfoin yields about 
thirty-three bushels of seed, and sells at five 
francs the bushel. Sanfoin is also known by 
the name Esparectte, and "Healthy (not Holy, 
as is believed) Hay."' 

Beet Sugar. 
During the season of sugar making the man- 
ufacturers employ the services of young chem- 
ists at "200 francs per month, to analyze the beet 
offered for sale, and on which the price depends. 
The season terminated, the chemists are dis- 
missed, hence, the difficulty of obtaining their 
services later. It is proposed that for the fu- 
ture the sugar manufacturer employ the chem- 
ist all the year round; that in the slack period 
lie could superintend experiments affecting the 
growth of several varieties of beet, the distances 
at which it is best to phot them, the ellicacy of 

several manures, etc. It is also proposed, that 
the fabricants supply fanners, and at wholesale 
prices, not only with seed, but with appropri- 
ate manures. The prospect of the l>cet crop is 
excellent, the weather is propitious for the 
young plants. 

Head Veterinary Inspector Bouley confirms 
his assertions, that the flesh of animals, killed 
in the knacker's yard, those diseased, can be 
given without danger, if well cooked, to pigs, 
during their growth. It must be discontinued, 
however, (hiring the fatting stage. 

Marcs, or the residue of the wine press, have 
proved to be as good as pressed beet pulp for 
feeding. Hitherto they have not been utilized. 
Sheep thrive well on the diet. It is best to 
employ the marcs for the first feed of the day, 
an<l to mi\ into the other rations. A little oil 
cake makes an excellent mixture. 


Theic exists an erroneous impression that for 
ensilage or trench food, a special variety of 
maize is necessary. This is not so; all varieties 
have alike been tested in France without any 
difference being perceptible. The main object 
is to obtain the seed free from damage, so that 
its germinative pow er shall remain sound. The 
next end is to sow in lines from ten to twenty 
inches apart; this allows of weeding: larger 
spaces induce the growth of thick stems which 
necessitate the use of the chaff cutter l>efore the 
stuff be trampled into the trench. Maize for 
ensilage can be sown from May 1st to July 15th, 
but in France that sown between May 15th and 
close of June succeeds best; one and one-half 
cwts. to the acre. The special manures consist 
of nitrate of soda, superphosphate of lime, 
chlorate of potash, dried blood, or wool dust; 
bone dust can supersede the superphosphate in 
many soils, and when farmyard manure is em- 
ployed, the fertilizers can be reduced by two- 

Lucerne seed has in the southwest of France 
been largely adulterated with a variety known 
as "Chili lucerne," and which comes from the 
neighborhood of Buenos Ayres. It is an an- 
nual, while the othersare perennial, hence great 
deception and loss can ensue. The Chili va- 
riety sells for five francs per cwt. Some farm- 
ers now employ it directly as a manure, others 
sow it very thickly, and in due time plow it 
in as a green fertilizer. 

Limed Eggs. 
M. de Kolliere's plan of preserving eggs fresh 
is worth knowing, since it is practiced by mer- 
chants who deal so with twelve millions of eggs 
annually. The eggs when laid, or quite fresh, 
are gently struck against each other to see if 
they be "sound." Next they are placed in a 
kind of earthen pitcher, having a very naij'ow 
bottom. When the vessel is full, a solution of 
quarter of an ounce of quicklime to one quart 
of water is poured in. The lime water perme- 
ates the shell till it reaches the first membrane, 
rendering the latter impervious. The pitchers 
are then placed in a cellar, from where all light 
is excluded, but a uniform temperature of forty- 
four to forty-six degrees Fahr. uniformly main- 
tained. In the course of a few days a pellicle 
forms on the surface of the water in each 
pitcher carbonate of lime — and that must 
never be broken till the moment for withdraw- 
ing the eggs. This process enables eggs to be 
kept fresh from six to eight months, and not 
more than five in a thousand prove objection- 


A gardener keeps hig frames and hot houses 
free from slugs by mixing sulphate of copper 
with wheaten bran. The odor of the latter at- 
tracts the enemy to certain death. Keep 
poultry, however, from the stuff. 

The culture of flax, limited to the north of 
France, is on the decline. A century ago there 
was three times more grown than now. About 
150,000 acres are at present under that crop; in 
1882 the area was exactly double. People pre- 
fer cheap cotton goods and stuffs to linen, and 
Riga flax can be had fifty per cent cheaper than 
French. The extended culture of beet has also 
diminished flax growing. 

The vineyards arc in excellent condition; un- 
happily the phylloxera continues its onward 
march. Of all the remedies propounded, 
autumnal inundations, followed by good spring 
mauurings, is the most popular. All attempts 
to acclimatize the tuberous, annual, Soudan 
grape in France have now been abandoned. 
Paris, June, 1883. Acroa. 

Hop Picking. 

EDITORS Pkkss: — To my thought not one of 
the world's charities is more pathetically beauti- 
ful than the sending and entertaining of the 
pent up city children, whose parents are with- 
out the means, or who being orpli lie, are thrown 
upon the public for care ami sympathy, into the 
country for a summer vacation of restful yet 
active enjoyment. Add to it the overworked 
mothers, or invalid sisters, working when they 
should be out in the MUM air, drinking in health 
and hope, and our picture of a benevolence run- 
ning over with the blessedness of giving and 
receiving is complete. 

The anxious outlook for hop pickers among 
our neighbors just now, has raised a question 
in my mind. What a pity that the behavior 
of well grown city boys should have discouraged 
the first experiment of their employment in our 
hop fields. I wonder if a bevy of young girls, ac- 
companied by tired out school teachers, would 
not prove a happy experiment, mingling instruc- 
tion with authority and motherly care V I be- 

lieve I would venture it if I had the field and 
the health, and I am sure I would enjoy it, too. 

In Vermont and New Hampshire, in the vi- 
cinity of my early home, hop-picking collected 
the girls from the villages and surroundiug 
country, who looked fowaid to it as recreation. 
F'speBially if inclined to physical weakness they 
were sent hop-picking to recruit their strength, 
and came home with pin money and fine spirits. 

In this little valley there will be some three 
weeks' picking — 130 acres -—in fields of from five 
to thirty acres, among beautiful scenery, good 
mothers and sober, respectable owners. Their 
own families will engage in the work, but lie 
insufficient. Having ventilated my thought, I 
leave it for the consideration of those con- 
cerned. C. I. H. Nichols. 

Potter Valley, June 4, 1883. 

Tuolumne Notes. 

Eiiitiirs Pkkss : The mower and reaper arc 
busy harvesting a more than average crop. I 
find that grain is produced amongst the foot- 
hills in place of hay, as formerly. A few days 
ago I made a visit to Columbia. All along the 
road are found fields ripened for the thrasher, 
with the prospect of a large yield. Hay is 
slow of sale, and only a limited quantity used. 
With grain it is otherwise; it commands cash 
less or more when ready for the miller or ex- 
portation. The grain amongst the foothills did 
not suffer by the extreme heat as it did on the 
plains. Winds are not so strong and blighting, 
being tempered by the cool of the snow-clad 

I examined some of the gardens in Columbia, 
and found them fruitless, all having an extra 
growth of foliage. J. Winchester had a patch 
of the Burbaiik-sport potato, which spoke well 
for that favorite. The stems were straight, 
tall and vigorous. A few years will sec them 
in general use. 

This frost blizzard has pinched many a home 
in the rural districts. Families arc moving to 
the plains to work out enough to tide them over 
to another season, hoping for better fortune for 
fruit and vegetables. It is well that labor is 
called for at the present time. This county is 
so diversified in resources that universal suffer- 
ing is never thought of, and is one of the im- 
probabilities of the future. 


Fruit is abundant below the frozen zone. 
Hugh Quinn is marketing peaches of large size 
and extra quality ; also apricots, apples, etc. 
Currants arc being brought to the county from 
Modesto, raised in the bay counties, and find a 
ready sale. It is a great luxury to enjoy the 
small fruits after spending a winter upon dried 
fruits, etc. If we only had railroad accommo- 
dations we would enjoy the city advantages of 
market, but wagon carriage destroys small 
fruit, ami enhances the price beyond common 
use. Our first crop of figs are aWit ready for 
use, some tw r o or three weeks earlier than usual. 
The second crop will be later than other years, 
owing to the frost nipping the points of the 
young shoots, retarding growth. 

Dry Sowing. 

Experience is a good teacher, and when ex- 
perience improves on old methods then the in- 
terested public should know it. Your practical 
paper is for the purpose of spreading abroad all 
such information for the general good. A suc- 
cessful foothill farmer, John Edwards, gave me 
his method of culture whereby he can discount 
his neighbors by one half. He summer fallows 
of course; plowing deep. In the fall he uses a 
heavy drag, drawn by four horses, pulverizing 
the ground well. Then he sows his grain; har- 
rows and cross harrows. All this is done be- 
fore it rains. Mr. Edwards told me that he 
would have reaped a fair crop if no rain had 
followed the long, dry spell. It is lalwr, but 
the results warrant the extra trouble. 

A Woman's Work. 

It is always a pleasant task to put on record 
the successful struggles of woman under ad- 
verse circumstances, especially in the manage- 
ment of a farm. We have many noble exam- 
ples all around us. Five years ago Mrs. 
Frank Tinnie was left a widow with 
a large family, mostly girls— the eldest 
boy being some ten or twelve years 
of age. The family occupied a farm of 340 
acres, mostly of a grazing quality. Fifty acres 
were available for hay or grain. At the time 
of the husband's death it was a struggle to pay 
expenses, so that nothing was laid by for the 
rainy day. Nothing daunted, Mrs. Tinnie 
went bravely to work. The boy became a man, 
and has ever acted a manly part. I )ebts were 
cancelled, crops raised, cows, pigs and poultry 
attended to. In all, she was unaided, except 
in a friendly way. The family has been com- 
fortiy raised, the two eldest girls married, and 
all being secured by the good management of a 
good mother and the labors of a manly boy, 
who really never was a boy as regards recrea- 
tion, etc. Would that I could continue in sun- 
shine without the cloud: It would seem as if 
trouble follows some from the cradle to the 
grave. A week ago to-day the widow and sou 
spent part of the day at Mount Pleasant, to 
find on returning home the house in ashes. A 
spark fell upon the dry shingles, and no one be- 
ing at home but the three youngest. Their 
efforts were fruitless to stay the flames. Of 
course, nothing in the house w as saved. When 
help arrived, the out-buildings were saved; also 
fencing, pasture, etc., which would have created 
a wide-spread conflagration. There was insur- 

ance of SfiOO, which will enable the family to 
commence in a small way to make up for their 
great loss. Mrs. Tinnie has the symiiathy and 
substantial support of her many friends and 
neighlwrs. John Taylok. 

Mount Pleasant, Tuolumne Co. 

From Vulture to Prescott, Arizona. 

Ehitoks Press: From Vulture to Prescott 
is a scope of hills and valleys of sixty miles, af- 
fording different cattle ranges, ample room for 
cattle on a thousand hills, and feed for a thous- 
and cattle to graze on one hill. The stock of 
cattle noticed seemed to l>e generally of very 
good grade of American stock, and the same 
with a few exceptions is true of the horse 
stock, and all having plenty of feed on the open 

The Securing of a Spring 
Or well with water in it is securing the control 
of a large scope of country. Sixteen miles from 
Vulture over the old quartz road brings you to 
Wickenburg — rather where it once was— a 
busy, bustling little town with a forty-stamp 
mill and several stores, saloons and hotels. Now 
it is almost a deserted camp. The village smith, 
finding his steel and iron liars of little demand, 
opens a small refreshment bar for the wayfar- 
ing man. A store and postotlice and a board- 
ing-house, and stage station with a U. S. Tele- 
graph and supply depot, for government trains, 
now comprises the major portion of what used 
to be a very lively tow n. The concentration 
works of M. Salsbury, Sunt, of Benson Smelt- 
ing Co., now erecting there for operations 
on the old Vulture tailings, and the renewed in- 
terest taken in more thoroughly prospecting 
this locality will somewhat revive the town and 
fill some empty houses. From Wickenburg, 
sixteen miles by the old wagon road, shows only 
rough, rolling pasture land with but one settler 
till you arrive at J. R. Frink's stock ranch, 
where are excellent water privileges and an im- 
mense range occupied by his numerous bauds of 
horscsand cattle. Here my Pimol >aisy,byaspeeial 
breach of trust, took a promenade with common, 
loose stock, and cost 

A Three Days' Search 
Before she could be captured and brought to a 
proper line of duty. I felt perfectly satisfied 
that Mr. Frink had ample scope for more than 
40,000 horses to feed and fatten. Ten miles 
and "20 miles are common distances between 
these different watering springs and stock 

In Skull valley arc several families of farm- 
ers and stock men, and a thriving school, with 
a literary society, organized for literary and 
social improvement. One cheese dairy of "J4 
cows was running, finding ready sale for the 
cheese. The hay cut always has ready sale at 
good prices, either at home or at Prescott, 90 
miles to the northeast, over good mountain 


The territorial capital, and county seat of 
Yavapai county, with a population of about 
•J, 500, is very pleasantly located in the midst 
of granite hills and mountains, and surrounded 
w ith pine forests, which, w ith the elevation of 
5,500 feet, insures abundance of cool, refresh- 
ing breezes. The city is, in all its features, 
American -that means regular, wide streeta, 
kept clean : good business houses and substan- 
tial public buildings, and a mild city govern- 
ment. Of the business portion, the center 
block was left an open plaza, ami now contains 
the county Court House, built of brick, two 
stories above basement, w ith cupola and town 
clock. There are five churches, a large two- 
story brick public school building, a dramatic 
and theatrical building, and halls for the fra- 
ternal societies, and a large brick used below 
by the Bank of Arizona, and above for territo- 
rial offices and territorial library. Many of 
the stores are large tireproofs, carrying 
very large stocks of goods. The latest im- 
provement is the large and commodious hotel 
"Sherman House," erected by M. H. Sherman, 
a stirring territorial pioneer, and now leased 
by H. M. Hughes, an experienced hotel man, 
who places this before the public as a first-class 
house for tourists and families. I^ist Sunday 
the dinner tables served nearly 'J00 guests to a 
very inviting bill of fare. 

But the more emphatic American feature of 
the city is expressed in the fact that three able 
and readable daily newspapers are published 
here, with their accompanying weeklies, and 
on every occasion of important news free extras 
are distributed promptly through the city. 
All of these are endeavoring to encourage and 
sustain the brave pioneers of our new Territory, 
and to let the distant lands know there are here 
rich grazing lands not used, where enterprise 
would easily develop the water for stock; that 
there are in these mountains vast deposits of 
gold, silver, copper and lead that offer ample 
remuneration for capital and labor expended in 
their development. 

Too often the pioneer newspapers arc not 
given half the credit due them. 

The Whipple Post is within a mile of the 
city and forms quite a suburban town, adding 
much to the good literary society of the place, 
as well as to the security of the multitude of 
scattered mining camps in this vicinity. The 
officers and their families are highly esteemed. 
The electric light is now to lie dispensed to the 
city of Prescott as some of the most energetic 
citizens have a franchise for introducing the 
Brush and Swan lights. The climate of this 
portion of the Territory is very nearly perfec- 

July 14, 1883.J 



tion itself. Every day has pleasant refreshing 
breezes, and eool bracing temperature at night. 
Mining work can be pursued twelve months 
each year. 

I very much doubt if there is an average of 
any better climate in any State or Territory 
than these mining hills of Arizona. 

Asthmatic Subjects 

Will here find relief. Mr. I. Miller, an old resi- 
dent of Santa Barbara was, on account of asth- 
ma, obliged to leave there, and was induced to 
come to Arizona, and after a few days resi- 
dence in Phtenix (only 1,800 feet elevation) he 
told me he was entirely relieved of his old 
trouble. So he opened up trade in that town. 
Some afflicted one may say: "How can^I get 
there, or to the higher town of Prescott '! " The 
Southern Pacific R. R. brings you to Maricopa 
station, cither from east or west, and a splen- 
did through line of stages lands you quickly in 
Prescott or any intermediate place. This stage 
route shows you < Jila and Salt river valleys, 
the grandest valley farms of Arizona and some 
rich hill scenery, as you pass over 150 miles 
across the Territory. Or the Atlantic & Paci- 
fic R. R., now completed to connect with the 
Southern Pacific in California and Santa Ve R. 
R. at Albuquerque, will bring passengers for 
this place to Ash Fork, and a pleasant stage 
ride of only sixty miles to reach Prescott. 
This route passes near the 
Grandest Scenery of this Continent, 

And ample provisions arc making for tourists 
to enjoy these sights with safety and with very 
trifling additional expense. The students of 
geology will find in these deep gorges of the 
Colorado, the largest illustrated work on strat- 
ification and the crust formations of the earth. 
The student of astronomy, from these deep 
gorges can study the visible starry firmament 
at mid-day. B. W. Crow ell. 

Prescott, A. T., June 20, 1883. 


Value of the Rural Press. 

EDITORS Pkkss; — "In the mouth of many 
witnesses the truth is established," and I want 
to add my testimony to the statements that 
come to you from all parts of the country con- 
cerning the practical value of the PRESS to the 
people of California. Indeed, I never lend, or 
give away my copy, with the double intention 
of doing my neighbor a favor and inducing him 
also to become your subscriber, but there is 
sure to lie in that very paper some hint upon 
some subject that I afterwards need, which 
causes me to regret my generosity. 

All agree that the Rural pays for itself over 
and over, during the year. I should say so '. 
Why, one item alone;, in regard to the proper 
way to plant sugar beets for cow feed, which 
I found in the Press last month, has been 
worth a dozen years' subscription to me al- 

Growing Beets. 

I never had any luck in planting beets before 
this season. The seed was so slow to germinate 
that the weeds got entire possession of the land 
before the beets came up, and year after year I 
have been forced to the conclusion that the only 
way to cultivate this crop was to plow it under 
and plant the field in corn. 

This seison, according to instructions given 
in the Rural, 1 soaked the seed in warm water 
for two or three days beforehand, keeping them 
in a warm place until they began to germinate, 
and the little white sprouts could be plainly 
seen, when 1 planted them in a rich, mellow 
ground, and you should see my field of cow 
beets now. It does my heart good whenever I 
look at the long straight rows of tender green. 
They mean to me plenty of rich milk, cream 
and butter, all through the dry season, with 
cattle in such good condition that it will be a 
pleasure to look at them for the rest of the 


Again, in a late number, you give the very 
recipe for making a cheap and permanent white- 
wash that I had been wanting so much for use 
upon the wood- house, barns, and outbuildings 
generally, in order to make things look fresh 
and wholesome for the summer. It is astonish- 
ing how far-reaching are the effects of a yearly 
painting and whitewashing. Not only from a 
scenic and hygienic point of view, but a moral 
one as well. It seems to raise the tone, so to 
speak, of everybody on the place. Under its 
influence the hired man will hardly dare leave 
the plow to rust in the furrow, the harrow in 
the field, or the scythe swing up in a tree until 
it happens to be wanted next year, as he would 
only be too apt to do on a place where wind and 
weather are left to do their worst upon the 
buildings throughout the winter, without a 
thought of their needed yearly repairing when 
the springtime comes. 

Kven the children from such homes tell the 
story of the influences which surround them, 
and the purification of the limewash seems to 
extend to their clean aprons, rosy cheeks and 
bright eyes, whilst the unkempt child with its 
soiled and torn garments seems the natural out- 
growth of an untidy, shiftless home, wherein 
the virtues of general spring whitewashing are 

We have nothing more to say but to acknowl- 
edge that the Rural Press "takes the cake" 
over all the other papers in the State, and sign 
ourselves gratefully yours, L. U. McCann. 

Santa Cruz, Cal. 

Tree Planting on the Government Res- 
ervations in San Francisco. 

W. A. . I ones, Major of Engineers, U. S. A., 
has just made an interesting report to the As- 
sistant Adjutant General, on a plan for plant- 
ing trees upon the Presidio Reservation of San 
Francisco. We shall take therefrom certain 
portions which arc of general interest: 

I have given the matter considerable atten- 
tion and treated it largely, because it is one of 
both importance and interest. The plan al- 
though apparently so extensive, is perfectly 
feasible, by keeping up the accretion of small 
doings. Each season's work can be laid out be- 
forehand, and the trees can be produced from 
seeds in unlimited numbers at very small cost. 
In the propagation of seeds and r earing of the 
young trees we cannot do better than to follow 
the plan in such successful operation at the 
Golden Gate Park of San Francisco. The trees 
there are raised from seed, which is planted in 
wooden boxes 1 ft. 6 in. x 2 ft. 6\, and 5 
inches deep. These boxes are kept, until the 
young trees are about 2 inches high, in glass 
frames, with sloping and sliding tops, each 
division to hold 4 boxes (about 3 ft. 2 in. x 5 ft. 
2 in , inside measurement. ) The tops should 
slope towards the south, if possible. They are 
then removed (still in boxes) to a house 20 feet 
wide with gable roof, the whole covered with 
laths nailed diagonally, with about half an 
inch between. This is to harden the young 
trees, which arc taken from there and planted 

There is another large glass house, .'10x100 ft. ; 
but the chief gardener informs me the width is 
much too great, as the side benches are fi feet 
wi'le and the center one will be 12 feet, which 
is too great a reach for a man. He recommends 
that it ought to have been not over 17 feet, viz.: 

Bench 3 feet — passage 2 feet — bench (i feet 
— passage 2 feet — bench 3 feet. 

The sashes in this house are fixed, and there 
is a ventilator running the whole length of eacli 
wall and one along the crest of the roof. The 
glass, wherever used, should be coated with 
lime wash (with plenty of white glue) on the 

Plans of the seed-boxes, glass-frames, and 
shade-house are submitted herewith. 

The earth in the boxes should be richly pre- 
pared loam. The seeds should be sown on the 
surface, no matter what their size, and sprink- 
led over loosely with sawdust, as a substitute 
for the leaves and leaf-mold of the forest. 
Germination is produced by heat and darkness. 
After the growth is started the plant wants 
plenty of light. In the planting of flowers 
and vegetables, gardeners have a principle of 
covering a seed to a depth equal to its size or 
thickness. This will not apply to trees. 
Nature plants these seeds on the surface. A 
tree-seed planted too deeply will come 
up and the youn,' plant may seem strong 
and vigorous, but it will never make so 
strong and lusty a tree as if Nature's condi- 
tions had been more carefully followed. 

W here trees are planted in sand, or loose 
sandy soil, the ground will need no preliminary 
preparation; loose sand can be protected from 
blowing by brush anchored in by sand spaded 
over the butts, but ordinary ground should be 
coarsely broken up with the plough and not 
harrowed, Furrows can then be laid out as 
guides and aids in the planting. It is found in 
the Golden Gate Park that by setting out in 
the rainy season, the necessity of watering the 
young trees is entirely avoided. In transplant- 
ing, the soil about the roots should first be 
thoroughly saturated with water and then pre- 
served in a compact mass or ball, for removal 
to the new site. This is important. ( Jardeners 
have a fancy for shaking the earth entirely 
free from the roots of young plants in trans- 
planting. This is radically wrong. It saves 
some trouble, but seriously checks growth, and 
incurs unnecessary risk. A gardener meets the 
difficulty he has created by skillful watering. 
By proper care and forethought, I do not think 
the trees will need much attention after being 
once set out, a systematic annual thinning out 
being about all that will be found necessary. 
General Plan. 
A large forest on each of the three principal 
ridges, connected by belts along the boundary 
fence and through the sand-drift between Pre- 
sidio and Fort point. One on Telegraph hill, 
connecting with the two large areas of drifting 
sand on either side. Another on Presidio hill, 
sweeping around from the bluff on the Fort 
Point road and crowning the ridge as far as the 
First Avenue gate. Another commencing at 
the First Avenue gate and taking in the drift- 
ing sand belt along the fence to the top of the 
ridge in the southwest corner of the Reser- 
vation, thence running down that ridge 
to where it runs out on the main road 
from the lower gate. Then a narrow irregular 
belt along the fence of the eastern boundary. 
Then cover the principal portion of the marsh. 
The main idea is, to crown the ridges, border 
the boundary fences, and cover the areas of 
sand and marsh waste with a forest that will 
generally seem continuous, and thus appear 
immensely larger than it really is. By leaving 
the valleys uncovered or with a scattering 
fringe of trees along the streams, the contrast 
of hight will be strengthened. The view from 
the avenue in front of the officers' quarters at 

the Presidio should not be restricted towards 
the bay by trees. Scattered clumps of trees 
in the valley just in front can be introduced, 
but not so that they will grow up and impede 
the main view. These groups should be com- 
posed principally of trees and shrubs showing 
flowing outlines, and should be artistically ar- 
ranged. They occupy the frontispiece of the 
picture and require skillful handling. 

The Presidio is the central and vital point of 
the composition, andlhave given it an imposing 
background of forest overlooking great stretches 
of rolling greensward. This forest is, further, 
so disposed that there are very few points from 
without where its true breadth at any point 
can be appreciated, and it will seem to be very 
much larger than it is. 

In order to make the contrast from the city 
seem as great as possible, and indirectly ac- 
centuate the idea of the power of the Govern- 
ment, I have surrounded all the entrances with 
dense masses of wood. The entrance from 
First avenue leads through a long belt of wood, 
with vistas across the valley to the east, to the 
points where the road rounds the point of the 
hill and displays the whole of the magnificent 
view of the bay below. This is treated so as 
to burst suddenly in view, and thus highten 
the effect by contrast. The Central avenue 
entrance leads through a long belt of wood 
with vistas of the city, Alcatraz Island, etc. 
The Lombard-street entrance is through a nar- 
row belt of trees. The ground here is flat and 
suitable for military manceuvers, and should 
not be restricted by trees. The street- 
railroad entrance is through a mass of 
trees. Masses of trees should not be 
introduced in close proximity to the Presidio. 
They would add considerably to the dampness, 
and thus render it less comfortable as a dwell- 
ing place. The great forest on the hill which en- 
circles it to the windward will add very much to 
the comfort of this situation by modifying the 
force of the wind. It will probably prove an 
effectual wind break for the Presidio. At the 
approach to the ocean on Telegraph Hill, the 
trees are so disposed as to develop the Pacific 
ocean view suddenly, and thus highten its ef- 

This project is perfectly feasible, provided it 
be treated systematically and with forethought. 
It should be remembered that wc are in the 
midst of a great and growing city; that the 
eyes of people of culture are upon us, and that 
it is within our power to treat this matter so as 
to win delight and approbation on the one hand, 
or contempt and derision on the other. If it lie 
worth while to plant trees on the reservation at 
all, they should be planted effectively, and not 
dumped into the ground by the thousand, at 
random. Opinions will vary as to what would 
be the most effective arrangements, but the 
variation will be within narrow limits, and 
there is a general coincidence of opinion con- 
cerning the leading points of good taste in such 
a matter. Furthermore, the question of tree- 
planting is one of vital importance to the peo- 
ple of this locality, so that a well sustained and 
intelligent example will contribute to the ma- 
terial good of a great many people, and this I 
conceive to be a becoming thing for us to do in 
all cases where it is reasonably within our 
power. With the means at hand, and that will 
remain in hand from year to year, it is perfectly 
feasible to carry out this project. There is no 
hurry about it, and it can be done thoroughly 
anil well. 

In order to protect the young trees from 
grazing, cattle, they should be fenced in. As 
much as can be easily planted and cared for in 
one season should be fenced in at a time. After 
the trees are once well started in growth they 
need no further care. Where sand wastes are 
treed, no cattle should be allowed to roam 
among the trees for a great many years, and, in 
fact, the whole of the tree plantations should be 
protected from them until theygct to be of consid- 
erable size. The best and cheapest inclosure is 
wire fence, w ith lanes leading through the trees 
from one grazing ground to another. 

Trees in masses should be planted very 
thickly, keeping in view the hight they will 
attain in one year's growth, and preserving a 
distance between them about equal to their 
hight. Rapid growing trees, like eucalyptus, 
can be planted six to eight feet apart. Those 
of slower growth, as near as four feet apart. 
There should be an annual thinning out, es- 
pecially of the feeble, sickly and ill-shaped 
plants, keeping the distance between trees about 
equal to their hight, so that the whole ground 
about their roots will be reasonably shaded, as 
in nature. The products of this thinning can 
be disposed of as nursery stock, poles, firewood, 
timber, etc. Considerable of the work can be 
done by prisoners, but in any event it is per- 
fectly certain that the operation will more than 
pay for itself. The principal difficulty in the 
way of treeing this reservation is the wind; but 
fortunately the whole trouble lies in one di- 
rection. During a large portion of the year, 
westerly winds, of exceptional force, prevail. 
Furthermore, they are the strongest and most 
persistent just at the season when deciduous 
trees are growing rapidly, forming tender shoots. 
Hence it is doubtful whether they can be suc- 
cessfully cultivated, except in sheltered sites 
and among masses of other trees. In the out- 
set, therefore, we are almost restricted to ever- 
green trees that continue their growth during 
the winter season. Experience has proved 
that the regions from which to draw are 
the Pacific coast, Australia and the south 
of Europe. This results from a certain 
similarity of geographical conditions, and these 
lead me to the opinion that New Zealand, the 

table land of Mexico, and the high lands of 
British India, could also be resorted to. lie- 
turning to the wind difficulty, 1 have met it by 
placing wind-breaks on the sides of masses ex- 
posed to westerly winds. These are composed 
of trees that have been proved able to resist 
the winds here, together with an outlying belt 
of w iry shrubbery. The trees are composed of 
an intermingling of needle-leaved and pendant- 
leaved varieties, which form a combination best 
adapted to resist wind. In masses, the euca- 
lyptus globulus is a good wind-stay, after it 
has attained some hight, but it grows so rapidly 
as to be slender and weak at first. It can be 
introduced with much effect among masses of 
other trees after they have attained a few years' 
growth. The long slender branches whipping 
in the wind are very effective. And this brings 
me to the subject of pruning. The primer in- 
dustriously cuts these branches off, thus reduc- 
ing the power of the tree to resist the wind. 
Doubtless trees of defective shape can be im- 
proved by pruning, but the matter requires more 
than ordinary skill and judgment, and 1 would 
strongly recommend that all pruning of trees on 
this reservation be forbidden. The trees that 
are growing here now have been most horribly 
mutilated. The chances arc that nature can 
produce stronger and better looking trees than 
the average gardener. Even her homeliest and 
most irregular productions have the merit of 
being picturesque. 

I submit herewith a contour plan of the Pre- 
sidio reservation, showing in irregular outline 
the proposed tree plantations. These are sub- 
divided into minor numbered areas — the num- 
bers referring to the following legend, in which 
are given directions for the trees to be planted 
in each numbered area. The trees are disposed, 
as much as possible, so as to take advantage of 
their well-know n requirements of soil and situa- 
tion. An attempt has also been made to pro- 
duce massive contrasts of light and shade in the 
colors of fhe foliage. 

Analysis of Presidio Soils. 
The report concludes with a letter from Prof. 
Hilgard, containing an analysis of Presidio soils 
and remarks thereupon. We quote as follows; 

" On examination, I find that the two sand- 
stone soils, Nos. 1 and 3, differ only in the pro- 
portion of vegetable matter; and, furthermore, 
that the serpentine soil and subsoil are also . 
mainly derived from the same materials as the 
others, the serpentine contributing only a little 
f its powder to the mass, but nothing that 
would make the two soils differ in any essential 
respect, save that on the whole the serpentine 
soil must be considered somewhat poorer in the 
ingredients of plant food. 

The analyses show a full supply of potash 
and lime, the latter being less in the subsoil, 
however. On the other hand, phosphoric acid 
is quite deficient, both in the soil and sub- 
soil. This implies that the soil will do 
fairly for coniferous trees, but for such as usu- 
ally grow in lowlands or other rich soils, would 
need help in the way of manure— say especially 
bone meal. With the aid of that and water 
you can make anything grow on the soil, for it 
is otherwise of good composition, and of good 
physical properties. In working it, it is desir- 
able not to turn up the subsoil — e. ;/■■' If 
plowed, let a turning plow go ahead, running 
say six or eight inches deep, according to the 
depth of the dark-colored surface soil, and then 
let a regular "subsoil plow," which only stirs 
the subsoil without turning it up, follow in the 
same furrow . This will tend to preserve moist- 
ure during the dry summer, and give the roots 
a chance to go deep for it. 

" The soil is surprisingly different from that 
of the Golden Gate park, being disposed to be 
heavy instead of excessively sandy; so the ex- 
perience had there, so far as the soil is concerned, 
will not apply directly to the Presidio." 

Filtering Distilled Water. Eisult rec- 
ommends the use of sponge for filtering distilled 
water. The filtration goes on with great ra- 
pidity, and the product is clear as crystal. 
When filtered through paper, distilled water 
soon exhibits a felty sediment, which is never 
formed when filtered through sponge, so that 
the bottles scarcely need cleaning after several 
months' use. The apparatus that he employs 
consists of a bottle with an opening near the 
bottom from which descends a bent glass tube. 
This tube is about G inches long and 1 or 1A 
inches in diameter; at each end is a perforated 
rubber stopper bearing a narrower glass tube. 
The wide tube contains one or two long strips 
of tine sponge that has been cleaned with di- 
lute hydrochloric acid and then dried. The 
bottle to which this filter is attached must not 
be larger than the one placed beneath to catch 
the filtrate. The sponge, of course, must be 
cleaned every few months. 

BOOTING Linen. — A new covering material, 
called "roofing linen," has recently been intro- 
duced in Germany, which is about the thickness of 
common pasteboard, and consists of a layer of 
coarse linen between two layers of thin roll- 
paper. The cohesion of the three layers is ef- 
fected by an asphalt composition of special 
make, called "roofing paint." It is stated that 
this paint should be freely applied to roofs im- 
mediately after their completion, and again about 
six weeks afterw ards. This operation should, it 
would seem, be repeated every few years. The 
linen costs about lOd. to lid. per square yard, 
and the paint 108. to lis. per cwt. Although 
this new method appears to have points which 
deserve commendation, a real estimate of its 
value cannot he formed until the material has 
been exposed to the test of several years' US0, 


[July 14, 1883 


Correspondence on Grange principles and work and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Granges arc res|>ect- 
t'nlly solicited for this department. 

Grange Education. 

The advautage of a Grange education to the 
members of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry 
is of p eat value, indeed of suc h magnitude that 
the most accomplished mathematician, however 
expert he may he, could not even approximate 
its value. The advantage is not confined to 
the members only, but is made a general bless- 
ing and of national value. Increased product, 
as well as improved product, is an advantage to 
the community in which it is produced, and in- 
creases our national wealth. Oood government 
must emanate from intelligence. Free govern 
ment can only be kept free by the intelligence 
of those to be governed. The fanners who en- 
ter the Grange and there educato themselves, 
become useful contributors to the intelligent 
guiding of all affairs, whether of government or 
otherwise. It is a fact, and will soon be every- 
where recognized as such, that the Order of 
I'atrons of Husbandry is not only national in 
character, but of national advantage and a na- 
tional blessing. It aims to collect all engaged 
in agricultural pursuits into this one great fra- 
ternal organization, and there educate them to 
establish greater intelligence among the masses 
<>f people, and elevate humanity to a higher 
standing and to greater usefulness in the world. 
All this is to be accomplished by thorough or- 
ganization of the farmers, and by educating 
them in the Orange school. — //. Ethbavgh. 

The Benefits. 

What benefits have we derived from the 
Orange ' I answer, much, every way. Wc 
have hail social enjoyments in the Orange that 
no other institution in this country has ever 
given us. We have through the Orange made 
friends and acquaintances in every part of the 
country, and many of us in different parts of 
the State that will be of busting benefit and 
enjoyment. It is said in plaster alone wc 
have made enough to pay all the Orange ever 
cost us. We have forever silenced the slide- 
gate swindle, iuid I hope will be able to dispose 
of the drive-well swindlers. I think, however, 
wc ought to have purchased our own plaster 
l>eds, as wc were abundantly able to have done, 
for I fear that fight must be done Over agth>. 
We have materially reduced the price of many 
articles we use by letting dealers know we 
know what they are worth, anil showing our 
ability to supply ourselves, thereby showing 
our independence and commanding respect. — A'. 
Dougkt rty. 

Renumbering the Granges. 

At the meeting of the National Orange at 
Indianapolis, November 15, ISM, the following 
resolution was adopted: 

WHEREAS, Many of the subordinate Oranges, or- 
ganized in the different States, have been consoli- 
dated, some have disbanded and surrendered theii 
charters, others have sus|iendcd labor and are lying 
dormant, with but little hope of resuming their stand- 
ing in the Order, in consequence of »hich the rull 
hook in some of the States shows a much larger num- 
ber of subordinate Oranges than really exist; there- 

Resolved, By the National Orange, that Stale 
< r ranges be hereby authorized to renumber the Sub- 
ordinate Granges in their respective Slates, com- 
mencing with i lie oldest living Orange in the State 
as Orange No. i. and so continue in regular order, 
until all are renumbered in the Stale. 

I- i n i;k PROSPECTS. — .Judging from corre- 
spondence, the Orange press and other 
SOUroeS from which information can be gathered, 
we are justly confirmed in the belief that the 
Order of I'atrons of Husbandry has at no time 
been in a more healthy and prosperous condi- 
tion than now. Greater activity and more 
earnest work seems to be the general rule, and 
as the Order advances in age, we advance in in- 
tellectual power with greater rapidity, estab- 
lishing greater unity in co-operative efforts, 
that will exert influence of such magnitude 
that will overcome all opposition, when our 
claims for justice will be fully recognized and 
our demand for general reform cannot be with- 
held. There is much to encourage and urge us 
on to greater perseverance in the work. Future 
success is certain, if we but prove faithful to 
ourselves and our Order: the results are only a 
question of time, and the period we can hasten 
by faithful earnest work. — Indiana Farmer. 

A Grange Br ilium;. — Manhattan Grange, 
Riley county, Kansas, has a three-story Orange 
hall, built at a cost of 8)0,000 to 81-2,000. The 
first floor is devoted to the business of a co- 
operative store, the sales of which amount to 
some 850,000 annually. The second floor is 
used for holding Grange meetings therein, and 
the third is fitted up and used for a Masonic 

Two eialt Lake hoodlums, one a son of Apos- 
tle Rich and the other of Probate Judge Smith, 
shining lights in the Mormon church, entered 
the /.ions' Savings Bank a day or twosince. felled 
the cashier with an iron bar and then made off 
with all the money they could get. 

j5lGf^ieULTU^AL J^OTES. 


A DRIER and Cannkky. — ( or. Alameda /.'<• 
portt r : Mr. James Hagan, of ( enterville, who 
experimented successfully last year in drying 
fruit, has placed in connection with his drier a 
cannery w ith a capacity of 1,000 cans per day 
when in full force, employing ten hands. He 
has already put up an order for ti,0O0 cans of 
cherries, which have been sold at such a figure 
as to pay the expenses and leave a profitable 
margin. The work has all been done without 
the aid of Chinese, and we hope the institution 
will stay by its colors in this direction should 
it increase in size. The drier which was ex- 
perimented w ith last year was the Burns' pat 
cut; it did not work successfully until remodeled 
by Mr. Hagan. When in full force the drier 
and cannery will employ twenty hands night 
and day. 


Starting the Cannery. — Chico Register, 
July 5th : The new Wheeler fruit cannery- 
started up on Saturday, and put up about 1,000 
cans of apricots and blackberries. For a num- 
ber of hours it was the busiest place in town. 
About twenty persons were actively- employed, 
and the rooms were crowded with visitors 
watching the operations. Tilings worked a 
little awkward, as it was new work to nearly 
all, but this will soon be remedied as each one 
gets accustomed to his share of the labor. When 
in full operation, not less than twenty-five or 
thirty persons will lie employed. The new en- 
terprise has our best wishes for its success. 

( lin o Faik. --The annual exhibition of the 
Third District Agricultural Association, com- 
posed of the counties of ( 'olusa, Tehama and 
Butte, w ill be held at Chico, commencing Tues- 
day, August 28th, and continuing five days, 
closing Sept. 1st; 82,500 will be distributed in 
premiums, and the fine large Bidwcll pavilion 
has been secured for the exhibits. 

Mortality from Hkat. -Gridley //</•'</</, 
duly ."> : Friday the murcury began to boil, and 
got up to 10S. Next day it raised two degrees. 
Sunday, 1 1 1 was the highest in the shade: but 
Monday it made a spurt on the home-stretch, 
and reached 112 — the highest known here for 
many years. Horses and men suffered terribly 
from the extraordinary heat, especially those 
working in the harvest fields. We hear of three 
animals dying from becoming overheated, viz: 
(.'. H. Metteer, of Live Oak. had one die in the 
field; T. l;. Fleming, of Ifiggs, lost one while 
driving it [to a buggy, and one belonging to 
William Brown, of this place, died after reach- 
ing home from a lengthy tour with the meat 
wagon. Hut while the weather was hot here it 
was still hotter elsewhere. Sunday afternoon 
the boiler of a thrashing engine exploded on a 
ranch in ( 'olusa county, about three miles north- 
west of French Crossing. The water was blown 
out of the boiler Saturday evening. In order to 
be prepared for work Monday the engineer be- 
gan pumping cold water in about two o'clock 
Sunday afternoon. The engine had been stand- 
ing in the sun all day and the boiler had become 
so heated that the water generated into steam 
when striking it, thus causing the explosion. 
Nobody was hurt, the engineer being twenty 
feet distant, and the separator standing between 
him and the engine. The separator was dam- 
aged to the extent of 850. When the freight 
train from the north reached this place Monday 
noon, one of the brakemen thoughtlessly took 
hold of the brake wheel with his bare hand. 
The palm of his hand was burned to a blister 
before he could let go. 


Grafting Ovkr Almond to Peach, — Cor. 

Sim : I had fifty Languedoc almonds that I 
had budded on peach several years ago. They 
made a very thrifty growth, now averaging 
about seven inches in diameter, and bore heavy- 
crops of nuts; but I soon found that after di- 
viding with the red-head woodpecker it was not 
a profitable investment. So in February, 1881, 
I had all the limbs except one taken off each 
tree to w ithin eight or ten inches of the body. 
That spring they threw out a heavy growth "of 
new wood, and in June 1 cut off all except ten 
sprouts on each, and in August budded them 
with Alexander and Briggs' Karly May peaches. 
In the spring of 1SS2, I found, upon examina- 
tion! that only three out of the 500 buds had 
failed to unite, and although a dry season, w ith 
no irrigation, they made a very thrifty growth, 
some measuring one and three-fourths inches in 
diameter. This spring, 1883, I cut off the re- 
maining almond limbs, and now I \ have a nice 
crop of peaches that promise to be the finest on 
the place. Five or six buds ar. sufficient for a 
tree, but not knowing what percentage would 
live, I put in ten. It is much better to thin out 
superfluous branches than to wait a year to bud 
again where there are not enough. 


Crops. Lower Lake Jiulli-tin, June 30: The 
crops in this vicinity have never yielded such 
large returns to the farmers as they are doing 
this year. Hay is yielding, on an average, 
about a ton ami a half to the acre, while grain 
is turning out from 4."i bushels and upwards, to 
the acre. Lake will be the banner agricultural 
county this year, in proportion to its acreage. 

Hop PmispKi-rs. -Lakeport Drmocml, July 
6th: We are informed by a hop producer of this 
county that the prospects of the hop crop this 
year are very, poor indeed, much below the 

average. The reasou given for this condition 
of things is the shortness of the season. A suc- 
cessful hop crop must lie favored by a long and 
propitious season, otherwise the vine gets only 
a part of its natural growth, and the yield is 
short accordingly. When the time comes for 
the vine to bloom it w ill do so whether it is half 
grown or not, and such has been the case this 

Los Angeles. 

F, I >to n us Prkss:- Reports generally show the 
fruit and grain crops this season rather below 
the average, but some did well with fruit by 
selling early on the trees, saving risk and labor. 
Jos. Wolfskill. who has over a hundred acres 
under fruit, sold his crop so for 825,000. He 
has changed much of his land from bearing 
grapes to oranges and lemons. T. O. Childs, 
nurseryman, is building a house on his ranch, 
into which he intends moving before commenc- 
ing extensive improvements in his already tine 
mansion. Bernard A Benedict, who have re- 
cently erected a fruit packing and preserving 
house on the Morris vineyard tract, intending 
to manufacture marmalade extensively and 
other preserves for Kastern shipment, are much 
retarded in operations from inability to obtain 
on this coast the necessary machinery and jars. 
They also make a preserved orange, partially 
dried, well suited to cooking or dessert. The 
Morris vineyard tract is rapidly ceasing to lie 
that except in name; the vines are old and neg- 
lected, and the land is being sold in lots for 
building. The building boom, now at fever 
heat in this city, is rapidly dotting it over w ith 
houses. The large, new hotel being erected by 
R. Nadeau, corner First and Spring streets, ap- 
proaches completion. 1!. Wienhold, nursery- 
man, has taken a four-acre tract near Fast Los 
Angeles, which he is converting into a botanic 
garden, including medicinal plants. — K. R., Los 
Angeles, Cal. 

Lou Ai.amitos. -Anaheim Oaettie, June .'HI: 
There are on the rancho at the present time a 
thousand head of cattle and S, (KM) head of sheep. 
The latter are in excellent condition, and are 
nearly thoroughbred Spanish Merino. The cat- 
tle are of the Durham variety, a breed to which 
Mr. Bixby is very partial. Theie are about 300 
milch cows, of which 140 are being milked to 
supply the Alamitos Cheese Factory. The 
products of the factory have gained such a repu- 
tation that it is simply impossible to keep the 
market supplied. Two hundred anil thirty 
pounds of cheese per day is now lieing made, 
and three times that quantity could easily be 
disposed of. It is said to be the only factory in 
the southern part of the State which makes 
cheeses of three pounds and eight pounds 
weight. It is found that these sizes are very 
popular, and this, together with the fact that 
the cheese has a peculiarly rich flavor, due to 
the superiority of the milk from which it is 
made, creates a demand for the cheese which 
cannot be filled. The difficulty is not to find a 
market for the cheese, but to resist the demand 
for it until it is old enough to be ready foi mar- 
ket. There is now growing on the rancho fif- 
teen acres of Little German millet, about which 
Mr. Bixby is <|iiitc enthusiastic. It is a famous 
crop in Kansas, to which State he sent for the 
seed, which cost him, delivered here, four and 
a half cents per pound. It is growing finely, 
and our farmers ought to pay some attention to 
this crop. The stalk is sweet, highly nutritious 
—much more so than barley hay and the grain 
is fattening and liked by stock. This must not 
be confounded with the evergreen millet, about 
w hich so much is being said now. It must be 
sowed annually, like barley, and Mr. Bixby pre- 
dicts that it will supersede that grain when 
once its merits become known. The acre of 
evergreen millet planted this year is doing well, 
but it is too early to say whether the extrav- 
agant pa ans which have been sung in its praise 
will be realized. 

Tiik. OsTRICB F\i;m. Her aid: The ostrich 
ranch is now the object of special interest since 
the chicks commenced to hatch, which is at 
about the rate of one per day. These little fel- 
lows are about as large as a half-grown duck, 
and start out with a good appetite and grow- 
rapidly. It was feared that, owing to the long 
voyage the birds had made, the first eggs would 
not hatch, but fortunately that fear was ground- 
less, and the eggs are hatching on time. The 
birds have laid about a hundred eggs, and they 
are going through the incubator in the regular 


Honkv Niitks. — Kihtors Prkss : I am now 
in the famous bee region, where thousands of 
stands of bees are kept, and where tons of their 
"luscious horde" arc annually garnered from 
the wild sage, which abounds in this region. 
This is proving to be a poor season for honey 
making, owing, no doubt, to the excessive hot 
weather during the lore part of June, by which 
the nectar of the flowers seems to have been 
dried up. A relative of mine with whom I 
am stopping, having eighty stands of bees, 
says many of them will not make honey 
enough for their own use. This seems to be 
the opinion of all bee keepers here. I may 
soon send to the Prkss an article on this sub- 
ject. — J. S. Tiiaa is. Salinas, Cal. 

Tiik Crops. — Salinas liimnrmi, 
June 30th: From Salinas to Paraiso springs, 
everywhere can be seen the busy harvesters. 
At the Gonzales ranch, near Ohnalar, Paris 
Kilburn's steam thrasher was running on barley, 
hauled from the field to the machine as fast as 
headed, it requiring three headers and nine 
wagons to keep the separator busy. Other 
thrashers have commenced work during the 

present week, and none too soon, for miles and 
mites of bright, yellow grain, barley and wheat, 
seemed nodding welcome to the headers and 
thrashers. The hay crop had been cut about 
two weeks previous, and being a much larger 
acreage, the amount of hay will exceed that 
put up last year. It was almost impossible on 
our trip, to form a correct estimate of the prob- 
able yield of grain through the valley. In some 
places the grain stood high and thick, showing 
a thrifty growth and promising an abundant 
harvest. In others it was few and far between. 
As a whole, however, the farmers feel confident 
of a fair yield, the cereals between Gonzales and 
and Soledad giving, probably, the greatest per 
cent to the acre. The quality is said to lie 

Honkv DKW in tiik Grain Fiki.iis.— The 
Salinas Ilf&tX says : in thrashing barley on 
the Abbott ranch, the machines clog up with 
cakes of chaff and other offal, and the clothing 
of thrasher men becomes sticky. Careful ex- 
amination of a lump of this caked stuff, made 
with a microscope, shows the chaff, straw, etc., 
in it to be coated with honey dew. It is prob- 
ably the deposit made by the aphis, or bug so 
prevalent in the spring. This honey *dew in 
these cases is so plentiful that the chaff can be 
molded by the hands into balls, and it gives a 
sweet savor to the straw. 


Fahi.v Fit i- its krom Pknryn. Bee, July 1 0th: 
W. R. Strong it Co. yesterday received from 
the Orange Hill orchards at Penryn, Placer 
county, the first shipment of early Crawford 
peaches. So far as known, this is the first lot 
picked in the State. It is also worthy of men- 
tion that this firm received from the same 
orchards this season the first currants, the first 
blackberries (being ten days ahead of other sec 
tions), and the first Hales early peaches, which 
conclusively proves the wonderful adaptability 
of the section around Penryn for the cultiva- 
tion of stone fruits as well as berries. The 
fruit is well developed, of good flavor, and free 
of all pests, and the orchardists thereabouts are 
actively alive to the importance of keeping up 

this standard. 

Two Fink Tin ittkiis. Yesterday Captain J. 
It. Young sold his well-known trotter, "Colo- 
nel," to Albert Oallatin fur 81,."><X), as a match 
for "Patchen furl," which Mr. Oallatin bought 
from .1. W. Wilson three years ago for 81,100. 
"Colonel" is six years old. and has a record of 
2:32, though he has show n better time. "Patch 
en Girl" is eleven years old, but one of the best 
mares in the State. She made a record of 2:34\ 
two years ago, amMias really trotted a mile in 

Santa Cruz. 

EDITOR* Prkss:- The Farmers' Association 
met at the office of the secretary at 1 o'clock p. 
M. , President V. A. Hihn in the chair. On mo- 
tion, L. II. Ooiustock, K P.. Cahoon and Mrs. 
Martha Wilson were appointed a committee to 
confer with the Grangers' Association in re la 
tion to the construction of the fair building. 
On motion, .1. S. Mattison, L. K. Kaldwin and 
Mrs. Martha Wilson were appointed a commit 
tee to solicit stock subscriptions. The following 
resolution was adopted: " Resolved. That the 
Farmers' Association co-operate w ith the Fair 
Building Association in holding a fair this com- 
ing fall." The hall for holding the fair this 
fall is now being built under the supervision of 
John Morrow, a full description of which will 
lie given to the pREMH when completed. The 
fair will be held some time in October. RoflES 
Con ant, Secretary, Santa Cruz, Cal. 

San Joaquin. 

Harvest Notes. — Editors Prksh: In this 
county of over 3fi0, 000 acres of cultivated land 
harvest is at its hight. Around Ripon, and on 
other sandy land, grain was cut three weeks 
ago, yielding from seven to twenty bushels to 
the acre. In the section of Farmington grain 
is excellent. On the black land around Cob 
legevillc it yields from thirty to forty bushels. 
Near Linden it is shrunken, but yields about 
thirty bushels. About Lot keford from twenty 
five to thirty-five. Seven miles from Stockton 
wheat is being cut with a combined machine, 
yielding from thirty-five to fifty bushels. A 
few fields on the Calaveras and Mokelumne 
were burned so badly with the seven days of 
heat and wind, beginning June 4th, that it will 
not be cut. Genera] yield is very good. An 
undergrowth of grain came up in most fields, 
headed out rapidly, ripening with the rest, 
which increases the yield materially. The 
shrinkage by the torrid June heat is estimated 
at twenty-rive per cent. Barley has yielded 
well in all sections. Oats were so plenty in the 
grain that considerable was cut early for hay. 
One farmer near here cut all of his crop, mak- 
ing 3110 tons of hay. The Houscr header and 
thrasher, with eighteen horses and rive men 
takes the grain clean, except where it is badly 
lodged, averaging 300 sacks daily with case in 
heavy grain. Two dollars per acre is the price 
for cutting. Several Young machines are doing 
excellent work, but the Houser is the favorite. 
A new machine is being brought into successful 
work, using four or five horses, manufactured 
by Mr. Shippee, of Stockton. Headers will 
soon become obsolete and separators poor prop- 
erty, only for use in little fields. Some have 
already sold their crops at si..")."! and SI. HO per 
ctl.— Mrs. W. I). Asiii.kv. 


Yitiiti.tirai, Association. — Hcaldshurg 
Flag, July 5th: Last Saturday a few gentle 
men who are interested in viniculture, and who 
were invited to meet at Orange Hall to consider 

July 14, 1883] 


the feasibility of organising an association for 
the mutual benefit of vine-growers, met at that 
place at 3 o'clock P. M. Mr. R. R. Givens was 
elected Chairman and P. J. Ferguson Secretary 
pro tern. Addresses were made by Messrs. R. 
R. Givens, J. N. Bailhache, anil others, show- 
ing the benefits of mutual work in the matter 
of grape growing, the object and good which 
will probably result from such an organization, 
etc. , etc. After some interchange of views in 
regard to the manner of forming such an asso- 
ciation, a committee was instructed to draft a 
constitution and by-laws. These were soon 
drawn up and signed by fourteen gentlemen, 
who then proceeded to elect permanent officers. 
R. R. (iivens was elected President; J. N. 
Bailhache, A. H. Stites, and D. D. Phillips, 
Vice Presidents; P. .). Ferguson, Secretary; 
VV. N. Gladden, Treasurer; J. S. Bell, Jas. 
Hood, and A. J. < ialloway, Finance Committee. 
Kollowing are the gentlemen who signed the 
roll: R. R. Givens, J. N. Bailhache, A. H. 
Stites, 1). I). Phillips, P. J. Ferguson, W. N. 
Gladden, J. S. Bell, Jas. Hood, A. J. (ialloway, 
John N. Ferguson, John Bidwell, C. W. Mat- 
thews, H. T. Sandford, Geo. Slocum. 

The Centennial Cherry.— Sonoma Index: 
Bast Saturday we were shown some very fine 
cherries by Mr. Ed. Steiger, which were grown 
on his farm. Tiny were of the Centennial va- 
riety, and by actual measure many were three 
and one-half inches in circumference. The meat 
is very sweet and delicious, and the pit quite 
small. Many of our fruit growers claim that 
they are the best variety to raise for shipping 
purposes, as they are a solid and compact 
cherry, and are not easily jammed, and when 
once in market they always bring the highest 
price. As yet, we understand, there are very 
few of this excellent variety of cherries grown 
in this valley. 


Editors Press:— The harvest is now in prog- 
ress; headers and thrashers are busy preparing 
the grain ,for market. The farmers' fears of 
failure are set at rest, and abundance assured 
to California for another year. The groat heat 
has been very trying for those working in the 
fields. A few deaths are reported from sun- 
stroke, a very unusual occurrence in our pure 
atmosphere. But over-exercise will produce 
bad effects, even with the advantages of cli- 
mate, and I attribute these sunstrokes more to 
extra exertion and exposure than to the natural 
heat of the sun. Those having bearded wheat 
suffered a loss from unusual heavy winds pre- 
vailing a few days ago. The beard catches 
whatever it touches, and detaches the grain 
from the beard by its swinging motion. One 
farmer on Dry creek was said to have lost 
thirty per cent of a field of bearded wheat, 
which may be a lesson for the future Apples 
seem to be less affected by the moth this season 
than formerly. We believe they will leave 
just as mysteriously as they came, where con- 
ditions are favorable for their exodus. Fruit, 
in the warm belt amongst the foothills, is excel- 
lent. Peaches arc selling from six to eight 
cents per pound in Sonoma, where none exist, 
the upper portion of the county being wholly 
dependent upon the lower region this year. 
Very little dried fruit will be sent below this 
season; prices for it in a green state will be 
more profitable. The demand will be fully 
equal to the supply. The line of fruit and no 
fruit was strictly drawn by King Frost. John 
Taylor, July 8th, 1883. 


TnE Buzzard Roost Ranch. — Tulare Times, 
June "23: This ranch is the property of Messrs. 
J. N. ami E. W. S. Woods, formerly of Stock- 
ton. It is located about ten miles southwest of 
Tulare city, is in the heart of the artesian belt, 
and is as good land as can be found anywhere. 
Mr. K. W. S. Woods, who resides on the ranch, 
his brother still making Stockton his home, took 
charge of the place and began operations less 
than two years ago. Since that time he has 
fenced 3,500 acres, and plowed and "checked 
up" l,. r >00 acres of it, the rest being used for 
pasturage. These gentlemen are not believers 
in the doctrine that the "mustang" is the only 
breed of cattle that can profitably be raised 
here. They now have between sixty and 
seventy-five head of fine, high-graded stock, 
most of them being fifteen-sixteenths pure short- 
horn, but they have been bred for milk, and not 
for beef; nevertheless the contrast in point of 
size between these and the mustang cattle feed- 
ing with them, is sufficiently marked to strike 
even the most unobserving. The experiment 
with good stock has been so satisfactory thus 
far, that these gentlemen are perfecting arrange- 
ments to go into it upon a larger scale another 

The Pahie & Morton Ranch.— This ranch is 
located one and one-half miles directly west of 
Tulare City. On or about the first of March, 
1881 , a plow was for the first time inserted in 
the ground upon these premises. Up to that 
day the thousands of acres that are now produc- 
ing tons of hay and grain were in the undis- 
puted possession of squirrels, gophers and liz- 
ards. To-day "there are on this ranch 2,500 
acres that are checked up and thoroughly pre- 
pared for irrigation.' To convey the water 
where required throughout this area, there are 
now in operation sixty miles of well-constructed 
canals and ditches. ,Two thousand acres of 
this tract are now in a high state of cultivation, 
of which 1 ,000 acres are in alfalfa, 500 acres in 
wheat, 400 acres in F^gyptian corn, fifty acres in 
Arabian millet and fifty acres of barley, all of 
which has been irrigated and is looking finely. 

There are three dwellings, two large barns, two 
artesian wells, a small orchard, two granaries, 
one blacksmith shop, and several other small 
buildings upon this ranch, besides eight miles 
of fence that is hog and cattle tight. A large 
number of horses, cattle and hogs are now kept 
on the place, and enough will be kept to con- 
sume the entire product of the ranch. We are 
gratified to be able to state upon the authority 
of Mr. Morton that it is the fixed purpose of 
Mr. Paige and himself to divide 500 acres of 
this ranch into lots of twenty acres and up- 
ward, and lease them for a long period of time 
to practical fruit growers, either upon shares or 
for a cash rental, or else sellrthem on reasona- 
ble terms to persons who wish to make fruit 
growing their exclusive business. This will be 
done as soon as the ground can be prepared for 
the planting of fruit trees, which will be early 
this fall. In the meantime ten artesian wells 
will be bored upon this ranch, and negotiations 
are now being made to secure competent parties 
to do the work. 

The Camron Ranch. — This ranch joins the 
town site of Tulare on the north, and there are 
183 acres of it in all. Mr. Camron purchased 
and moved on to it in September, 1881. Since 
then he has erected a handsome two-story resi- 
dence, well supplied with porches, which ren- 
der it cool in hot weather; built a fine, large 
bam; bored an artesian well (146 feet deep, 
which, by the way, is not a flowing well, al- 
though the water rises within seven feet of the 
surface; constructed a tank with a capacity of 
;">,000 gallons, and raised it upon a stand thirty- 
two feet above the ground, and put up an en- 
gine house in which he has a ten horse power 
engine that does his pumping for him. Just 
west of the house is an orchard containing 400 
fruit trees, six or seven years old, that are just 
as full of fruit as they can hang. Beyond these 
are 1,000 grape vines in a nourishing condition. 
All this, and a large garden besides, Mr. Cam- 
ron irrigates with his engine and pump. This 
pump has a capacity of 5,000 gallons per hour, 
when the water is being thrown into the tank; 
but as he does not throw it into the tank before 
using it for irrigation, the same power will 
throw fully three times that amount of water. 
Mr. Camron says that with the assistance of 
one hand to run the engine or attend to the 
water, he can irrigate "200 trees in ten hours, 
and that they will need two such irrigations 
during the year, if it is as dry as this one has 
been. He is confident that with the facilities 
he now has he can irrigate thirty acres of fruit 
trees and vines very easily, and expects to have 
that amount set out in a short time. 

What Slickens Has Done. 

The Briggs Orchard as it Looked in 1&58. 

Three miles north of Marysville, covering a 
fine bottom land, stands the orchard and nur- 
sery of G. G. Briggs, the largest in bearing of 
all the orchards in the State. The amount of 
land inclosed is 155 acres, and the first trees 
were set out in 185*2. The orchard now num- 
bers about 32,000 trees, among which 15,000 of 
the peach trees were in bearing this season. 
The fruit gathered is only about one-third of 
the crop, the remaining two-thirds rotting un- 
der the trees where they fall, or being devoured 
by birds and other two-legged visitors. A few 
are made into vinegar, and a very superior arti- 
cle it is said to be. The reasons for this waste 
are, first, the high price of labor, and second, 
the limited market which the State affords. 
Mr. Briggs sends about 10,000 pounds of peaches 
daily to San Francisco and mountain markets. 
He has thirty men employed on his grounds, 
whose wages are from twenty-five to thirty-five 
dollars per month. His peaches bring from 
twelve to twenty cents per pound in the mar- 
ket, and this, he maintains, is the lowest price 
at which they can be transported and sold with 
a profit. Besides the peaches, Briggs' orchard 
contains several thousand trees producing the 
choicest varieties of nectarines, some of the di- 
mensions of the largest peaches grown in the 
Fast. There are also apple, pear, quince, ap- 
ricot and fig trees, in number and variety not 
recollected, but all thrifty, and promising to 
yield in greater abundance than their owner can 
gather, or the state of the country suggests a 
use for. — Sacramento Daily Union, Sep/., AV.7,s'. 

Now, thanks to the hydraulic miners, all that 
once magnificent land is a trackless waste, and 
it could all be purchased for a quarter of a 

Crops at the East. 

Washington, July 10. — The July report of 
the Department of Agriculture shows that there 
has been some improvement in winter wheat in 
Connecticut, Virginia, South Carolina, Texas, 
Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Kan- 
sas and California, which advances the general 
average condition from 75 to 70. The spring 
wheat average advanced from 98 to 1 00. The 
indications for July point to the winter wheat 
crop as fully 300,000,000 bushels, and a product 
of about 125,000,000 bushels of spring wheat. 
The area of the corn crop has increased about 
two and a half million acres, making the aggre- 
gate 08,000,000 acres. There has been some 
extension in the area in nearly every State, and 
the proportion of increase is large in the north- 
west and in the southwest. On the coast, from 
Virginia to Mississippi, the advance has been 
small. In some places the reduction in price 
from the large supply of last year, had a dis- 
couraging effect. There has been too much 
rain in the great western maize district, and 
the failure of stands, from planting poor seed, 
is making the crop late and the growth small, 
but the improvement has, of late, been rapid. 
Taking all these States together, the average 
for corn is 88, against 85 last July, 00 in 1881, 
and 100 in 1S80. The average of the principal 
States is as follows: New York, 84; Pennsyl- 
vania, 89; Ohio, 83; Michigan 73; Indiana, 
90 ; Illinois, 82 ; Iowa, SO ; Missouri, 
82 ; Kansas, 98 ; Nebraska, 87 ; Dakota, 
78. In the South, the average range is from 
90 in Tennessee to 103 in Louisiana. The pros- 
pects for oats and barley are as good as in July 
last year, the average being 99 against 103. The 
condition of barley is represented by 97; last 
July it was 90. The average is, in New York, 
103; Pennsylvania, 91; Wisconsin, 102; Cali- 
fornia, 90. There has been an increase of about 
five per cent in the area planted in the North 
era States in potatoes. They are reported in a 
high condition, averaging 102. 

Chicago, July 10. —The Farmers' Review, in 
its issue to-morrow, will publish, an exhaustive 
report on the condition of the crops, based on 
the returns from over 1,000 points in the West 
and Northwest. A general change for the bet- 
ter in all the crop prospects has taken place in 
the past two weeks, owing to the cessation of 
rains and the advent of hot weather. Last week 
the two combined served to bring forward the 
late corn and push on the spring wheat ant" 
oats. The weather has been very fine for early 
winter wheat. Harvest and crop are now going 
into stocks. The .spring wheat and oat crops 
are unusually promising, and are both now 
nearly assured. It is believed the corn crop is 
rapidly coming up to its condition in 1882. 

St. Marys Hall, Benicia. 

Among our notices of schools on another page 
will be found the announcement of St. Mary's 
Hall, Benicia, an institution for the education 
of young ladies, of which Rev. L. Delos Mans- 
field is director. Mr. Mansfield is on old and 
successful teacher, having been engaged in the 
work in the F^ast long before coming to this 
coast, and in a school on the Hudson had the 
honor of educating the children of Wm. Cullen 
Bryant. His school at Benicia is in a highly 
prosperous and nourishing condition, enjoys a 
high reputation, and we doubt not is a most 
desirable place for the education of young la 
dies, to which sex its admission is limited. The 
catalogue contains a list of most desirable 
references, including some of the most promi 
hent citizens of San Francisco, and gives full 
information as to the courses of study, terms, 
etc. Address Rev. L. Delos Mansfield, Benicia, 

News in Brief. 

Red Rivkk VALLEY still suffers from the 

The American railroad interests in Mexico, 
have all been consolidated. 

The number of deaths in the city of New 
York vary from 150 to 200 daily. 

Pauper Irish immigrants are coming into the 
United States by way of Canada. 

The Wisconsin prohibitionists talk of run- 
ning a candidate for the Presidency. 

More than 3,000 persons have perished by 
disasters on sea and land the present year. 

Chiek Moses has completed and signed his 
agreement to relinquish his reservation in Or- 

F'ires in the Oregon woods have destroyed a 
great deal of valuable timber, lumber and other 

It is understood that President Henry Vil- 
lard's excursion pat ty to the Pacific coast will 
number 250 persons. 

A WATERFALL 1,500 feet high, is reported to 
have been discovered at the head of the Cowlitz 
river, Washington Territory. 

Frank Rogel, of Oakland, lost four children 
last week by diphtheria, and his only remaining 
child lies at the point of death. 

Denis Kearney, who lately attended the 
Anti-Monopoly Convention, was refused ad- 
mission as a delegate to that body. 

There were twenty-six cases of sunstroke in 
New York and six in Philadelphia one day last 
week. Many of them proved fatal. 

The Cholera, which has been raging in the 
cities of northern Egypt, has appeared in Ber- 
lin, rendering its spread over Europe, probable. 

Physicians, it is stated, have discovered 
over a hundred cases of leprosy among the boys 
of this city, caused by smoking Chinese made 

Postmaster General Gresham has affirmed 
the validity of Key's order, denying the use of 
the United States mails to the Louisiana Lot- 
tery company. 

Marco A. Soto, President of the Republic of 
Honduras, is on his way to Washington, with a 
view of establishing a reciprocity treaty with 
the United States. 

Grim LEY, the aeronaut who started from Hones- 
dale, Pa., on July 4th, landed on the Catskills, 
encountered a severe hurricane, and had a ter- 
rible time generally. 

Abraham Goldsmith, a veteran pawnbroker 
of Chicago, was lately closed out under an exe- 
cution. It is noted as something unusual in 
this line of business. 

Theodore Thomas, who, with his noisy 
band, collected many ducats from our citizens a 
few weeks since, speaks now in terms not very 
complimentary of our people. 

According to advices from Behcra, in Egypt, 
the cattle plague has ended with the death of 
all cattle in that district. The cotton worm is 
now doing great damage there. 

\dvii es from Venezuela state that locusts 
are making havoc in many parts of the country. 
In one night all the vegetation in the neighbor- 
"lood of Mooron was destroyed. 

The wastage at the Mint under the present 
Superintendent in the coinage of $20,000,000 
'old and silver during the past year was less 
than §1,000. This is a splendid record. 

It is reported that a yacht is being prepared 
and will be held in readiness to take the Khe- 
dive to Naples in the event of the spread of 
holera making his departure necessary. 
Rev. and Mrs. Henri Ward Beecher 
started yesterday morning on a western trip, 
which will extend through Canada, Illinois, 
Iowa and Nebraska, and by the I nion Pacific 
railroad to the California coast and 1'uget Sound, 
at which latter place they will visit a son, who 
is a steamboat captain. 

A Thrashing Disaster. — A horrible acci- 
dent occurred at the Hopkins ranch, near Red- 
wood City, Monday morning. E. Leighton, 
while trying a new thrashing machine, was in 
the act of oiling the journal, and passing the 
mouth of the cylinder — it being a self-feeding 
machine — accidentally placed hisfootupon some 
loose straw, which caused him to slip. His 
left foot was carried into the cylinder, and, 
coming in contact with the teeth, in an instant 
all the lower part of the left foot below and six 
inches above the ankle was torn into atoms. 
The injured man was removed immediately to 
Redwood City and Dr. L. Ross, who exa- 
mined the limb, stated that amputation 
would be necessary, which was soon accom- 

Silk Commissioner. — Governor Stoneman 
has approved the appointment by the State 
Board of Silk Culture of Horace J. Smith as 
Commissioner representing tlie Board in 

Nerve Action. — Very delicate experiments 
have been made to determine the so-called "re- 
action time " in sensation — that is the time be- 
tween the moment of excitation of the senses 
and the moment at which the person indicates 
by a signal that he has become conscious of the 
sensation. Mr. Beaunis, of Nancy, F'rance, has 
recently sought to measure the reaction time 
for smell, or to tell how long it takes to realize 
the sensation of smell after the excitant of that 
sense has been applied to the olefactory nerves. 
He gives in Oomptes Rendits a table of the num- 
bers obtained with ten different substances. 
They range from thirty to seven hundredths of 
a second for ammonia, and forty-six for acetic 
acid, to sixty-three for mint, and sixty-seven 
for carbolic acid. In the case of musk, he was 
unable (notwithstanding repeated attempts) to 
fix precisely the moment of the smell sensation 
The numbers given show that the reaction time 
for smelling is longer than that for touch, sight 
and hearing. (In the author's own case, it is 
shorter than for touch.) Dr. Buccola, of Turin, 
has recently made experiments on smell, with 
different apparatus, and gets results which agree 
in the main with those of M. Beaunis. 

The Largest Agricultural Machine Shop. 
— The most extensive agricultural machine 
shops in the world are at Springfield, Ohio. 
There are five in all. A good idea of the im 
mense size of one workshop may be obtained by 
imagining a building almost 17,000 feet 
length by sixty feet in width, a continuous 
room three miles and over in length. At each 
minute a completely made machine is rolled 
from the stocks and housed or shipped to its 
destination; 000 machines from 'sunrise to sun- 
set—an annual production of 100,000 imple- 
ments. — Mechanical Engineer, 

Turkish Carpets: — It may startle some of 
our readers to learn that "real" Turkish carpets 
have been made in Germany for Turkey, but 
such is the fact, at least if we correct the ex- 
pression "Turkey," by explaining that their 
destination is the late Turkish province and 
present kingdom of Rouniania. The German 
element predominating at that Court,' the car- 
pets for a new summer palace, Sinai, have 
been ordered from a Saxon firm, who for some 
time past have been making imitation Turkey 
carpets. The designs were submitted to and 
selected by their Roumanian Majesties, and are 
said to be of great splendor. One small carpet 
for a boudoir is in the now fashionable terra- 
cotta; another. 00 square yards large, for a bed- 
room, has a cream ground with steel blue 
border; while a third, 80 square yards large, 
and weighing 500 pounds, has a red ground with 
sage border, with a mixture of other colors. 
This sounds like carrying coals to Newcastle, 
but the price has no doubt decided the matter. 

Trichina. — 1. K. Morris, M. 1)., in the 
Clinical Brief, says, in regard to trichina? in 
swine, that it is a well established fact that the 
real source of infection in swine lies entirely in 
tne rat. A committee of Vienna physicians 
found in Moravia thirty-seven per cent of rats 
examined trichinous; in Vienna and its environs 
ten per cent, and in Lower Austria about four 
per cent. The well known voracity of the hog, 
and its special fondness for meat, cause it to 
feed upon the flesh and excrements of other ani- 
mals infested with these parasites, and especially 
rats and mice. To prevent trichinous swinr it 
is highly important to cut off all the sources of 
disease in the diet of these animals. 



[Jolt l i, 1883 


Good rriomin' sir I A clearin' sky — 

What? Want to talk with me, sir? 
You tracked across that piece o' rye, 
Hut we wont disagree, sir. 

The air. I guess, don't smell so sweet 
Where you live, in the city, 
No grass or shade-trees on the street? 
Now, that must be a pity. 

I calculate a farmer lacks 
Some tilings you make a show of; 
lint there may he some curious facts 
That city folks don't know of. 

S'ou see the nest on that pine-hough ? 
Do you know what there's hid m'l? 
D'ye know what bird lis singin' now? 
No ? Well, I thought you didn't. 

Yon mus'n't think a pleasin' thing 
Is lost on country people ; 
The birds that in that maple sing 
Heat chimes in any steeple. 

And as for good, fresh thinkin' stuff, 
Paved streets can't l>e so givin' 
While this one field has got enough 
To last you w hile you're livjn'. 

You'd like to hold the plough awhile? 
All right, sir. I am willin' 
Whoa there, I say ! Don't go a mile ! 
You ought to keep its bill in. 

A plough's a contrary concern, 
A young calf can't out-do it ; 
To guide the point the handles turn 
Tin- opposite way to it. 

Cut furrer wide, lean handles right — 
You know how 'tis, I dare say — 
l.ilt up, and it dives out of sight, 
And t'other way, vice versey. 

1 tried a new plough at the fair ; 
Twas neat, but 1 refused it. 
This "Rough and Ready" stands the tear, 
And our folks alius used it. 

Old ploughs and old beliefs are strong, 
And good yet if kept shinin' ! 
Things that have stood the strain so long 
Kin stand some undcrminin'. 

I like to watch before the plough 
The grass a tumblin' over ; 
The big and little have to bow, 
The June-grass and the clover. 

A plough reminds me, then, of Time. 
Does't other folks, I wonder? 
There goes a violet in its prime — 
I hale to turn them under. 

But when above the buried weeds 
The yellow wheat is wavin'. 

Twill teach that buried years and deeds 
Slill live, if worth the savin' 

I've sometimes thought if we wood rangf 
( )ur daily work with Natur', 
( ha lives with things that never change, 
We'd draw our furrer straightcr. 

I'm apt at preachin' ? So I've heard. 
Yes, I 'tend church on Sunday, 
Why, if I didn't hear the Word 
1 couldn't work on Monday. 

Ah, ah ! That whistle blows for noon, 
And dinner-time, I'm thinkin' ; 
Well, I don't think it blows too soon — 
1 feel like eatin' an' drinkin'. 

Ned's callin' me, my little son — 
Jest five years ter his story ; — 
He makes us seven, countin' one 
That's now a child o' glory. 

How proud that team steps now that they 
Are p'intin' for the stable ! 
A pretty tunc their trappin's play, 
Judgin' as I am able. 

C ome in the house and see my Nell — 
1 think she aim bad-lookin' 
And she's just as reliable 
At counsellin' as cookin ! 

— Charles H. 

Thk Orkat Xkw York Bkidck, recently 
opened between that city and Brooklyn, is not 
only the largest, all tilings considered, but also 
the most expensive structure of the kind eveT 
built. The tubular iron V ictoria bridge at Mmit- 
real cost §7,000,000. The iron and steel bridge at 
St. Louis cost s<l,000,<KM>. The bridge from Kng 
land to the Isle of Man, of tabular iron, cost 
about $3,000,000. There is not a stone bridge 
in London or Paris which cost over .$4,000,000. 
The bridge at Omaha cost s-.'.OOO.OOO; the one 
at Bismarck the same sum. The New York 
and Brooklyn bridge cost about .*l."i,000,000, 

A Legend of the Columbia. 

When the little town of Astoria, wliich lies 
beneath the bilk on the left shore of theC'olum 
bia, was in *its infancy, it was even more 
picturesque than it is at the present day. 
It was situated on a rising ground, and close to 
the water's edge. The tall firs, hemlocks and 
spruce trees that surrounded the village pro 
tected it from the tempests of winter. Seven 
miles across the blue waters of the Columbia 
were to be seen the tree-capped hills of what is 
now the Washington Territory shore. 

The part of this little town which was for 
merry called by its eight or ten inhabitants the 
"Lower Town,'' was originally a trading post of 
the Hudson Kay Company, and was first known 
by the name of Fort Oeorge. Here, thousands 
of miles from the civilized world, with the 
silence of a vast forest to the right of them and 
behind them: the silence and deeper solitude of 
a mighty ocean to the left: with the silence of 
a grand river in front of them; here, all 
alone, lived a few waifs from the great living 

As may be well imagined, these beings who 
had wandered far away to this western world 
belonged to a class who might be said to con 
sist of the curiosities of humanity. Trappers 
men who had escaped from justice, men itnbit 
tered by the strange chances and misfortunes of 
life — such men formed this community 
Amongst the last class was a curious old law- 
yer, a man possessed of profound ability. He 
had been brought up at the Inns of London. 
He had striven for many years in that great 
city, feeling, knowing his ability. In his at- 
tempt to obtain a foot-hold he had battled 
against poverty and misfortune, and had felt 
the pangs of that hope deferred which makes 
the heart sick; but the rushing stream of mis 
fortune was too powerful for him with its terri- 
ble tide, and he lost his hold upon the world. 
He sought the peace and solitude of the great 

This last gentleman was the oracle of the 
little town, and many a lecture did he give to 
his audience there assembled, as he sat before 
the great stove in the Hudson's bay store, and 
puffed the gray tobacco smoke from his ineer 
schaum pipe in clouds above him: for it was 
around this stove that the whole city assembled 
whenever it rained, which happened at that 
time, nearly every day in the year. Around 
this great stove, in the old log-wood store, this 
whole city, on these numerous occasions, chewed 
and smoked tobacco and told hideous yarns. 

Anil all the while the Columbia, with the 
rain ever falling on its smooth surface, rolled on 
in grim silence to the ocean. 

When such a strange event as the appearance 
of a white sail on the ocean happened, thequiet 
little community would be thrown into a state 
of enormous excitement. Then would the mem- 
liers of this community lay down their tobacco 
pipes, their Quids would be cast aside, the peo- 
ple would put on their rubber boots, their oil- 
skin hats and coats, and the whole community, 
follow ed by the sheep, cows and dogs of the 
village, would go down to the beach; the great 
life-boat that belonged to the eompany would 
be manned, and the crew would prepare to pilot 
the ship into port. But such an occasion as 
this occurred only at very long intervals indeed. 

There were Indians there in those days, but 
not one is now left to tell of the race that is gone. 
They were a Quiet, peaceable and idle race. 
They lived chiefly by salmon fishing, and were 
not of a warlike disposition. 

The little town of Astoria had been sleeping 
in the quiet manner which we have described, 
disturbed only by the cry of the panther and 
the howl of the wolf, when a great commotion 
was caused by the report that there was to be 
an increase in the population. A young clerk 
was to be sent out from Kngland. The sale of 
blankets to the Indians had increased of late, 
and the company had come to the conclusion 
that an additional clerk was necessary. An old 
trapper bad been seen coming around "Tongue 
point" in a canoe, one day, and he had brought 
the news from another station placed by the 
same company far up the < 'olumbia. For many 
days the community smoked more violently as 
they discussed the news around the great stove 
in the old low-roofed store. 

One day a sail was seen lieyond "Sand island," 
and at about 4 o'clock in the afternoon the ship 
anchored in front of the town, and the new 
clerk was rowed ashore. 

It was not long before the tow n became aw are 
of the fact that this gentleman had been mar- 
ried to a lovely Knglish girl the day before he 
left Kngland. He had left his young wife in 
Kngland, and had come to this far land to work 
for the company for a few years until he had 
saved money enough to go home and live with 
his wife in ease. It was a hard trial to him, 
and a hard trial to his young wife; but pov- 
erty was his master. He had thought first 
of delaying the day of marriage until his re- 
turn, but this had already been delayed, and 
both w ere too deeply in love to reason. Instead of 
reasoning they got married. A few hours of 
exquisite bliss and they parted. 

The white sails of the vessel which had 
brought the young husband to Astoria, were 
spread and slewed around to catch the wind: 
the vessel sailed away on her homeward voy- 
age; the citizens watched the sails until they 
became a white speck on the ocean, and then 
became indistinguishable from the distant 
clouds on the horizon. 

The new member soon settled down and be- 
came like the rest of the c munity, and it was 

not long before he acquired those habits which 
ware common to all. At first he was the prin- 
cipal speaker at the old store, and would de- 
scribe to the little band of listeners the great 
and busy world, so far away. Kven the dogs 
of the village would sit on their haunches and 
look up into his face with a look of seeming in- 
terest as he spoke. And one time he told of 
the sweet, gentle wife that he left behind 
him, and as he described her in glowing terms 
his listeners leaned forward with their elbows 
on their knees, and one old pilot took oil' his hat 
and laid it on the floor, as the young man de- 
scribed the lovely face like that of an angel, 
and spoke of the golden hair and the eyes like 
the blue of heaven. 

But after a while a deep melancholy took pos- 
session of him, and he hardly spoke to the rest. 
And he was often seen to wander up and down 
the beach in the evening, after the day's work 
was dono. He became the subject of conversa- 
tion, anil the villagers all solemnly agreed — and 
especially did the old lawyer conclude that he 
was out of his element; that that was no place 
for him. 

Still the days dragged by and the rain came 
drearily down; still the Indians in their canoes 
paddled their way over the smooth surface of 
the river, and still the river carried Old Time 
in his invisible boat down to the ocean. 

One day an Indian came into the store and 
informed the people therein that a big canoe 
was out on the ocean. They went out, an 
sure enough on the far horizon, and a "leetle to 
port of Sand Island," as a rough old sailor ex- 
pressed it, was a sail. The sail moved across 
the mouth of the river, and many were the 
conjectures as to whether she would come into 
the river or not. At last the question was set- 
tled when the vessel rounded the north end of 
the sand-spit on the bar. In two hours the ves- 
sel, with all sails set, passed within a quarter 
of a mile of the town, and went on up the river. 
The vessel was a beautiful clipper packet; one 
of the splendid line of packets that sailed be- 
tween this country and France sixty years ago 
one of those vessels that were fitted up like 
palaces; that were built of oak and pine and 
were fastened with copper bolts. This was the 
Silvia tli Qnu, and she had a majestic appear 
ance as she moved, with all sails set, onward 
up the Columbia. 

Every spy-glass in the city was leveled at the 
vessel as she glided onward. A lady on the 
poop-deck was waving a handkerchief, and a 
spy-glass showed to the young clerk that this 
was the wife that he had left in old Kngland. 
The day had been a bright one, and the sun 
was sinking at the mouth of the river throng] 
a heaven of golden clouds. 

The young husband got into the life-boat 
with four companions and rowed up the river 
after the vessel. The sun sank, and the clouds 
of gold in the west took a crimson hue. 

It was suddenly noticed that the vessel had 
stopped. She had struck upon a hidden rock. 
The vessel remained in the same position, with- 
out moving. The boat reached her, and the 
young husband seized upon a rope that was 
hanging from the bow of the vessel, in order to 
keep the boat in position. The ebb tide was 
rushing rapidly around the bow of the ship, 
forming whirlpools in its course. 

During the "voyage from Kngland, the young 
wife had a constant presentiment that she 
would lind that her husband was dead, for she 
had never heard from him, and this had induced 
her to go in search of him; and now, after a 
long sea voyage, which had lasted thirteen 
months, she, with inexpressible joy, saw his 
face again. 

The young man, while holding his boat in po- 
sition, was looking up into her face, and had 
just commenced to speak to her, when the tide 
coming around the bow of the ship caused the 
boat to lurch to one side, and he was throw n 
into the river. He lost his hold upon the rope 
»nd was carried down with the tide. One 
shriek from the young girl and she fell insensi- 
le to the deck. The young man rose to the 
surface, sank, rose again, and yet a third time, 
and was then lost to sight. 

The young girl was taken ashore in an insen- 
sible condition. Some men living in a log cabin 
deserted it and gave it uji to her. An old La- 
in woman, who had worked for some of the 
officers of the company, attended her during 
her sickness, which lasted two weeks. Day 
;ifter day the rough inhabitants would come 
stealthily to the old cabin, lay their hats on the 
ground and wait silently until the old Indian 
woman happened to come to the door, when 
he would tell them how the young girl was. 
They would go away then, shaking their heads 
mournfully as they went. During most of this 
time she was delirious. The long continued 
anxiety, followed by the unexpected sight of 
the one she loved, and that followed by his 
leath at the moment of her greatest happiness, 
ad been more than her gentle nature could 
stand. In her delirium so the oldest inhab- 
itants say — she seemed to think that she was on 
in island in the middle of the ocean, and that her 
Hisband was being torn from her arms by sav- 
ages who intended to murder him. 

But death cast his soft mantle of eternal sleep 
iver the poor weary form at last, for one even- 
ing, as the sun was sinking down through the 
ky of tire that hung over the mouth of the 
great river, a ray of sunlight coming through 
the old log-cabin — a ray which had been resting 
on the poor weary face and playing in the hair 
of gold, grew dim, and more dim, until it had 
gone, and the night had come, and to her the 
ight of death. 

The pretty eyes, blue as the light of heaven, 

had lost their look of w eariness, and their look 
of sorrow forever. There was no more suffer- 
ing, no more pain for her —she was dead. 

The next morning the liody of the young hus- 
band drifted upon the beach. 

Preparations were made for the funeral. 
Two canoes were placed side by side, and 
boards were placed between, forming a plat- 
form. On this the community placed green 
boughs. The carpenters of the packet ship 
made two pine coffins. The remains of the 
young people were placed in these, and they 
rested side by side above the platforms on the 
canoes. This was taken in tow by the life- 
l>oat, and the inhabitants took canoes, and the 
ship's company their boats, and this little com- 
pany rowed slowly and silently around "Smith's 
point," and up Young's river. A number of 
Indians in their canoes followed grimly and 
silently in the rear. 

Near a narrow- gorge in this river, beneath the 
shadow of tall fir trees was found a little green 
spot, anil here a grave was dug. The oldest 
man in the community said the burial service, 
and the unfortunate young pair were lowered to 
their eternal resting place. 

The hull of the old Silvia de (iras withstood 
the shock of the wind and the weather formally 
years. It is said that people sailing by the old 
ship at midnight in their boats, have heard the 
despairing cry of the young girl, and on moon- 
light nights, the sailors have been seen pulling 
at the ropes of the vessel. But these mysterious 
visitors are to be seen no more, for the noble 
vessel has at length given up the l>attle with 
time. A few years ago the last remnant of the 
"Silvia de Cras" was carried away by the dark, 
rushing tide of the river. Adair Wtfrbr, in 
Record- U iiion. 

Our Home Circle— The Press. 

[Written for Hie Ui iiai. I'rkhn hy Mkh. C. I. II. Nichols. | 
The KriiAi, Press is winning well-deserved 
recognition of its high character as a first-class 
agricultural and home journal. I seldom take 
it up that I do not compare it, involuntarily, 
with the dozen or more weeklies, of which we 
are in the regular or occasional receipt, and 
never to its disadvantage in tone, talent, or 
helpfulness to its readers. Aside from its line 
mechanical execution, the most notable im- 
provements of the Pkkss have been in its added 
pages of communications, discussions and re- 
ports in the interest of special departments of 
agriculture and its kindred industries. As a 
journal devoted to general agricultural and home 
interests it has from the first been remarkable 
for the number, and uniformly independent 
practical thought, and ready talent of its lady 

Said (,'has. Sumner, of the 100,000 Kmanci 
pation Petition of the Woman's Loyal League, 
when presenting it in the L". S. Senate : "So 
far as this proceeds from the women of the 
country, it is a petition, not an argument. But 
I need not remind the Senate that there is no 
reason so strong as the reason of the heart." 

I was reminded of Sumner's remark, the other 
day, by a young grand . laughter, who often 
spends an hour with the early issues of the 
I'k M8 — in reference to its latter-day improve- 
ments—that she liked the old numbers better 
than the new. The outspoken opinion, being 
apparently well considered, was suggestive. 
Asking the reason of her preference, I found it 
in the every-day experiences of the Home Circle 
of the early volumes. For some weeks there 
had been very little of the characteristic farm 
house literature -excellent what there was— 
its place being tilled by stories. " You like the 
stories ? " I said. " I do w hen natural. " Stories 
made up " of tills and flirtations, ending in a 
mercenary or love-sick marriage, were objected 
to as "so unsatisfactory and disappointing.'' 
Records or tales of individual and home life, in 
which there was noble striving for some worthy 
purpose, social and domestic enjoyment, nour- 
ished by sympathy and unselfish performance 
of duty, whether with riches or poverty in 
fact, the literature in w hich the " reason of 
the heart " flavors ami stimulates the reason of 
the head— was the pictured choice of the young 
girl who had read enough fly-trap literature to 
reject it, and enough of substantial home litcra 
tare to learn that it is soul food, quickening the 
perceptions, exciting the ambition, and showing 
the way to be, and to do, and to win "Cod's 
best gifts to man." And so, said I to myself, 
its Home Circle is the pulsating heart of our 
pet Kl'KAL. May its shadow and its sunshine 
carry rest and refreshment wherever it goes — 
in the future as in the past. 

If we were quite sure of its being the wiser 
course, we cannot keep from our children the 
loubtful, often objectionable, in the journals 
mil magazines that have become so influential 
mil necessary a factor in home education. The 
low, pitiful flings and double entendre of the 
lumorous columns, the unnatural and exag- 
gerated presentations of life, mingled with lax 
moral sentiment, till the heart of the careful 
parent with dread. How grateful to such are 
the chance remarks that indicate the develop- 
ment of a wise discrimination. Like echoes 
from our own youthful past, how they remind 
of here and there a turning point, assuring 
safety or intimating ilanger, when a word, a 
smile, a simple caress, steadied our step and 
nerved our efforts for subsequent life! When 
deemed too young to comprehend their 
significance, the hungry soul has seized 
the precious suggestions of mature minds, 
they have become to it the morning 

July 14, 1883] 


twilight of heavenly and human truths enrich- 
ing the whole after life— making it blessed, and 
a blessing to the near few or the far away 
many. In my home-coming from the youthful 
days, I paused and took sweet counsel with the 
early correspondents of the Rukal, whose sym- 
pathies, the spigots being deftly turned, had 
brimmed over with incidents and personal ex- 
periences of pioneer life, fresh, racy and heart- 
some. Of these, some had "folded their tents 
and stolen silently away;" some have drawn 
into the waiting ma lstroms of divers kinds; to 
all have come the sobering influence of added 
years with their deepened meanings and multi- 
plied cares. In some of our homes death has 
left his pitiless shadow, and to us all a legacy of 
sweet but sorrowful memories of a broken Home 
Circle. For who of us that met them there, al- 
ways cheerful, ever thoughtful of others' weal, 
can forget Mrs. Colby, the cultured, lovable 
woman, the noble wife, the anxious, pains-tak- 
ing mother, and her "Little Grangers" now, 
alas, left fatherless as well as motherless. Or 
Mrs. Locke— our beloved "Mary Mountain"— 
whose pearls of thought, inwrought with a 
broad human sympathy, characteristic alike of 
depth and sweetness, found eager auditors in 
young and old? How our weekly disappoint- 
ment passed into anxiety, when we learned 
through the I'kkss, the cause of her long si- 
lence; and our joy when the "one poor thumb" 
wrote its tender greeting on our pitying hearts. 
(Forgive me, friends. Every bereaved soul has 
its memorial days, when the dear departed claim 
loving remembrance. ) 

The life purpose of Mary Mountain, the 
preparation of her children for lives of noble, 
enjoyable uses; consigned for completion to edu- 
cators of her choice; she rests from her labors, 
but with us remain her precious memory and a 
tender feeling of kinship witli those she loved 
and served as well. 

Mrs. Colby's little grangers, Mrs. Locke's 
son and daughter, are they not in our midst 
entitled with our children and grand-children 
to continued revelations of love and duty, ii 
attractive settings of home and country, that 
will keep the old numbers always inviting to 
the young readers of the future, when our pens 
shall have fallen to other hands, faithful and 
true. Let the Home Circle be always rilled 
With the literature of home, "the reason (if the 
heart," mightier to form and reform than the 
cold, calculating reason of the head. 


A Bird in a Cage. 

How to Govern. 

Editors Press: — It is with great interest I 
read the communications from the members of 
the Home Circle — and here let me beg to 
one — in regard to all things that concern the 
home. 1 often wonder if they have the same 
trials and perplexities that 1 do. Do the chil- 
dren, whom they speak of doing this or that 
commendable thing, ever quarrel with each 
other? Do they ever have days when Jam 
can't give Nell a pleasant word, or vice versa 
And the boys pinch and tease each other after 
going to bed till mother is tired talking to them, 
and maybe has to take a switch, or the ever 
useful slipper and settle the difficulty in a sum 
mary manner ? There are many mothers, no 
doubt, who do not believe in or administer cor 
poral punishment. Some children do not need 
it; even children of a whole family are amiable 
and easily governed ; and this, witli a mother 
of comparatively firm mind, makes govern 
ment an easy matter. Hut take a woman of 
not very strong physique, worn with the cares 
of maternity, a large family to care for, how 
can she be the fair angel always? It takes 
time to govern refractory children, and much 
more time to make children obedient and 
derly, courteous and kind, than most farm 
ers' wives have to devote to it. Of course 
I know all about the examples a mother 
ought to set, etc., but our children 
see other examples. They come in contact with 
irritable and unruly children at school and else- 
where, and are continually receiving outside 
influences. What shall we do ? How govern 
them to make good, useful, noble men and 
women ? Plainly, sisters, I believe women 
ought to have the right to vote. But it don't 
begin to worry me half as much as the question 
of how to successfully manage my family. Kate 
don't like to sew, and it seems an utter impos- 
sibility to hurry her one particle, yet she is af- 
fectionate and loving withal, and thinks she 
tries to do her best and so on. Now what to 
do and how best to do it, is a momentous ques- 
tion. I would like to have some of the sisters 
give some of their experience in these matters. 
I am willing to let such able writers as Mrs. 
Nichols, Mrs. Rancher, Kdwd. Berwick and 
others discuss the suffrage question. I enjoy 
it much and say amen all through Mrs. Nich- 
ols' letters; but I am more interested just now 
in this subject of government of the family. I 
wish they (any, or all members) would give a 
little help and advice to Sistkk Sue. 

Santa Paula, Ventura Co. 

Brick, ok Cokk. — At the Nuremberg exhibi- 
tion was shown a novel use of bricks of corks. 
These bricks have only been used for building 
purposes on account of their lightness and iso- 
lating properties, but they are also employed as 
a covering for boilers, and are said to excel even 
asbestos in preventing the radiation of heat. 
They are stated to be very cheap, being pre- 
pared of small corks, refuse and isolating ce- 
ment. At Nuremberg, the application of cork 
bricks was largely shown. The usual size of 
cork bricks is 10x4 : i'x'21 inches. 

[Written for the Ki'kat, I'kkss by I. H | 
Two dear little linnets built their nest in the 
arbor just in front of the house where Minnie 
lived. It was great fun to watch them at their 
work, and afterwards, when the nest was fin- 
ished, to peep in and see the pretty pale green 
eggs, first one, then two, three, four, five. At 
last mamma said they must not go near it any 
more, for the mother bird was sitting and should 
not be disturbed. But one morning papa called 
Minnie, lifted her up and showed her five tiny 
little birds, such funny, fuzzy little things, with 
wide open mouths and no shape at all, only 
like so many little balls of down. 

Oh, papa," said Minnie, "will they ever 
look like birds ?" 

"Wait and see," said papa. 
Day after day the little girl watched the 
father and mother fetding the little ones. How 
busy they were, flying back and forth with food 
for the hungry little mouths, and how the tiny 
>irds in the nest grew until they really began 
to look like something, as Minnie said. 

"I think they are nearly ready to fly," said 
mamma one day, and sure enough the next 
time Minnie went to look at the nest it was 
empty. She was just going to run in and tell 
her mother that the little birds had all flown 
away, when something fluttered along the path 
close to her feet. What do you think it was ? 
One of the little linnets! Minnie took it up 
very gently, and went into the house. 

Oh, mamma !" she exclaimed, "I have got 
one of the darling birdies. Can't I have it for 
my own ?" 

Mamma took it in her hand and looked at it. 
'oor little thing," she said, "it is not strong 
enough to fly; we must take care of it for a 
ttle while. Perhaps the mother will feed it 
if we put it in a cage where she can come to it." 

Minnie ran up stairs and brought an empty 
cage; the little bird was put into it, and the 
cage hung up in the arbor near the old nest. 
Very soon Minnie heard the mother-bird chirp- 
ing and calling, and presently she flew to the 
cage, and clinging to the wires put something 
into the little open mouth inside. 

"Oh, how nice !" said Minnie, clapping her 
hands; "will she feed it until it is big enough 
to feed itself, mamma?" 

"I think so, and then it will be strong enough 
to fly away." 

Minnie shook her head. "I don't want to let 
it fly away. I want to keep it always." 

"But dear," said her mother, "a wild bird is 
not happy in a cage." 

"Oh, I can make it happy," said Minnie. 
"I will give it everything it wants. Please let 
me keep it, mamma." 

"We will talk about it again," her mother 
said, ".lust now all we can do is to put seed 
and water in the cage, and to cover it at night 
to keep it warm." 

The very next morning when Minnie woke 
up she noticed some little red spots on her arm. 
What could they be ? She rolled up her other 
sleeve and there were more of them on the 
other arm, then she looked at her feet; they 
were spotted and speckled too; and when she 
looked in the glass her face was the worst of all. 

"Mamma," she called, "come and see what is 
the matter with me." 

"Why, my child," said mamma at once, "you 
must have the measles. Do you not feel sick 
in any way?" 

"No," said Minnie, "not a bit, only I have 
got a cold, and my eyes water. " 

"Well, you must stay in bed till after break- 
fast, and I will get Uncle Henry to come and 
look at you." 

Uncle Henry was a doctor, and when he 
came, he said, "Yes, it is the measles, but she 
is not going to be very sick. You can let her 
get up, but keep her in one room, and do not 
let her be exposed to the air at all." 

Poor little Minnie; she did not like being 
kept in one room; she felt well enough to run 
and play and she did so want to go out of doors 
and run about in the garden. Mamma did all 
she could to amuse her; she got out her little 
cups and saucers, made tea and toast, and played 
coming to take tea with her little girl; she read 
to her and told her stories, but the time passed 
very slowh , and after three or four days Min- 
nie felt as if she had been shut up in the house 
for a year. 

"My poor little bird does not like being kept 
in a cage, does she ?" said Mamma, when Min- 
nie was fretting and almost crying. 

"No," said Minnie, who was lying on the 
lounge, and she turned over and hid her face in 
the pillows. She lay so still that mamma thought 
she was asleep, but she was only thinking; and 
at last she sat up and said: 

"Do you think my little bird is strong enough 
to fly, mamma?" 

" Ves, I dare say it is; it seems so lively and 

" Well, I want you to let it go. I am sure it 
is not happy." 

Mamma smiled. "Would you not like to 
keep it till you are able to go out yourself and 
open the cage ?" 

" No," said Minnie; "1 don't want to keep it 
another minute. I know now just ho v much 
it wants to get out. Please go and let it fly 
away, mamma, and I will stand by the window 
and watch you." 

So mamma went out and unfastened the cage 

door. The little linnet hopped about for a few 
minutes; then he stood in the open door, flut- 
tered his wings as if to try them, and flew right 
up into the pepper tree before the door. The 
father bird came and flew round him, and they 
both chirped and twittered" and seemed very 

When mamma went in to her little girl, she 
found her still standing by the window. 

" They were very glad," said Minnie, " and I 
am glad, too." 

But two big tears slowly dropped from her 
eyes, and mamma took her on her knee, kissed 
her, and rocked her to sleep. And while Min- 
nie was asleep, a wonderful thing happened — 
her Cousin Lucy came out from the city to pay 
her mamma a visit. 

" You wrote that Minnie had the measles, 30 
I brought something to amuse her," she said, 
uncovering a small square parcel, and taking 
out a tiny cage, with a lovely yellow and black 
canary in it. 

" Do you think she will like it ? " 
" Like it ! " said mamma, " she will be wild 
with delight," and she told Cousin Lucy about 
the linnet. 

"The little darling," said the good cousin, 
" how glad I am that I thought of it." 

Just then Minnie opened her eyes, and the 
first thing she saw was a bird in a cage, but this 
time it was not a wild bird whose little heart 
would ache to be free, but a tame bird, born in 
a cage, and caring only to lie well fed and kind 
ly treated. 

" Oh, mamma," she said, after she had 
thanked Cousin Lucy, " I am so glad to have a 
bird of my own, and I am all the gladder be 
cause I let the linnet go." 
Walnut Creek. 

has fainted and died from believing that he was 
bleeding to death. Therefore, well persons, to 
remain well, should be cheerful and happy, and 
sick persons should have their attention drawn 
as much as possible from themselves. It is by 
their faith men are saved, and it is by their 
faith that men die. If he wills not to die, he 
can often live in spite of disease, and if he has 
little or no attachment for life, he will slip 
away as easily as a child will fall asleep. Men 
"ve by their souls and not by their bodies. 
Their bodies have no life by themselves; they 
are only resources of life— tenements of their 
souls. The will has much to do in continuing 
the physical occupancy or giving it up. 

A recent cough will almost always yield to 
the following treatment within two or three 
days : Mix in a bottle four ounces of glycerine, 
two ounces of alcohol, two ounces of water, two 
grains of morphine. Shake well. Dose for 
an adult, one to two teaspoonfuls every two or 
three hours. Half this quantity to children 
from ten to fifteen years. It is not safe to give 
it to infants or children under ten years of age. 

(i>OOG> J^EAbTJ-l. 

One Cause of Railroad Accidents. 

The most carefully compiled statistics inform 
us that about 1 ,400 railroad employes are killed 
in this country every year, and from 8,000 to 
to 10,000 more or less injured. This great 
sacrifice of human life is not, as might at first 
thought be surmised, caused principally by the 
frequent collisions or derailment of trains, but 
by accidents in making up and handling trains 
at stations. The loss is nearly all confined to 
brakemen or station train helpers ; and the 
opinion is expressed by good railroad authority, 
that a very large portion of these accidents might 
be avoided by improved, or rather uniform 
methods of constructing cars. 

It is a very general impression that system 
and uniformity is the prevailing rule in that 
portion of practical mechanics, which relates to 
car construction, but such is not the fact 
From a circular issued by the secretary of the 
Master Car Builders' Association it appears that 
the very opposite of uniformity is the rule 
among car builders for railroad companies. The 
master car builder of the Boston and Albany 
railroad says he has forty different kinds of 
brake heads and shoes, eleven of journal boxes 
thirty-seven journal bearings, ten cast iron and 
five or six wrought iron draw bars, eight or ten 
different draw bar side castings, and a multi 
tude of various other different parts of a car, 
The master car builder of the Baltimore and 
Ohio road reports sixty-five different kinds of 
journal bearings, and in eleven other articles in 
common use varieties numbering from twenty 
five to six. And similar reports have been sent 
from other railroad authorities. 

This is a singular exhibit, and it would seem 
almost that human perversity and not mere 
chance, or individual convenience, had pro 
duced this wide and confusing diversity of con 
struction. It is a matter which may well dial 
lenge careful inquiry, not only of the associa 
tion referred to, but of the general public as 

X)0Jv1ESTI(S GJeoj^ojviY. 

Power of the Imagination. 

That imagination may prove fatal, receives 
fresh proof from " a case of fatal shock from 
supposed snake bite," reported in the Medical 
Press, April 25, 1883, by Dr. C. R. Francis. 
The patient, awakened from his sleep by some 
thing creeping over his naked legs, immediately 
jumped to the conclusion that it was a cobra, 
went into a state of collapse and died, though it 
was discovered, even before death, that the 
supposed cobra was a harmless lizard. Ther 
is no doubt but that a very large portion of the 
sickness and death of adults might be warded 
off by a proper and determined exercise of the 
will power. 

A late number of Hall's Journal of Health, 
in dwelling upon this subject, remarks as fol- 
lows: To regain or recover health, persons 
should be relieved from all anxiety concerning 
diseases. The mind lias power over the body. 
For a person to think he has a disease will often 
produce that disease. This we see effected 
when the mind is intensely concentrated upon 
the disease of another. It is found in the hos 
pital that surgeons and physicians who make a 
specialty of certain diseases are liable to die of 
it themselves, and the mental power is so great 
that sometimes people die of diseases which 
they only have in imagination. We have seen 
a person seasick in anticipation of a voyage be- 
fore reaching the vessel. We have known a 
pi rson to die of cancer in the stomach when he 
had no cancer or any other mortal disease. A 
blindfolded man slightly pricked in the arm, 

How Oatmeal is Cooked in Scotland. 

I Written for the Kikai. PRESS by I. H.I 
Have the water boiling over a hot fire; put 
in a sufficient quantity of salt to season the por- 
ridge; then taking a spoon in one hand, sift the 
oatmeal in with the other very gradually, stir- 
ring rapidly all the time, until the porridge is 
nearly as thick as it is desired. Cover the pan 
ami set it back where it will continue to boil 
without burning. In half an hour it will be 
thoroughly cooked. 

Oatmeal was in use in Scotland for genera- 
tions before the rest of the world discovered its 
value, and the manner of cooking it in vogue 
in every cottage cannot be improved. Some 
American cooks recommend its being soaked 
over night in cold water; others stir it up with 
cold water before adding it to that which is 
boiling. Kither method makeL- mush, and not 
porridge, entirely destroying the delicious grain- ' 

8S of the oatmeal. Kvery one who has made 
cornnieal mush knows that the meal will cook 
in half the time if scalded at once in the boiling 
water, instead of being moistened with cold water 
first. The same is true of oatmeal. I think 
any one who tries the Scotch way will never 
return to the other. Once or twice I have 
made the porridge for breakfast with water 
which was not quite boiling, with the result 
that the sticky and sudden mush was left upon 
the plates to be thrown out to the chickens. 
Oatmeal not thoroughly cooked might be given 
as a medicine in cases of constipation, but 
proves very irritating to the bowels of young 

Walnut Creek. 

Fig Jam. 

[Written for tin- Rural I'kkss by EMILY 1". Collins.] 
For the ladies of southern California, an ex- 
cellent way of disposing of their figs would be 
to make them into jam. Peel them when en- 
tirely ripe, and boil a few minutes until quite 
soft; strain through a colander or coarse sieve; 
add of white sugar one-half their weight, and 
boil to the required consistency. Flavor with 
lemon, or pineapple, or anything that may be 
preferred. It makes a very delicate and de- 
licious sweetmeat for family use, and might be 
made a profitable article of commerce, if put 
up in one or two -pound pots. This is a better 
way than to can them, as is done in our Gulf 
States, and we have tried both methods there. 
It would be a suitable and profitable business 
for women; and he who enlarges the sphere of 
their industry, does the human race a greater 
service than "he who makes two blades of 
grass grow where one grew before." 
Hartford, Conn. 

A Washinc Mixti kk. — Take three pints of 
hot water and slice into it two and a half 
pounds of common yellow bar soap and stir it 
up over the fire till it is dissolved. Then add 
two ounces of sal-soda, two ounces of borax 
and a teaspoonful of spirits of turpentine. Stir 
all together until well mixed and dissolved. 
Take it from the fire and stir it till quite thick, 
then turn into a pan or small tub and when 
cold cut into bars. When washing dissolve a 
large piece of it in a pint of boiling water, 
then wring out the clothes that have been soak- 
ing all night and put them into the boiler with 
cold water. Turn in the dissolved soap and 
let the water become scalding hot. Take them 
out and rinse in cold water, rubbing off any 
spots that are seen; wring again and rinse 
and blue and hang out to dry. It saves a 
great deal of muscular strength, and it will 
wash colored clothes as well as white clothes, 
and is also good for washing white paint. After 
this small recipe is tried and found satisfactory 
a much larger quantity can be made by increas- 
ing the recipe four or eight times, for the older 
the soap the better it is. 

Scalloped Chicken.— Cut cold roast or 
boiled chicken as for salad. Season it nicely 
with pepper, salt, minced onion and parsley. 
Moisten it with chicken gravy or cream sauce: 
till scalloped shells with themixtureand sprinkle 
bread crumbs over the tops. Put two or 
three pieces of butter the size of a small white 
bean upon each, ami brown them quickly in a 
hot oven. 


fAeihie KURAL pRESS. 

[July 14," 1888 


W. B. KV.ER. 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Ojffice, 252 Market St;, N. E. cor. Front St., S. F. 
tr Take the Elevator, So. It Front St. '6-1 

Add ress editorials and business letters to the firm ; 
individuals pre liable to be absent. 

Our Subscription Rates. 

Our Subscription Ratbs are thrrk dollars a year, 
in advance. If continued subscriptions are not prepaidi n 
advance, for any reason, fifty cknts extra will be 
charged for each year or fraction of a year. <STNo new 
names placed on the list without cash in advance. 

Advertising Rates. 1 week. 1 month. 3mos. 12 mos 

Per line (agate) 25 .80 *2.20 85.00 

Half inch (1 square). . $1.50 J4.00 10.00 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 14.00 6.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or read- 
ing notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing in ex- 
traordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, at 
special rates. Four inserti ms are rated in a month. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Entered at S. F. Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 

A T. dbwev. w. b. ewer. c h. strong 


Saturday, July 14, 1883. 

EDITORIALS.— Northern Scenery; California Wheat; 
Loss of Water, 21- 11"-' Week; The College of Agri- 
culture: Orange Sales at the F.ast, 28- 

ILLUSTRATIONS. -Mt. Baker, W. T. . 21. Treat- 
ment of Homing Pigeons, 29. 

EiNTOMoLOtilCAU-Staning the Codlbl Moth; 
Whv We Should Fight, 28. 

CORRESPONDENCE. Agriculture in France; 
Hop Picking; Tuolumne Notes; From Vulture to I'res- 
cott, Arizona, 22- Value of the Hural Preen, 23- 

ARBOKICULTURE — Tree Planting on the (iovem- 
inent Reservations in San Francisco, 23- 

tion: The Benefits; Remembering the Oranges; Future 
Prospects; A Crangc Building, ii4- 

AGRICULTURAL, NOTES - From the various 
counties of California and Oregon, 24-5. 

NEWS IN BRIEF - ' >n |>age 2r> and other pages. 

THE HOME CIRCLE. Ploughing (Poetry); A 
Legend of the Columbia; Our Home Circle The Press, 
•26 How to Govern, 27. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.-A Bird in a Cage, 

GOOD HEALTH.— One Cause of Railroad Accidents; 

Power of the Imagination, 27- 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.- How Oatmeal is Cooked 

in Scotland; Fig .lain; A Washing .Mixture; Scalloped 

Chicken, 2 /. 

8EKI(JUL,TURE — Meeting of the Silk Culture Asso- 
ciation; Meeting of the State Board of Silk Culture, 2«. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — What Slickens has Done; 
Crops at the tost. 25 The New York Wine Trade. j>l. 


Agricultural Implements- Truman, Isham .V Co., S. F. 
Dried Fruits— Ocorge W. Meade & Co., S. F. 
Books— A. L. Bancroft & Co., S. F. 
Horses M. W. Dunham, Wayne, Ills. 
Fire Insurance Agents -Butler & Haldan, S. F. 
Wire Fence Sedgwick Bios., Richmond, Ind. 
Kssex and Duroc Sw ine -Peter Saxe & Sou, S. F. 
Trees for Sale — S. P. Sanders, San Jose, Cal. 
Litton Springs College -John Gamble, Sonoma Co. 
Cream by Machincn De Laval Co., New York. 
Thoroughbred Cattie -Henry Pierce, S. F. 

The Week. 

The harvest progresses favorably. The grain 
i.s turning; out as well as expected by those who 
duly considered the effects of the scorching 
winds of last month. We see no reason to 
change our estimate made just after the storm, 
that the aggregate would be reduced one-fifth 
from the amount which seemed warranted just 
before the norther began its work. The 
thrashers are at work in the great valley, and 
those who work in the coast valleys are just 
starting out from the shops. The weather is 
glorious for the harvest, and a successful in- 
gathering is assured. 

The Fourth of July was celebrated with un- 
usual spirit in the country towns this year, 
many of them having celebrations which re- 
flected much credit upon all concerned. The 
week was chiefly filled with vacation pleasures, 
and the trains approaching the city on Satur- 
day afternoon Were thronged. This week there 
is more disposition to go to work and to trade, 
and large supplies of merchandise are moving 
out. There is every reason to expect an ac- 
tive and satisfactory autumn with a good sup- 
ply of money for improvements before the rains 
again close the circle of the year. 

The fair societies are well at work with their 
preparations for the annual displays. The pa- 
vilion at Sacramento advances apace, and in 
several counties new fair buildings are going 
up. We expect to give our readers something 
extra this year in fair literature, but it is too 
early to tell about it yet. Sun- rerrCTU. 

The College of Agriculture. 

The next year's work at the University of 
California will begin the second week in August 
The coming class, according to indications fur 
nished by the June examinations, will be larger 
than for several years. The institution is now 
in excellent condition; some cases of discipline 
during the last few years have had a wholesome 
effect, and the moral and working quality of 
the students has been very satisfactory. 

We would especially call attention at this time 
to the desirability of our young men coming 
forward and enrolling themselves as students 
in the College of Agriculture, and giving such 
time to the study of matters pertaining to this 
industry, as their means and leisure allow 
Prof. Hilgard and his assistants are ready to 
give the benefit of their studies and experi 
ences, and many a young man will find himself 
greatly assisted in his work by such insight 
into underlying sciences as can be gained. 

The students who have pursued the agricul 
tural course during the last two or three years 
have generally betaken themselves to agricul 
tural pursuits after graduation. We recall one 
who is engaged in mixed farming, another in 
sheep farming, two others analyzing soils and 
grading land on the Northern Pacific Railway, 
another fanning 000 acres of land in Yuba 
county, etc. They are all doing work credita- 
ble to themselves and to the institution. 

The question often arises as to what a young 
man can do at the University who has not time 
nor means to pursue a regular four years' course 
Provision is made for such students. Those 
applicants of suitable age, who can pass an ex 
animation showing that they are qualified to 
profit by the instruction given, are allowed, 
under the advice of the (faculty, to make up a 
"Partial Course" from the essentially agricul 
tural studies, and such other topics as may be 
most important in view of previous attainments. 
Graduate of High Schools, Academies and other 
institutions giving thorough drill in the usual 
English studies and a fair start in the natural 
sciences, can in two years acquire that which 
should be of great value to those who wish to 
pursue agriculture intelligently. 

The privilege of being a "Special Student" of 
one or more subjects without a full schedule is 
granted only to those of mature character and 
age. Although these two classes of students 
are 'not candidates for degrees, they can on 
leaving obtain certificates showing what studies 
have been pursued, and with what success. 
Students who work in the analytical labora- 
tories are charged for chemicals and other ma- 
terials used. 

Persons not members of the University may 
obtain permission to attend any course of lec- 
tures by application to the Faculty, or to the 
lecturer, giving the course. 

Thus the institution is open to those who 
cannot avail themselves of all its benefits, and 
the accommodating conditions arranged by the 
Faculty should lead all who can to enroll them- 
selves for the coming year. 

Orange Sales at the East. 

Thete seems to have been something rather 
encouraging done in the Kastern shipment of 
California oranges this summer. The Anaheim 
Qazt tU gives the following account of sales of a 
a lot shipped to Chicago by D. W. Dimock, of 

cmt aoo, June 8, isss. 
Account Sales by F.. R. Nichols & Co., of LIT boxes 

oranges, received June 4, Istst: 
Ut boxes on track «•** 2/i -HUB 00 

(i box empty-) 

Freight 9162 911 

Commission «? ID— 220 26 

Net proceeds X442 74 

It seems that -Mr. Dimock and Mr. Parker 
shipped a carload a week, for several weeks, 
and bought, on order, by telegraph, from an- 
other party in Chicago, a carload of sim- 
ilar at 92.50 per box, in Orange. Mr. 
Dimock has full hope and confidence 
in the eastern market for well selected 
fruit. His trees are of the Mediterranean 
Sweet variety, were four years old in March, 
and he has gathered from his ten-acre orchard, 
this year, 1,000 boxes of oranges, which have 
netted him ¥"2.00 a box. The culls he sent to 
San Francisco, and the superior fruit he wrapped 
and forwarded to Chicago, as detailed above. 
His preference for the Mediterranean Sweet is 
not only because it is a heavy bearer, but it 
ripens later than other varieties, and is ready 
for market at a time when no other variety can 
compete with it. 


Meeting of the Silk Culture Association. 

The California Silk Culture Association held 
its regular monthly meeting on Friday, July 
6th, at the rooms of the State Board of Silk 
Culture, at No. 40 California street (over the 
Orangers' Bank) President, W. B. Ewer, in 
the chair. There was a very full attendance, 
and the proceedings were quite interesting. A 
large amount of correspondence was reported, 
asking for information in regard to feeding 
worms, etc., also several communications giv 
ing the results of experiments made this sea- 
son by the writers. 

A very interesting letter was read from Mrs. 
John Lucas, of Philadelphia, President of the 
Women's Silk Culture Association of that city, 
wherein she congratulates California, that she 
has a Legislature which has been willing to en- 
courage and foster the silk culture interest of 
this State by a liberal appropriation of money. 
An interesting letter was read from Mrs. W. 
B. West, of Stockton, from which we extract 
as follows : I take pleasure in giving you an 
account of my first experiment in silk culture. 
The pamphlet accompanying the eggs was my 
guide. I placed one-half of the eggs in water, 
and allowed them to remain over night. The 
first eggs hatched April 22d, and the hatching 
continued until the "29th — in a room adjoining 
my kitchen. The remaining eggs were placed 
in the same room, without being placed in 
water. These seemed to hatch out more rapidly 
than the first. I then removed all the worms 
to another room, heated by a stove, but did not 
raise the heat higher than 72' F. i fed the. 
worms on the Persian mulberry leaves the first 
week, as they seemed to eat them better than 
the other kinds. I next used the American 
seedling mulberry leaves from cuttings, and for 
the last fifteen days I fed white mulberry leaves 
from cuttings planted last fall. The worms 
were quite healthy, very few having died, but 
they took a very long time to mature — the first 
hatching occurred April 22d, the first spinning 
on May 29th, and was continued up to June 
0th, the date of the letter, at which time they 
were spinning rapidly. 

Mrs. West writes that there are quite a mini 
ber of people in Stockton who are becoming in- 
terested in silk culture. 

The following persons were elected members 
of the association: Miss Lucy K. Taney, Ala 
meda: Mrs. Elizabeth Dodge, San Luis Obispo; 
Mrs. C. C. Calhoun, Fast Berkeley, and Mrs. 
Kleanor Cramer, of Tulare county. 

The treasurer reported a cash balance of 
#170.59 in the tieasury. 

The meetings of the association will hereafter 
be held on the first Friday of each month, at 
the rooms of the State board, commencing at "2 
o'clock in the afternoon. 

Meeting of State Board of Silk Culture. 

Immediately after the adjournment of the 
Silk Culture Association, the State board was 
called to order by Ke\ . C. A. Buckbee, presi- 
lent of the board. 

Tin' members of the association were request- 
ed to remain anil take part in the discussions of 
the board. 

A number of bills for fitting up the rooms of 
the board were read and approved : also bills 
for the purchasing of cocoons with which to 
open the liature, which the law requires the 
hoard to establish. A larirc quantity of cocoons 
have already lieen secured by the board, and 
more are expected. A committee of ladies are 
this week engaged in counting the cocoons al- 
ready received, a process necessary to be gone 
through with l>efore any price can lie fixed upon 
theretor. The cocoons are divided into first, sec- 
ondand third grades, the latter consisting of the 
floss and pierced or badly stained cocoons. The 
board is now paying #1.25 for the first grade ; 
from 75 cents to #1 for second, and from 50 
cents to 75 cents for third grade or refuse. 

A letter was read from Felix Oillet, giving 
his experience the present season, which he says 
has been a very unfavorable one. He has had 
the worst experience he has ever met with. 
The late frosts took all the early leaves and 
buds of his mulberry trees, and he was com- 
pelled to feed his worms on lettuce and black 
salsify (the common vegetable oysterl, only one 
meal a day ; still the worms did very well and 
spun beautiful, heavy, fine cocoons. This good 
result was probably due to feeding the cocoons 
for the last ten daysuponthe grafted rosrua/ln, 
which Mr. Q. calls the king of mulberry. 

Mr. Joseph E. Brown was appointed as the 
agent of the Board for the receipt and distribu- 
tion of cocoons in Santa Clara county. 

Mrs. Louise Kienze, of Berkeley, was added to 
the Filature Committee, and Sig. Paul Con- 
sumne was appointed as advisory member. 

Mr. J. McKwen was added to the Committee 
on cocoons. 

A jar containing samples of cocoons raised by 
Miss Lillie Cook, aged fourteen years, at San 
lose, was exhibited and highly commended, and 
on the recommendation of the Filature Commit- 
tee, it was resolved by the Board to offer cash 
premiums for the best samples of cocoons raised 
in this State by children under the age of fifteen 

years, for the encouragement of home industry, 
An Interesting Review. 

A lecture, entitled the " History of Silk 
Culture in the United States," was delivered 
by President Buckbee, in the course of which 
it was stated that the foundation for the silk 
industry in America had been laid by Cortex, 
the conqueror of Mexico, more than :100 years 
ago. If the same encouragement had been 
given to the manufacture as to the raising of 
raw silk, continued the lecturer, the two indus- 
tries would probably have been fully established 
in our country two centuries ago. In 1098, 
England had been urged to pass a law forbid- 
ding the American colonists to manufacture 
even their own clothing, and the result was the 
apparent death of silk culture. But at a later 
date the industry began to revive in the colonies 
of Carolina, Oeorgia, Pennsylvania and Con- 
necticut, but for fifty years following the revo- 
lutionary war it was almost forgotten in the 
United States. It revived, however, in 1S25, 
when a resolution of inquiry was introduced in 
Congress by Miner, of Pennsylvania, and the in- 
dustry continued to grow until 1839, when there 
came a reaction, caused by a wild spirit of spec- 
ulation, and the progress of the silk industry 
was again temporarily paralyzed. But now the 
industry has been once more revived in the 
United States, and under highly auspicious 
conditions, and sericulture is successfully being 
carried on in the Fast and the West. The 
women of the land were at the head of the 
movement. There were at least twelve womeu's 
silk culture societies in active operation, two of 
the most prominent of which were the societies 
in Philadelphia and San Francisco. "The silk 
industry," concluded the lecturer, "has re- 
ceived a living impetus at the Centennial Exhi- 
bition in Philadelphia, in 1870, when the dis- 
play of cocoons raised in California, silkworms 
feeding on the leaves of the mulberry tree and 
the first silk fabrics from California cocoons 
were on exhibition. Women from all sections 
of the country gathered around this wonderful 
display and saw that there was something in it 
for their own profitable employment, which 
wise policy they are now pursuing." 

A Boys' Association 
Has been formed for silk culture, made up 
chiefly from employes of the iJaili/ J'oxt, of this 
city, and under the especial management of Mr. 
Fred. Do Jardin, also an attache of the Post. 
The eggs for this association were presented by 
Mrs. H. E. Downing, of San Kafaei. They are 
now in the procebs of hatching. She also 
furnishes the leaves, which will be sent down 
from San Rafael every day, by Wells, Fargo A 
Co. Mr. Wm. T. Coleman, of San Kafaei, has 
also promised a supply of leaves. 

Another boys' association is about being or- 
ganized in San Jose. Such associations should 
be organized in every town in the valley and 
low mountainous portions of the state, wher- 
ever the mulberry will flourish. It will be one 
of the objects of the State Board to encourage 
this work. 

Silk Experience— A Correction. 

Eimtoks Press: — In the columns of your pa- 
per of the 7th inst. I noticed an article copied 
from the Lodi R< fit »• purporting to be a state- 
ment from me of my experiment in the culture 
of the silkworm. I beg leave to make the fol- 
lowing corrections through the columns of your 
paper, as the article copied is wholly incorreet, 
caused no doubt from a misunderstanding at 
the time the statement was made for the JU- 
rii a; In the spring of 1882, from eggs received 
of Mr. Uillet, I allowed about "214 female moths 
to lay their eggs, from which, according to the 
usual computation, I should have had about 
(15,000 eggs. These eggs, after going through 
the usual process of hatching, feeding, etc., pro- 
duced 127 pounds of green cocoons, just as they 
came from the frames. One month from this 
time 104 of these same cocoons weighed just 
two and one-fourth ounces, while 104 cocoons 
of the 1SS2 hatch weighed two ounces. The 
Rerieir would make it appear that 04 cocoons 
of the hatch of 1882 w eighed two ounces apiece, 
which everyone must know would be an impos 
sibility. I send you specimens of cocoons of 
both years' hatch.— Mus. M. A. STODDARD, 
Lodi, Cal.> Bah Fai torv.— The Oak laud Tii/n* 
says that the promised revival of the jute mill 
in East Oakland is under way. The work of 
cleaning up the looms, of which there are 122, 
besides other branches of machinery, was coin 
menced last Monday. In addition to this, a 
new brick building, one story high, with a 
frontage of eighty-five feet on East Eleventh 
street, and a depth of sixty feet, to be used as 
a store-house, will l>e commenced this week. 
A large frame addition will be made to the east 
wing of the main building for the reception of 
new machinery from the East and Kan Fran- 
cisco, amounting to about )*.S.000, with the ad- 
dition of a new patent sewing machine of Mr. 
Kohler, of Oakland. The lwilers are to receive 
an overhauling, a new smokestack, and the ad- 
dition of a brick wall. The amount of money 
to be expended in improvements will reach sev- 
eral thousands of dollars. A new system is to 
be inaugurated in the mills, under the efficient 
management of Superintendent John Robertson, 
formerly superintendent of the jute mills at San 
Quentin. Mr. Robertson offers employment to 
boys and girls from the|ages of te.i years and up- 
wards; and favorable chances will be given them 
to make good wages. Chinese are not wanted, 
but it is probable that only a few will be em- 
ployed to do certain grades of work. 

July 14, 1883.] 



Care and Treatment of Homing Pigeons.* 

Pigeons aTe usually kept either in pigeon 
houses or in lofts or rooms specially devoted to 
the purpose. A pigton house on a pole may 
possibly be regarded as a picturesque addition 
to a farm or stable yard, but a worse residence 
for the birds it would be almost impossible to 
devise. The pigeons in these houses are ex- 
posed to all the variations of the weather. 
1 hiring the great heat of summer the close nests 
liecome off ensive from the accumulation of dung, 
and swarm with vermin. In the cold weather 
the young birds frequently perish from the low 
temperature to which they are exposed, and at 
all seasons of the year the driving rain is apt to 
saturate the nests and destroy the vitality of 
the eggs or the life of the unfledged birds. It 
is obvious that a pigeon house can only afford 
comfortable breeding quarters during a small 
proportion of the year, and in inclement seasons 
is a dreary habitation even for full grown birds. 
The result of these disadvantages is, that the 
same number of birds will not rear half the 
number of young in an exposed pigeon house 
that they would if placed in a comfortable, well 
sheltered loft or room. 

If pigeon houses are employed at all, they 
should always have a broad roof, projecting far 
over the sides, so as to screen oft' the rain as fat 
as possible. Houses on poles are worse even 
than lockers placed against a wall, as being less 
sheltered, and offering the smallest amount of 
accommodation for the inmates. 

The following plan for their improvement has 
been proposed by E. S. Delamer, who writes: 

"The best pole house is that of which a plan 
and elevation are given in the accompanying 
cuts. (See Fig. I. ) 

"A pair of birds take possession of the suits 
of apartments whose landing place is marked A. 
They will probably pass through the vestibule, 
B, when they first bring in straws for a nest, 
and deposit them in one of the chambers, as C. 
When the young are a fortnight or three weeks 
old, the hen will probably leave them mostly 
to the care of the cock, and make a fresh nest 
and lay ir. the opposite appartment, I). Ab 
soon as the first pair of young are flown, C will 
be vacant for the hatching of a third brood, and 
so, by shifting alternately from parlor to study, 
and never being idle, a good pair of birds will 
produce quite a little flock by the end of the 

"It is easy to make use of this arrangement 
on a larger scale, or to apply it to the triangular 
frames of lockers which are fixed against barns 
and other outbuildings. " 

This plan is far superior to the ordinary pole- 
house, as offering much more accommodation to 
the sitting birds; the design, however, is capa- 
ble of considerable improvement. If the slop- 
ing boards forming the roof were much larger, 
so as to extend farther over the ends and 
sides, the upper story would be more perfectly 
sheltered from sun and rain; and if the alight- 
ing boards, or landing places (A A), extended 
along the entire length of the sides, they would 
be more convenient for the birds, and those be- 
longing to the upper story would serve to 
shelter the lower nesting places from the 

Pigeon lockers, or houses placed against a 
wall, should have a southerly aspect, and be 
well protected by a broad, projecting roof; but, 
under even the most favorable circumstances, 
they must be regarded as greatly inferior in 
productiveness to lofts or rooms. 

It seldom occurs that a room is specially built 
for pigeons ; but where there is any choice of 
locality it is best to select one that is open to 
the south, so as to get a warm aspect in winter 
and early spring, as that tends to encourage 
early breeding and is more healthy for the 
birds than a room exposed to the cold blasts 
from the north. It is not uncommon to see 
many pigeon rooms on lofts that are very defi- 
cient in light; this is particularly objectionable. 
A dark room is not as healthy for the biucls, 
especially if they are not suffered to fly out, and 
it can hardly be as well cleaned as one which is 
well lighted. Moreover, the owner is not able 
to see his birds conveniently, or to examine the 
nests when required. 


Another point of the highest importance to 
the health of the birds, is the establishment of 
a good system of ventilation. Nine tenths of 
the diseases that affect our high bred pigeons 
arises from their being crowded together in 
dark, dirty, ill-ventilated lofts. There is no 
necessity for an absolute draught of wind to be 
allowed to rush through the loft, but full 
provision must be made for ventilation if healthy 
birds are desired. 

Cleanliness in the pigeon loft is no less essen- 
tial than ventilation, particularly if many birds 
are kept, and they are not flown. The loft 
should be cleaned out daily. Under no 
circumstances should the dung be suffered to 
accumulate until it becomes offensive to the 

Fresh gravel, sand, or dry earth, should be 
thickly strewn on the floor every day, and the 
dung that accumulates in the nest boxes and 
around the nest pans not suffered to collect so 
as to be offensive. The most convenient instru- 

'This article is a continuation of the treatise on hom- 
ing pigeons, which we are permitted to reproduce from 
the report of the Signal Service Bureau by Maj. Gen. 
Hazen, chief officer. It will be found to contain many 
hints and suggestions to those who desire to experiment 
with the breeding and care of these birds. 

ment for clearing the shelves will be found to 
be a small hoe fixed on a short handle about 
eight or ten inches in length. 

Pigeons are often kept in lofts, or in the 
spaces under the tiles or slates of a house. In 
this case the rafters (bridging -joists) should be 
properly boarded over, otherwise the dung 
which falls upon the laths is with difficulty re- 

It is requisite that the room or loft devoted to 
pigeons should be proof against the ingress of 
cats, rats, or other vermin. Strange cats are 
most destructive to pigeons. When a cat has 
once tasted pigeon she seems to prefer it to all 

and from the loft should take place through a 
cage, technically termed an area. (Fig. 11.) 
This should be fixed outside a window on a 
platform, which is usually supported by oblique 
struts. This area may either be constructed of 
laths or wires, and should have a falling door, 
to which is attached a string capable of being 
pulled from the inside, so as to close the en- 
trance. It notunfrequently happens that some 
birds may be shut out when the door is pulled 
up; and in order to give these free access to the 
loft when the area is shut, two contrivances are 
used. One or more square holes, called dropping 
holes, are constructed in the top of the area, 








i j 


Fig. 1.— Plan and Elevation of a Two-Storied Pole Pigeon-House. 

other food. Sometimes the access of a cat can 
hardly be prevented, and it may be necessary to 
get rid of the intruder to prevent the entire loss 
of the stock. A box-trop, baited with a pigeon's 
head, will be found to be invariably successful 
in the capture. 

Rats are no less injurious than cats, and must 

through which the pigeons can readily pass into 
the area, but out of which they cannot possibly 
emerge; the other is spoken of as the bolting 
wire. (Fig. HI.) An aperture is left in the 
side of the area; at its upper part is fixed a 
small roller, turning on a wire which passes 
through it, and into the stout laths that are on 

Fig 3 - Arrangement for Bolt 
ing Wires for Area. 

Fig. 2 — Area for Pigec.i Loft. 

be got rid of at all hazards. Traps, phosphor- 
us paste, a trained cat that has been accus- 
tomed to pigeons from the first, may all be 
had recourse to. 

The loft should, if practicable, admit of being 
divided, so as to enable the separation of the 
birds during the winter to be readily accom- 

either side. From this roller hang two wires, 
placed nearly two inches apart, so as to give a 
pigeon space to put his head and neck through; 
these are quite unattached at the bottom, so 
that the bird pushing from the outside raises 
them and gains an easy entrance. 

But the exit of birds from the interior is pre- 

Fig. 5. Slanting Nest-Box. 

Fig. 4. Square Nesting-Box. 

plished. With the more common hardy breeds 
this is not absolutely requisite, as in a well 
sheltered room they will go on breeding success- 
fully nine or ten months out of the twelve; but 
with the more artificial and delicate high-class 
varieties, it is useless to attempt to rear the 
young during the colder months of the year, 
and therefore it is desirable to separate 
the sexes after moulting time, or the au- 
tumn. This is most readily done by dividing 
the loft. If the birds are flown, the division 
should be so arranged that the cocks and hens 
can be let out separately, and they may be 
given their liberty on alternate days. 

The Area. 

If the birds are flown, ingress and egress to 

Fig. 6. - Earthenware Nest-Pan. 

vented by, the wires resting against a small 
beading or piece of wood below, which hinders 
their being pushed outwards. 

These two simple contrivances are of 
great service ; they prevent birds being 
shut out at night, when they would often 
fall an easy prey to cats, give them at 
any time free access to the loft, and save the 
owner from much anxiety and trouble. The 
birds learn to avail themselves of these means 
of ingress with the utmost readiness. 


The furniture of the loft must now claim our 
attention. Xot the least important, especially 
if many birds are kept together, are the breed- 
ing-places, or nesting-boxes. The3e are of two 

kinds ; in rooms that are rather crowded, 
shelves are generally placed around the walls, 
and the spaces between them are usually divided 
by upright divisions, placed not less than three 
feet apart, so as to form pens or breeding-places 
for the different pairs of birds. The distance 
between the shelves should not be less than 
eighteen inches, if pouters are kept ; but for 
the smaller varieties, a foot or fifteen inches 
will suffice. The ends of each pen should be 
boarded, so that the center only is open. This 
arrangement offers several advantages ; the bird 
in the nest, which may be formed at either 
end, sits concealed and undisturbed, a state of 
things that greatly conduces to success in 
hatching; and by hanging a piece of wire or 
lath-work before the open center, the pen is 
capable of being closed, and the birds confined 
as long as may be desired. 

The arrangement of having darkened nesting- 
places at both ends of the pen is very advanta- 
geous, as during the summer a pair of birds will 
often wish to go to nest before the last hatched 
young are able to fly and feed themselves. 
When this is the case, a second nest-pan may 
be put into the other end of the pen, when the 
birds will lay again, and thus rear a pair of 
young and sit at the same time. 

When there is more room, and the birds are 
not so numerous, nest- boxes placed on the floor 
of the loft will be found more advantageous 
than shelves, for it prevents the young ones 
from falling out of their nests, which sometimes 
breaks a leg, and very often lames them, and also 
gives them a chance of being fed by other pigeons 
as well as their parents, which frequently hap- 
pens. An old cock pigeon, who is a good 
father, will often take compassion upon a hun- 
gry squeaker which teazes him and runs after 
him begging for food, although it does not be- 
long to him, and will cheerfully bestow upon it 
the contents of his crop. When the nests are 
placed upon the floor, breeding-boxes, for the 
concealment of the nest, are very desirable. 
They should be made without bottoms, so as to 
be merely covers to slip over the nests. One 
very convenient form is shown in FlG. IV. It 
consists of three sides of a cubical box, and 
half of a fourth, the bottom and side next the 
wall being absent. This is placed over the 
nesting-pan, and admits of being lifted off in an 
instant, either for the purpose of observation oi- 
for cleaning around the nest. One advantage 
of this form is that the cock bird usually takes 
his station over the nest of his mate, and thus 
does not interfere with the birds belonging to 
other nests, nor permit any intrusion on his own. 

Another form of nest-box is still more simple. 
It is formed, as shown in Fig; V, of an oblique 
and slanting board, resting against the wall. 
This is supported by a piece behind, not seen in 
the drawing, and a half piece in front — thus a 
convenient shelter for the nest is formed. It is 
always to be borne in mind that pigeons invaria- 
bly prefer a concealed and snug retreat for incu- 
bation to any place that may be afforded them, 
.and, when they are allowed a chance, some 
times make strange selections. 

Having tried every plan that has been sug- 
gested for the construction of nests, we know 
of none so advantageous as the employment of 
the coarse earthenware saucers known as nest- 
pans. These arc formed usually of rough, red 
earthenware, and are best if made of the shape 
shown in Fig. VI, although for large birds, as 
pouters and carriers, some fanciers prefer the 
nest-pans to be rather flatter at the bottom than 
the one represented. In size these pans should 
vary witli that of the different breeds; for small 
birds, as tumblers, seven or eight inches in di- 
ameter is quite sufficient, but for pouters, ten 
inches is not too greit. These pans should be 
made heavy, so that they arc not likely to be 
overset by the old birds resting on the edge. 
Some fanciers object to the use of nest-pans on 
account of the young occasionally falling out 
and perishing from cold. Others endeavor to 
obviate this evil by sinking the pan in a hole 
cut in the shelf or board on which it rests, but 
we have never found it necessary to have re- 
course to this plan. The advantages of nest- 
pans over all other contrivances of the kind arc 
very great. They are superior to boxes or bas- 
kets on account of the slight harbor they afford 
to vermin, and the ease with which they can be 
cleaned. Then the facility they afford for exam- 
ining and shifting the young bird should not be 
lost sight of. They are much cleaner and more 
healthy in use than any other contrivance that 
can be employed. When the nestlings are very 
young, if the pan becomes wet, a handful 
of sawdust or bran speedily absorbs all moisture, 
and the nest becomes dry and wholesome, and, 
as the young become stronger, the dung is 
ejected over the sides of the pan, and the nest 
remains unsoiled. Some persons object to their 
employment, thinking that they are apt to chill 
the eggs; but we never experienced that evil, 
and the pans are readily made warmer by a little 
soft hay, cut straw, bran, or sawdust being 
placed within them. 

We are convinced that with high-class, deli- 
cate birds, a very much larger number of young 
can be reared when nest-pans are employed than 
when they are not used. 

When nests are made on the ground, some 
persons place a few bricks around them to pre- 
vent the eggs being rolled away; but the plan is 
far inferior to the employment of the nest-pan. 
In some parts of the country there may be some 
difficulty in getting these simple appliances, 
but, as they can be made by any brick, tile, or 
coarse earthenware maker, they should be ac- 
cessible anywhere. 'bl'l° 
In another issue we will give further extracts 
from Tegetmeicr's Treatise. 



[July 14, 1883 



New Lnttin 


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Especially adapted for llcsritals, Seminaries, Hotels 
and Lodging Houses, and is incomparably Sep hior to 
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cut of order. 

Manufactory. !>46 Howard Slrccl. 



Clear Lake and Calistoga 
Stage Line, 

Carrying U. S. Mail and Wells, Fargo & Cos 

Telegraph Institute and Normal School, 

The Practical Business Training School of California for 
the young ami middle aged of Loth sexes Expenses are less 
than one-half the usual rates Excellent hoard in private 
families from s8 to slO per month. Counet of Simla Full 
Business ( 'ourse. full Normal Course. Review Course Special 
Courses. Teachers' Course, Preparatory Course, Telegraphy 
The "College Journal" will he sent, postpaid, to any address 
r. It. CLAKKR, Principal Stockton, Cal pTo Box 15 


1534 Mission St., San Francisco. 

San Francisco to Lakeport 

In 11 Hours. 

Pas-enters h av e San Francisco daily by Fern line from 
Market Street wharf at s .». M., arriving at Calistoga at 
11:15 a. m. Coaches leave Calistoga at 12 .«. daily (Sun- 
days excepted). On Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, 
leave Calistoga for Lakeport via Middletown, Glcnbrook, 
Kelsevv tile and Soda Bav, returning alternate daws, Th s 
LAKEPORT, and the rubet picturesque and romantic route 
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LAKE and SULPHUR BANK, returning alternate days. 
This line connects at Lower Lake with stages for Seigler, 
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These lined are STuck ED WITH SIX-HORSE CONOI >1!D 
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Tickets for sale in Lakeport, at W. W. Greene's Hotel, 
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Francisco, Sam. Miller, Agent. Round trip tickets from 
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tickets, ¥6.50. 

Passengers for SODA BAY via Calistoga, purchase the 
Lakeport ticket for *6.5o. Fare to Lakeport, Kelseyville 
and Soda Bay all the same. 

XV. F. KISIIKH. Proprietor 

Calistog«. Cal. 



Anniversaries and Soldiers' Gatherings. 


CHORUSE* nr ranged for MALE VOICES. 

Piano or Organ Accompaniments. 
PRICE! 50 its. paper: (il) i ts. boards; 75 eta. cloth. 


Are lighted after this there will be a new enthusiasm, 
since the love for the old song* has revived, and this 
l apital selection is just what is wanted for Grand Army 
singers. Music simple, and all with Piano or Organ ac- 
•.-oinpantn.eiit, and all the great favorites are here. 


Has 90 pages, is in large octavo form, and contains nearly 
a hundred songs and hymns. It contains all the songs 
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Abundant provision is made for Mkmokial and Funeral 

Mailed, Post-Free, for Retail Price. 
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Mi, Boarding & Day School MTmg Men & Boys 

Prepares forCollege and University. For Information, 
address REV. E. B SPAULDINti, Rector. 

Hopkins Academy, 


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Begins Tuesday, August 7, 1883. 





The licit term ol this well-known Institution will 

commence on 
Wednesday August 1, 1883. 

For Circulars giving particulars, address 


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With full graduating course, and departments 
of .Modern Languages, Music and 
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Thursday August 3, 1883. 

tr For Catalogues with full particulars, or 
for 'iilinissiou, address 

Rev. L. i>fi,os maxsfiklii, a. m.. 


w. E. Cfvmbirlain. Jr. 

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The College is a quarter of a mile distant from it* own 
depot on the N. p. K. It. It is wholly in the country the 
nearest town heing four miles off. ' The buildings cost 
about 1*0,000, and arc large and <-ommodious. The loca- 
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Abundance of butter and milk arc produced o'n the Col- 
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San Jose, California. 

Incorporated iSSl. 


Next Term beghs August 15, 1883. 
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Summer Resorts. 

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SO? Broadw ay , X'ew York. 

all kinds of Pumping Machinery built to order. 
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HUB Catalogue, 150 pages, Photo, and Lecture, lOc 




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St. Catherine's Academy, 


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Terms— Board, Tuition and Washing, $2:0 per Annum. 

The Academic Year coniiste of one term, 

Commencing: August 1st. and closing about 
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Parents may rest satisfied that every attention consist- 
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St. Augustine College, 


Thirty-first Term Opens 
TUESDAY JULY 31, 1883, 

At 2 o'clock. 

RT. REV. J. II. D. YYIXGFIELD, D. D., LL. 1) , 



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Takes first rauk for thoroughness 
and ability of its teachers; alto 
for home care. 

Business, Classical, and 
English Departments. 

Xext Term commences July 16th 
Send for Cata ogue to 

D. P. SACKETT, A. M„ Principal, 



Berkeley, Cal. 


For Catalogues or other information, address S 
HARMON, Berkeley, Cal., or E. J. Wkksu.v, 414 clay 
Street, San Francisco. 

/Etna Hot Mineral Springs 


Situated 10 miles east of St. Helena, in Pope Valley , 
Napa County. 
These waters closely resemble the Ems of Germany in 
analysis and salutary effect 

Board and Baths, $10 per Week. 
The .Etna Springs Stage frill leave St. Helena daily 
(Sundajs excepted), at 1 p. m.. connecting with the S A. ■ 
train from San Francisce, ana arrive at the Springs at 5.20 
P. M. Apply for rooms and pamphlets to 

L'dell Post Ofhc", Napa County, Cal. 

Highland Springs 


Lake County, - - California. 



Home School for Yoim^Laflies and Children 

The Twentieth Annual Session will commence Thurs 
day, August 2, 1883. 

This Institution offers to a limited number advantages 
of the higheBt order, having a large corpB of well-known 
teachers who give individual care and treatment to eac' 
pupil. Address MRS. L. MAXS0N-BUCKMA8TER, 

San Mateo, Cal. 


P. 0. Box!490, 

San Jose, Cal. 

First -rlas*. Centrally located. Well equipped. Full 
corps ot Teachers. All branches belonging to the modern 
Business College taught. 




103C Va'enc a St , San Francisco. 

The building had been enlarged and n fitted. The next 
tession will commence July 23d. For catalogue, address 

REV. HtiWARD B. ( 1IURC1I, A.M., 


92« Post St., Pan Francisco, 

Day and Boarding School for Young Larik j and Children. 


The next Term will Coa-mence July IS, 1883. 

Mme. B. ZEITSKA, A. M.. 



Twenty-Fifth Session Begins 
Wednesday August 1, ISS3, 

Send for Catalogue. 

A. E. LASHER, A. M., Principal. 




1825 Telegraph Avenue, Oakland, Cal. 

Organized in 1871. 
The neat Year begins on WEDNESDAY, JULY 26, 1« 

MISS L. A. FIELD, Principal. 



1020 Oak Street, - - Oakland, Cal 

f#-Xext Term will begin Jl'LY 25, 1883. 

MISS 8. B. BLSBEE, Principal. 

Having purchwid the entire interest in this rlifio 
resort (which is unsurpaifed in ecenery, climate and 
variety of mineral \vst 3 rs in America or Europe-the 
waters guaranteed to relieve all diseases am- nable to 
treatment by mineral waters', erected new cottages an 1 
secured ihe services ol Mrs. E. K. Worth, of Sun Frai:- 
cisco, as matron, we Lone to give satisfaction to our 
patrons. Telephone connects with Telegraph office at 
KejsejTille. Post Office and Wells, Fargo ft Co 's Etpres? 
Office at the Hotel. Fish and wild game in abundance. 
Teams and saddle horses to let at reasonable rales. Good 
lotel and cottage accommodations. Board per da\ £* 
per week, $10 to 914, including baths. 

Roi'TE. — Take boat at Market Street wharf, San Fran- 
cisco, at 7:5 .\. If., via S»n Ra'atl to Clovcrdale, thence by 
Stage direct to Springs in afternoon of same day; or take 
boat at Market Street wharf on Tuesdays, Tliurtdajs 
and Saturdajs at S A. si., via Oakland, Napa, to Calistoga, 
thence by stage to Kelseyville, where private conveyance 
is in readiness for Springs Same day. Fare, single ticket. 
10.25; round trip, 111.50. 


Sole Proprietor. 

Analysis of three out of 25 Springs at High- 
land Springs, Lake County, Cal. 

Names of Springs skltzhr Ditch. Magic. 

Temperature Ol.s-'F 70.5" F. . .82 4" F 

gr. per g r per. gr. p^r 
gal. gal. gal. 

Chloride of Sodium 0.723 1.862 1.290 

Bicarbonate of Soda 12.796 18.848 21.763 

Bicarbona'e of Potash 0.4h!) 0.770 0.64* 

Bicarbonate of Lime 52.045 57.302 50.411 

Bicarbonate of Magnesia. . . 34.872 67.634 70.243 

Bicarbonate of Iron 1.SH7 1.341 1.087 

Bicarbonate ( f Manganese. . trace trace trace 

Silica 5 245 7.126 7.39s 

Alumina 1.565 0.117 0.1O 

Organic Maf,er. , trace trace trace 

Free Carbonic Acid 100.250 87.822 74.412 

Total 209.252 242.321 227. 3C7 

Analyzed by W. B. Rising, Profeaior of Chemistry, 
University of California, Berkeley, June 2, 1882. 

Agents Wanted. 

A Library In One Volume. New, authentic and ex- 
haustive. The largest, handsomest, most comprehensive 
and beet Illustrated Work on Live Stock ever Issued in 
this country. 

Endorsed by Veterinary Surgeons and the Agricultural 
Press everywhere. The "Object Teaching" Stock Book 
for every day use. 

The "American Farmers' Pictorial Cyclopaedia of Live 
Stock," embracing Horses, Cattle, Swine, Sheep and 
Foultry, including Departments on Dogs and Bees; being 
also a Complete Stock Doctor, combining the effective 
method of Object Teaching with written instructions. 

For Terms and Circulars apply to J. DEWING & CO 
420 Bush St. San Francisco Cal. 

Photograp lien 

183 El Dorado Street, 
Bet. Main and Levee, STOCKTON, CAL. 

Al' Styles Pictures known to the art executed, of su- 
perior excellence, artistic in position and brilliant in 
finish. Special attention to children. 

July 14, 1883.J 


Starving the Codlin Moth. 

The Horticultural Commissioners of Nevada 
county met in Nevada City on Thursday of last 
week, and the meeting is reported in the Tran- 
script. The general report on the condition of 
the fruit crop in Nevada county, was that the 
crop was a complete failure, caused by the se- 
vere frosts on the 12th of April ; still, as a few 
apples here and there have been unfortunately 
spared by the frost, the Commission came to 
the conclusion that there was a % pretty good 
prospect, by united action, to get rid, at least 
for a year or two, of the codlin moth by starv- 
ing it out. Therefore, the following address 
was adopted : 

To the fruit growers of Nevada county: — In view 
of the scarcity of fruit, caused by frost this spring, 
the apple crop, small as it is, being already half de- 
stroyed by the codlin moth, we would recommend 
either to pick off at once every wormy apple and pear found on the trees and watch closely whatever 
may be left of the crop; or better yet, pick all fruit 
(apples and pears) from the trees, and in that way 
annihilate, by starving out for the time being at least, 
the present brood of the codlin moth, thus making 
the latter so scarce that we may reasonably expect 
that another year our fruit will be tolerably free from 
that pest. We cannot, therefore, too strongly im- 
press upon the minds of owners of fruit trees the im- 
portance of acting immediately in the way suggested 
by this Commission, in taking advantage of the 
situation made to the fruit interest of the county by 
that frost of the 12th of April. — Felix Gillet, Clias. 
Barker* H. L. Hatch, Commissioners. 

Why We Should Fight. 

It 18 estimated that there are five times as 
many kinds of insects as there are species "I 
all other living thing 1 ) put together. The oak 
alone gives shelter and support to 450 species 
of insects and 200 kinds make their home in 
pine trees. In 1S40, Alexander von Humboldt, 
estimated that the number of species preserved 
in collections was between 150,000 and 170,000, 
but scientific men now say there must be some- 
thing like 750,000 species. 

Litton Springs College. 

One of our subscribers in Mendocino county 
wrote us the other day: "My son has been at 
Litton Springs College during the past year. It 
is an excellent school. " The evidence of parents 
is of supreme account in establishing the char- 
acter jof a school, and as our correspondent's 
judgment accords with an opinion we had al- 
ready formed from other evidence, we cheerfully 
give the institution the benefit of the testi 
monial. Mr. (tumble, the principal, has a card 
in our school announcement column, which 
presents tersely some of the good points of the 
school and its excellent situations and sur- 
roundings, to which the attention of parents 
and guardians is invited. 

TjtB Suez Can al. — The announcement ofM. 
de Lesseps that he will soon commence a second 
canal, a return line, close to the existing route, 
and that all the capital, 125,000,000 francs, has 
been subscribed by Frenchmen, does not meet 
what England demands, representation in a 
canal, claimed to be international, not French, 
for herself and other maritime powers, pro rata, 
to their shipping passing through. In the man- 
agement of the present canal, composed of 
thirty-three members, all are French, save 
three Englishmen, who are there by toleration, 
not by right. All the functionaries are French, 
and all are at the nod and beck of M. de Lesseps. 
The canal dispute seems to be settling down 
into an anti-English question, as a means of 
thwarting John Bull for not dividing his Egyp- 
tian gains with monsieur, who had backed out 
of the risks. In the administration of thcexisting 
as well as in the execution of the second canal, 
the watchword seems to be: "Exclude the Eng- 
lish — the nation who holds nearly one-half of 
the stock and supplies by her shipping the four 
fifths of the receipts." 

To Restore Musty Flour. — A correspondent 
of The Miller seeks information on the above 
subject, and receives the following reply: We 
do not believe on principle in adding any for- 
eign substance to flour, and would not advise 
any one to, but if our correspondent wishes to 
experiment, we submit the following opinion, 
obtained from a well informed and reliable 
man: "Musty flour can be restored and im- 
proved by adding three parts of carbonate of 
magnesia to 760 parts of flour, mixing thor- 
oughly. Carbonate of magnesia cannot be 
called an adulterant. It has been specially rec- 
ommended by Professor Davy, on the ground 
that it improves the color of new and inferior 
flour, and increases the yield. Dr. Hassell, 
however, criticises this by saying that ' neither 
of these results, as far as the public are con- 
cerned, are in the least desirable. The in- 
creased yield simply means more water.' 
Even so, if it is an improvement, it should be 
used by all means." 

At a public meeting of the New York Pro- 
duce Exchange yesterday, resolutions were 
adopted opposing any legislation by Congress 
looking toward the redemption of trade dollars 
at par, as being done in the interest of a ring of 
speculators, who have purchased the coin in 
large quantities at its bullion value. 


List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 


From the official list of U. S. Patents in Dewey & Co.'s 
Scientific Pkess Patent Agency, 252 Market St., S. F 

For Week Ending June 26, 1883. 
280,013. — Folding Box — P. Canessa, S. F. 
280,135. — Drai t Equalizer— E. H. Cooper, 
Winters, Cal. 
280,161. — Vegetable Slicek — F. Espel, S. F. 

280.026. — Spoon Boring Bit — Benj. Forstner, 
Salem, Or. 

280.027. — Rotary Engine — C. C. Garcelon and 
W. A. Woods, Santa Cruz, Cal. 

280,315. — Hydraulic Jack — T. O. Hutchinson, 
Salem, Or. 

280,319. — Buckle— McCIoskey & Coleman, Walla 
Walla, W. T. 

280,057. — Picture Bracket — Charles Megow, 
S. F. 

280,234. — Bottle-Filling Machine — William 
Pearson, Carson, Nev. 

280,106. — Force Pump — M. L. G. Wheeler, Ore- 
gon City, Or. 

For Week Ending July 3, 1883. 

280.437. — Seed Sower Attachment— Wm. T, 
Armstrong, Soledad, Cal. 

280,561. — Sulky — David Berry, Gualala, Cal. 

280.442. — SAFETY Car Truck — Samuel Brown, 
S. F. 

280.443. — Boor — Trios. H. Buckingham, S. F. 
280,370. -Dough Raiser — A. P. Gross, S. F. 
280,617. — Making Insertihlk Saw Teeth — 

Wm. Hawkins, S. F. 

280,471. — TURNING Wrist -pins — F. M. Ha/.le- 
ton, Red Bluff, Cal. 

280475. — Extension Ladder and Truck D. 
\Y. Hypvter, lias Point, Cal. 

280,484. -GUN Sight — J. C. Kelton, S. F. 

280,634. Veiiu i.e Wheel -E. Lawson, S. F. 

280,384. Railway Operated by Under- 
ground Ropes -J. B. Low, S. F. 

280,652. Type holding Attachment for 
Hand Stamps -L. H. Moise, S. F. 

280,410. Fire Extinguisher A. F. Spawn, 
Oakland, Cal. 

280,532. FEED Cup 1C. J. Thomas, Oakland, 

280,694. Necktie Holder K. B. Warner, 
S. F. 

280,545. - GREASE Trap Silas Wilcox, Portland, 

14,025.- Design (Masonic Jewel or Emblem), 
D. W. Laird, S. F. 

Note. — Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tele- 
graph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent busi- 
ness for Pacific coast Inventors transacted with perfect 
security and in the shortest possible time. 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of special mention: 

Rotary Engine. — Chas. C. Garcelon and 
Wm. A. Woods, SantaCruz, Cal. No. 280,027. 
Dated June 26, 188.'!. This invention relates 
to certain improvements in rotary engines, and 
consists in various details of construction by 
which steam is admitted through one or two 
ports, so as to be used expansively, and by 
means of a hollow piston Yalve one or both 
ports may be opened or closed, or the engine 
may be reversed. In the operation of the en- 
gine, the steam is admitted through two ports 
and pressed upon two of the pistons with which 
the engine is provided. After thus starting, if 
the steam is to be used expansively, it is done 
by closing one of the entrance ports. When 
this is done, a small portion only of the pis- 
ton having been projected, the steam follows it 
as it is gradually forced out, until the next pis- 
ton reaches the port and intercepts any further 
supply to the first piston. The remainder of 
its stroke, to the point where it passes the first 
exhaust opening, is completed under the pres- 
sure of the expanded steam. 

Saw Swage. — Simon Kinney, of Port Town- 
send, W. T. No. 279,769. Dated June 19, 
1S83. This invention relates to a new and use- 
ful improvement in the class of saw swaging 
machines, and more especially in that certain 
machine previously patented by the same in- 
ventor. The improvement consists in a novel 
swaging die or block of peculiar but simple con- 
struction. It is of such a shape that it is prac- 
ticable to make it of a single piece of steel. One 
side of it acts as a back or guide to steady the 
side which is serving as a die, and it cannot 
rock or roll. It is strong, and has nothing to 
work loose. Its single guide arm is sufficient 
as the pressure is all 011 the back; and it may 
be for this reason made less cumbersome than 
the old form. 

The best cure for diseases of the nerves, brain and 
muscles, is Brown's Iron Bitters. 

Asphalt Bricks. — Bricks impregnated at a 
high temperature with asphalt are being sue 
cessfully used in Berlin for street pavement, 
By driving out the air and water the bricks will 
take up fifteen or twenty per cent of bitumen, 
and the porous, brittle material becomes dura 
ble and elastic under pressure. The bricks are 
then put endways on beton bed and with hot 
tar. The pavement has been laid down in a 
part of a thoroughfare where neither granite 
nor compressed asphalt had hitherto withstood 
the wear. 

VIOLENT rain storms, tornadoes, floods and 
fatal lightning strokes continue throughout the 
Central, Western, Southern and Eastern States. 

The New York Wine Trade. 

New York, July 10. — Bonfort's wine trade 
circular has the following: The month of June, 
1883, will be remarkable for the great quantity 
of champagne which reached this port. The 
importations for the month were 57,811 cases, 
and for the six months, 108,479 cases. The im- 
portations during June were, of course, larger 
than before in any one month. The prospect 
for the vintage in champagne is considered very 
good, although the critical period was not quite 
over at last advices in June. The importations 
of Bordeaux wines during June were 182,060 
gallons in wood, and 103 in cases. During the 
same time last year the receipts were 76,500 
gallons in wood, and 15,172 in cases. It is as 
yet impossible to form an accurate judgment of 
how much harm has been done by the early 
rains in the grape district. In the Bordeaux 
district the situation concerning the phylloxera 
is not much improved. The proposition of 
Bernard Levergne to authorize the temporary 
and exceptional use of alcohol for fortifying 
wines of the vintage of 1882, already noticed in 
these dispatches, after warm discussion, was 
finally lost on the last vote of 213 against 201. 
The receipts of port wine during the month 
were 9,245 gallons against 4,492 gallons in June, 
1882. This makes the footings for the half 
year 48,821 gallons against 42,952 for the cor- 
responding period in 1882. 

Business prospects remain in Oporto about as 
stated in last report. Prices are holding up 
well. The importations of German wines dur- 
ing the month were 130,880 gallons in wood and 
5,947 cases, against 60,320 gallons in wood and 
4,459 in cases in June, 1882. During the first 
six months of this year there were received 
513,200 gallons in wood and 24,391 cases, 
against 330,800 gallons in wood and 23,993 cases 
in the first half of 1882. . The arrivals of brandy 
in June were 17,945 gallons in wood and 4,003 
cases, against 180,004 gallons in wood and 13,- 
959 cases in June, 1882. The footings for that 
half year are 141,987 gallons in wood and 
30,867 cases, against 134,238 gallons in wood 
and 22,697 cases during the first six months. 
Two steamers of the Pacific Mail brought dur- 
ing the month 159,350 gallons of California 
wines. Last June there were received 140,582 
gallons. Since January first, the arrivals 
amount to 685,305 gallons, and for the same 
time the receipts were 725,461 gallons. In 
brandies, the arrivals this June were 2,351 
gallons; last June, 2,499 gallons. The aggre- 
gates for the first six months of lS83and 1882 
were, respectively, 31,266 gallons, and 10,450 

Copper or Iron for Brewing Coppers. — 
According to the Ewjinter (London) there is 
a strong prejudice in England against the use 
of any metal but copper in the construction of 
brewing coppers. On the continent they are 
often made of iron. It is thought by some that 
the use of the latter is liable to impart a dark 
color to the worts, but such, says the Enginet r, 
is not the case, for the tannic acid of the hops 
at once forms a coating of insoluble tannate of 
iron, which protects the metal from oxidation, 
and analyses made of worts boiled in iron prove 
that they do not contain more iron than 
worts boiled in copper vessels contain of cop- 
per; in fact, says the Brewers' (Inn nil mi, un- 
less copper is kept absolutely clean, it soon cor- 
rodes and dissolves to an appreciable extent in 
a slightly acid fluid like beer wort. 

Transmission of Sound Through Rock. — 
Herr F. Sehell, of Grund, recently described 
some observations made a short time since, in 
the course of mining work in the Hartz mount- 
ains, on the distance through which sounds are 
transmitted in rock. In a horizontal direction 
the filing of shots at the face of a crosscut has 
been heard in a crosscut driven toward it, the 
face of which was 447 feet distant from it. A 
level was driven on a vein at a depth of 538 feet 
below the surface, and happened to strike 187 
feet distant in a horizontal direction below a 
stamp mill dropping stamps, weighing 330 
pounds. The dropping of the stamps on the 
surface could be distinctly heard in the heading 
below, which, in a direct line, the hypothenuse 
of a right-angled triangle, was separated by 571 
feet of rock. 

Appetite and Sleep. 

"I am happy to inform you," writes a patient who is 
using Compound Oxygen, "that I am decidly better than 
when 1 last wrote yon. Can sleep three or four hours a 
night more. Appetite is splendid; can eat enough tor 
any hard-working man." Our Treatise on Compound 
Oxygen, its nature, action, and results, with reports of 
cases and full information, sent free. Drs. Stakkey & 
Pales, 1101) and 1111 Girard St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

All orders for the Compound Oxygen Home Treatment 
directed to H. E. Mathews, Kofi Montgomery street, San 
Francisco, will be filled on the same terms as if sent 
directly to us in Philadelphia. 

Complimentary samples ok this paper are 
occasionally sent to parties connected with the 
interests specially represented in its columns. 
Persons so receiving copies are requested to 
examine its contents, terms of subscription, and 
give it their own patronage, and, as far as 
practicable, aid in circulating the journal, and 
making its value more widely known to others, 
and extending its influence in the cause it faith- 
fully serves. Subscription rate, $3 a year in 
advance. Extra copies mailed for 10 cents, if 
ordered soon enough. Personal attention will 
be called to this (as well as other notices, at 
times,) by turning a leaf. 

Angri.l's Liver Pills cure rheumatism and headache. 

A Book for the Farm House. 

The reader cannot well overlook the adver- 
tisement in this issue of " Manning's Illustrated 
Stock Doctor and Live Stock Encyclopedia." 
It is a fine volume with 400 illustrations and 
two charts, showing the ages of horses and cat- 
tle. "The author's object in writing the follow- 
ing book was to impart such practical informa- 
tion to the American farmer and stock owner 
as will lead to a much needed and beneficial re- 
form in the breeding, care and general treat- 
ment of domestic animals, to offer such informa- 
tion in practical shape as will enable him to re- 
alize a greater benefit from live stock in health, 
and familiarize him with the causes that pro- 
duce diseases that he may avoid them, and also 
to give such facts that he may know the nature 
of a disorder when it exists, as well as the 
proper remedies to apply." 

The book treats of the horse ; his history ; 
various breeds, and the characteristics and ex- 
cellencies of each ; breeding, crossing, training, 
sheltering, and general treatment; how to buy: 
how to sell, etc. The diseases of the horse. 
Causes which produce them; how to knowthem, 
and what to do. 

It also gives similar treatment to horned cat 
tie, sheep, swine and poultry. The book is 
sold by A. L. Bancroft & Co. , of San Francisco, 
and their agents. 

Indigestion, dyspepsia, heart-burn, nausea, etc., cured 
by using Brown's Iron Bitters. 

Cream by Machinery. 

A machine for separating the cream from milk fresh 
from the cow, and that is adapted to the use of every 
farmer, was recently exhibited in New York, where it was 
viewed in successful operation by a number of the most 
advanced fanners in the country. It did its work per- 
fectly, extracting the cream from seventy gallons of milk 
pet hour, leaving both the milk and cream perfectly sweet. 
It does away with all methods of setting milk and the 
delay and expense attending them. (Her a thousand are 
now in use in Europe, and every dairy man and creamery 
proprietor who wants to get the most cream from his 
milk and make the best butter requires one. The ma- 
hine is simple in construction, made of the best 
material, strong and durable, anil easily managed. It re- 
quires but one-horse power. Address He LAVA I, CREAM 
SEPARATOR CO., 32 Park Row, New York, who are now- 
ready to receive orders. 

Our Agents. 

Oi'R Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

U. W. McQrew— Santa Clara county. 

M. P. Owen— Santa Cruz county. 

J. W. A. Wright— Merced, Tulare and Kern counties 

Jared C. Hoag— California. 

B. W. Crowbli,— Arizona Territory 

M. H. Joseph — Eureka, Nev. 

I. M. Leihy— Los Angeles, San Bernardino and San 
Diego counties. 
A. C. Knox— Oregon and Washington Ter. 
J. J. Bartell— Yolo county. 

Oi'R attention has been called to the remarkable curative 
properties of Burnham's Abietene. It is not a compound, 
but a pure distillation from a peculiar kind of fir balsam. 
It is really one of nature's remedies Used both internally 
and externally. As a specific for croup it stands without a 
rival, and does away with the nauseating effects of hive 
syrup and emetics. Cures colds, coughs, sore throat, rheu- 
matism, neuralgia, kidney troubles, etc. Used as a liniment 
or bruises, burns, stiff joints, sprains, poison oak, etc., it 
has no superior. For circulars and testimonials of its merits 
address Wm. M. Hickman, druggist, Stockton, Cal. For 
ale bv all druggists Pric e, 50 cents and $1 per bottle. 

Important additions are being continually made in 
Woodward's Gardens. The grotto walled with aquaria is 
constantly receivi ig accessions of new fish and other marine 
life. The number of sea lions, is increased, and there is a 
better chance to study their actions The pavilion has new 
varieties of performances The floral department is replete, 
and the wild animals in good vigor. A day at Woodward's 
Gardens is a dav well spent. 

Farmers wishing to employ Engineers for Thrashing 
Machines, also men to drive Header Wagons, also harvest 
men and men for all kinds of work, will do well to call 
on or write to ,1. F. CROSBTT & CO., Employment Agents, 
6tS Sacramento St., San Francisco, Cal. 

To KILL Flies and Other As'NOytSG Insects "Buhttch," 
California grown Insect Powder, is a never-failing remedy. 
Sold by Druggists and Grocers everywhere. 




The Best Spring Medicine and Feautifler of 
the Complexion in use. Cures Pimples, 
Boils, Blotches, Neuralgia, .•scrofula, "Gout, 
Rheumatic and Mercurial Pains, and all 
Diseases arising from a disordered state of 
the Blood or Liver. 


«T. IFt. C3-.A.TJ3S cfc OO. 

417 Sansome St., S. P. 

Tnl* paper Is printed wltn Ink Mttnufac 
tured by Charles Bneu Johuson & Co., 509 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ces— 47 Rose St , New Yotk, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Coast- 
Joseph H. Dorety, 62Q Commercial St S, F, 



[July 14, 1883 

Lands for Sale and To Let 



Choice Lands of Alameda County. 

3300 ACRES. 

AU level land, rich ami deep alluvial soil, of the selected 
portions <>i the Santa llita Itaucho, well known as the 

Samuel B. Martin Farm, near Pu 

in Ahiineda CountN and a section where crops 
m \ er fail. The > ield i> very great and suited to 
nil kinds of fanning and fruits. The rainfall is 
large ami several streams run through the lands, which 
are :ilso bordered hv and emhrace a small ]>ortion of 

•■ THE willows." ' Railroad station one mile; valuable 

improvements. This property will he sold as a whole at 
a low price, offering a tine Opportunity for investment, 
\ ieldiug a certain large return. All of it is in great de- 
mand by farmers for cash or crop rent, and for a term of 
w ars. It will he offered in tracts of not less than about 4oo 
acres, at prices from «$G5 per acre. A large portion 
« an remain on mortgage if desired, at a low rate of inter- 
est; making beautiful homes and profitable farms. No 
other pro|K!rt\ as good, so near San Francisco, can be 
purcha>ed for less than double the price, and none in so 
large a body. The failing health of the owner in the only 
reason for selling. TiTl.K I'kkkkct. Possession Oct. 1st 


Agent for 1'ountry I'roperty, 
4 10 Montgomery St., S. F. 

Redlands . 

The must delightfully situated colony in 
Southern California. 

Remarkably healthy, being '.2,000 feet above 
the sea level. 

Wholly devoted to fruit culture, and espe- 
cially adapted to oranges and raisins. 

Advantages of church, school, store, depot, 
hotel, stage line, telegraph and telephone. 

Illustrated Circulars on Application. 





aaa u rbs ftkot class \ i.skvakd land, 

1 mil* from Madera Kailroad Station, Kremm t'n. ; 
mC irriffated from Fresno ' anal; 120 acres planted in 

A. cl eel foreign grape fines lj years old Qordo 

Blanco, ( harliono, Burner, Ziiifandcl, Kolle Blanche, 
Tr install, Matcio, Venial and Muscatel. 
Also, Orchtird of Apricot Trees, 

And Nursery with 250,000 Prime (inipe Cuttings. 
The property could not lit* in finer order, and when the 
vines conn- into l-i arinu'. should paj for itself in two or 
three seasons. Xn Price, #'20,000. 

Agricultural, Grazl'ug and Timber Lands, 

Improved Fanns, Orchards and Vineyards for sale in vari- 
ous counties throughout the State. 

jfjTCireulars on application. For full particulars, ap- 
ply to 

ROBERT WAI.KINSH.UV, Iteal Kstate Agent, 
407 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 



And Tract. 

Over 1200 acres choice Fruit and Vineyard 
Land; fcfa acres In bearing Vineyard, 20 
acres bearing Orange Orchard, 
•JO acus Peaches, Apricots, 
ptus. Walnuts, etc. 
Water Right 8 11 1 " 'for entire tract. The tract joini 
Redlands on the east, Old Sap Bernardino ou the west 
and Lngonia on the north A large portion consists of 
the **Red Soil," pronounced the finest in the State for 
fruit cult ire. Climate equal to any in Southern Cali- 
fornia. Railroad depot (liroksidc) on 3. P. R. R. about 
a mile and a quarter from ranch house. Will he sold as 
a whol: or in tracts to suit, on easy terms. 

For particulars apply to the owner, on the premises, 
or address him at San Bernardino Postoffice. 


The Mexican Colonization Company. 

acres of the finest farming lands lu Mexico, State of Chiapas, 
District Socomisco, now opened for settlers. No better for 
ooifee, sugar cau». corn, tobacco, iudigo, rice grasp, and 
hence stock of all k inds, as w ell as a great variety of fruit, 
vegetables, etc. The climate is healthy and delightful. A 
large colony W 'H leave here, under the most favorable con- 
ditions, un the 15th of October, proximo. AU arrange- 
ments are co iplete For ti rther particulars apply to J. K. 
CLEMENTS. Geueral Agent, 506 Battery St., Sau Francisco 

Berry & Place Machine Company, 

PARKE Al T.APV PrnnHutnm 

8ai Francisco, Oai 

PARKE & LACY Proprietors. 
No 8 California Street, ..... 

importers and Dealers in every Variety of 


Stationary, Portable and Hoisting Engines and Boilers 


Shingle Mills, Hmery Grinders and Emery Wheels, Gardner Governors. Leather 
and Rubber Belting and Packing, together with a general line 
of Mining and Mill Supplies, 
aw Catalogues and Price Lists furnished on application, jm 

Highest Honors ever Taken in America Awarded to the 

fcOi.JROAD LOT5oMO*flVl£"" 

Awarded the First Premi- 
um on Traction at Mary- 
land State Fair after test 
trial of :i hours at Haiti 
more. (let. 'jo, ivsl. lula 
ware State Fair, lSft'2. 
Pennsylvania State Fair, 
1KH-. Also highest award 
at the Great International 
Cotton Kx|tosition, at At- 
lanta, GeV, after a field 
test, for Buperior Merit, 
Dee. -is, 1XM. Silier Medal 
at Charleston (S. ('. ) Fair, 
Dee. 1NN2. Gold Medal at 
l'eiins\ haliia State Fair, 

Tim I'KKKl.fss was the 
only Traction E 11 g i 11 e 
among five comi>ctitors 
that made the trip success 
fully in the Scs,|tri Centen- 
nial panda, held in Haiti 
more, October 11, 1880.) 

First Premium on I'kkh 
i.khx at Richmond, Va., 
in -- 1 and 1 --1' 

On Every Field where Practical Tests and Actual Worth were Made the Standard of 
Merit. The "Peerless" tanner Still Bears on its Folds the Motto 


The PEKKI.ESS won the HBO Gold Premium after a full trial and expert test at the Otli Industrial Exposition- 
Cincinnati. Ohio. 1?>81. Trie World challenged to produce its ei|llal in practicability, construction, st.v le and finish. 
For further particulars, address 

1H£ GEISflR M'F'G CO.. Waynesboro Pa. 


113 Sansnme Street, San Francisco. 

Cards' Rotating Double Glass 
Ball Trap.— Price $10. 

W. W. GREENER'S Celebrated Breech Loading 
Double Guns. 

\V. W. Oreener\s Trap Quu, 12, 14 or 16 Gauge. $35 
Al«> Agents for the 

GLASS BALLS Manufactured bv the California 
Glass Works. 

t4T\ full stock of Colt's, Parker and Remington Ouns, Sharp's, 
Ballard, Winchester, Kennedy, Marlin and Remington Sporiing Rifles, 
Pistols of all kinds. Ammunition in iiuantities to suit A liberal 
disoount to the tr do. 





The best Mill made; cleans all kinds of C.raiu. separat- 
ing Mustard Seed, Oats, Cheat, etc., from liarle\ or 

Prices single Mill. In Lots of Siv. 
No. 1. Ch ans tons per da) . . . .CM fU each. 

So. ^. Cleans 16 tons per day 3b 20 each. 

.Nu. :i. - Cleans 8 tons |>erdav . . . . 22 18 each. 

No. 4. Cleans 6 tons per day SO 16 each. 

IMivercd at hoat or cars. Iron PijH* anil fittings of all 
kinds very cheap. Send for Circulars. 

Engines, Boilers, and all Kinds of Macninery lor Sale 

E. T. STEEN, • 

No. 113 Mission St., - San Francisco. 

Dewey & Co. ; 

Patent Agt's. 

it keeping the one thut 
Stilt* best, No one liuBevcr 
ditrcd show up any other 
J'rcftft, ns l.>e<1crirk h Press 
la known to he hcyond 
» ompetUlon, ii ml wilt bale 
||^\, with twice the rapidity of 
fggzZ ;, "y other. The only way 
7 . jfcj inferior machines can be 
■JC^S wold Is to deceive the In- 
experienced by ridiculously 
f :l§e t»utemeiit8, and thus 
ist* II without nitrlit or seeing, 
nnd Rwuidle tin? purchaser. 
Working ttny other I'ress 
ih.ngslde of bederlck'a al- 
ways sells the; purchaser a 
I Duderick PreH. and all 
"know It too well to show 
up. Dederick Hay presses and prepared Wire liale 
Ties in stock. Address, for circular,. 

Hawley Bros. Hardware Co.* S. F. 


CAUTION!— The public are hereby respectfully ..,„. 
tioned strains t certain inferior articles c\lled "Electric" 
Trusses, which are being hawked about the country by 
TKTjSS, which has been In use nearly eight yearn, is the 
of ly genuine Elec tro-Magnetic Truss in the world, and 
the only one that will properly reta n a Rupture. Circu- 
BELT CO., 704 Sacramento St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Lands for Sale and To Let. 


Land and Town Co. 

i/flers for Sale, in Tracts to Suit, 

50.000 ^CIRIES 

Of the Choicest Fruit Lands in Southern Cadforr ia. 
Also desirable lots In 


The Pacific Coast Terminus of the Southwestern Trans- 
continental Railway System. Lots ana l.tnas sold ou 
S IX YEARS CREDIT. Special inducements to Colonists. 

Long Credit! Low Prices! Easy Terms! 

For Maps and full particulars call on or address 

CHAS. L. HARRIS. Superintendent 

National City, Cal. 

Good. Crops Every Season 
Without Irrigation. 

Free by mail, fiiiecimen number of "The California* Rtal 
Ettatt KxchoHvt and Mart," full of reliable information on 
oUmate, productions, eto. , of 


A ! V *' EXCHANGE AND MART," Santa Cnut, Cal 



A'o Committsion Charged. 


234 Montgomery otreet, 

Hale's Perfect Mole Trap! 


Ground Moles or Gophers 

In Lawns, Parks, Gardens and Cemeteries. 

This is warrant*. 1 *! 1 to be the 
X^JJ best ami iivwt OOmptotfl Mole 

j Trap DTK invented, and in 

nporior to all others hi the 
Following resjK*rt»: 

1 i\\ iiiLf to the arrangement* 
for holding the Hpriii};, it in 
eutor -et than anv other 

Tlie ronstnutioii of the 
trap is siK-h that it will eaU'h 
inules when quitv deep in the 
ground. . 

The jKiints of the pins he- 
intf constantly in the gTound, 
it cannot eutrh or injure lit- 
tle chickens or anv domestic 

Cannot he hlown over hy 
fchfl wind, or injured in anv 
manner hy rain or storm. 
Cannot "startle" or injure 

the operator hy springing' 

U'^av w 'hile huing set; ami heiny; 
tg'w made entirely of metal, ean- 
mb/-''- not warp, twist ur j ' out of 

le- 'i 0pder ' 

^gft The ground not heingdis- 
WEttf turhed in an\ way, it can he 
set ver\ close to small plants 
Bf or Mowers without injuring 

Tliere being no pin or other 
ohstnietion projecting into 
the run, there is nothing to 
disturh or frighten the mole 
|f until caught. 

itSTKull directions for setting sent with each trap."frl 
Price, $2 75 Each. 


Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Seedn, Horticultural Tools, 
Greenhouse Syringes, etc. 

317 Washington St. San Francisco. 


Muller's Optical Depot, 

186 Montgomery St. near Bosh. 

The most complicated cases of defect 
lve vision thoroughly diagnosed, free ol 
charge. Orders by mall or express 

promptly attended to. 

Compound Astigmatic Lenses Mounted to 
Order. Two Hours Notice. 


| Haa • Pftd dlfferioe from &l I others, 
" It oonibftpft, with Ssjlf-Adjiutlov 
t Ballln OJDtOT, ft<UpUl Ixlf to all 

exllbat of tb« body, whllt tji« 
•Jlin '.■'■pif'priHM bftfk th* 
wltk th* Finger. \Nltb light 
pressure th« Hottl* Is b«ld •ftcanly 
lf.yr.nd n'-ght, ftod ft radical con ccrUlo. Itlt my, doAbl* 
Ud cboip. Scot by mall. ClreuUn fraa. 


* coonr 

« J. OOO&I 


Corner or Front and M Streets. Sacramento 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

aW Communications Promptly Attended to. fJt 
f"OOFB & SONS. Hnrmmnn to Onnsa * Oaa«oa» 

QC Oilt Kdtce Carda, elegantly printed, 10 cents. VAN 
60 EU88UU t\ CO., 79 Nassau St., Kew York, N. T. 

July 14, 1883. J 



Six lines or less in this Directory at 50c. a line per month. 


MRS. M. E. BRADLEY, San Jose, Cal. Breedei 
of recorded thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle and Berk- 
shire Hogs. A choice lot of young stock for sale. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal. Importers and Breeders, for past twelve years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

ROBERT BECK, San Francisco. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Jersey Cattle. Herd took six premiums of the 
eleven offered at State Fair, 1381. 

GEORGE BEMENT, Redwood City, SanMateoCo., 
Cal. Breeder of Ayrshire Cattle. Several fine young 
Bulls. Yearlings and Calves for sale. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for circular. 

Station, S. F. & N. P. K. B. P. O., Peon's Grove 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of short Horn Cat tle, English Draft Horses, Spanish Me- 
rino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 


F. J. Barfetto, Downey, Cal., importer and breeder of 
registered Jersey Cattle and their grades. The largest 
herd on the Pacific coast ; upwards of ISO head of the 
most desirable and fashionable strains of inilk and but- 
ter cattle. Alpheas, Pansys, Ednas, atid others, have 
taken many premiums whenever exhibited. Both sexes 
for sale at low prices. 

SYLVESTER SCOTT, Cloverdale, Sonoma Co., Cal. 
Breeder of recorded Thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle 
and Spanish Merino Sheep. Jacks and Jennets for sale 
at reasonable figures. 

P. J. SHAFTER, Olema, Cal. Breeder of fine Jerseys 

YERBA BUENA HERD, Jerseys and Guernseys 
f Registered in A. J. C. C., and A. G. C. C). Won all 
tbe herd prizes for 3882, since which three bulls, costing 
88,000* have been added. Now Scituates, Coomassies, 
Farmer's Glory, and Alphea strains predominate. 
Henry Pierce, San Francisco. 


FOR SALE — ISO head of Hue Hams. George W. Han- 
cock, No. 629 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importerand breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham c attle, Red Duroc 
and Berkshire Swine. High graded Rains for sale. 

E. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Cal. importers and breeders of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Merino Sheep. City Office, No. 418 California 
street, S. F. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Solano Co., Cal. Breedei 
and importer of Shropshire Sheep. Rams and Ewes foi 
sale. Also cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 


O. J. ALBEE, Santa Clara, Cal., Poultry Fancier 
[Irish B. B. R. Came, McDougall Pitt Game, B. Leghorns 
and Laugshans (Croad's strain). Box 229. 

J. N, LUND, Corner Webster and Booth Sts., Oakland. 
P. (). Box 110. Breeder Of Thoroughbred Poultry, Ph 
mouth Rocks, Brown Leghorns, Light Brahmas, Lang 
shans and B. B. R. Game Bantams. Eggs ami fowls 
for sale. 

D. D. BRIGGS. Importer and breeder of first-class 
Fancy Poultry. Langshans, W. F. Black Spanish, Black 
Hamburgs, White Dorkings, White Leghorns, Pekin 
Ducks. Send for circular. San Jose or Los Gatos, Cal. 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Pure bred 
Fancy Poultry. White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth 
Rocks, Langshans and Houdans. Eggs and Fowls. 

T. D. MORRIS, So! a, Cal. Tuolouse and Embden 

Geese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

MRS. M. E. NEWHALL, San Jose, Cal. Bronze 
Turkeys, Brown Leghorns, Langshans, Plymouth 
Rocks, Pekin Ducks. Fowls and Eggs in season. 

IMPROVED EGG FOOD.— 1 lb., 40c; 3 His., $1; 10 
lbs.,S2.S0; 25 lbs., $5. B. F. Wellington, 425 Washing 
ton St., S. F. Also agent for Perfect Hatcher Co., of N. Y 


WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire 1'igs. Circulars free. 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cat. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire of stock imported by Gov. Stanford. 


To Owners a nd Dealers in Live Stock. 

We respect fully solicit your consignments of LIVE STOCK, for sale on Commission, either dreSBed or on foot 
guaran teeing Collections and 


We have ample STOCK YARDS, on our own premises, and the largest Slaughtering Facilities on the Coast. 

Correspondence regarding Sale or Consignments of Live Stock, will receive our 
prompt attention. Advances made as required. 



Proprietors Black Point Provision and Slaughter Houses. ) SAN brancisco oal 
City Office, No. 125 and 127 California St., near Front, j ' 

J. D. ENAS, Sunnyside, Napa, Cal. Breeder of Pure 
Italian (Queens. Comb Foundation, Extractors, etc. 

A. JACKSON, King's Jiiver, Cal. Fine Holy Land or 
Assyrean Queens and Nucleus; great layers and w orkers 
Write for particulars. 


In all countries, and under all conditions, 


For Wool, and Wool and Mutton Combined, ". 
of the World. 

Beet Pulp (or Cattle Feed 

The Standard Sugar Refinery 

Can furnist- sufficient Food to keep over 400 head of 
Cattle througnout the entire year. This Feed Is excei 
font for Dairy Cows, or for fattening Cattle for Beef. 

Liberal Terms will be made for a long term of years. 

For information please write or apply in person to the 

E. H. DYER, Gen. Supt,, 

Alvarado, Alameda Co., Cal. 

May 10, 1883. 

Laurel Ranch, 

Only one hour's ride from San Francisco 
makes the Breeding of these 
Sheep a Specialty. 



For Sale this Season. Prices same as former years. Address, 


Haywards, Alameda County, - California. 

Or E. W. PEET, Managing Agent, P. 0. Box, 1164. 


That tbe public should know that for the past ELEVEN years our SOLE BUSINESS has been, and now is. importing 
(O VEK 100 CARLOADS) and breeding improved Live Stock— Horses Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrshirea and Jersey a (or 
Alderneys) and their grades; also ALL THE VARIETIES of breeding Sheep and Hogs. We • an supply any and all good 
animals that may be wanted, and at VERV REASONABhE PRICES and on CONVENIENT TERMS. Write or call on 
us. LICK HOUSE, San Francisco, Cal., October 22, 1881 PETER SAXE & HOMER P. SAXE. 



POULTRY DEALERS and the trade will please 
not mistake Wellington's Improved Eg'g' r- ood , 

which is manufactured on this Coast, and always fresh, 
for the K«f£ Food manufactured in the East, the old, 
accumulated stock of which in shipped to this Coast by 
soiling vessel around the Horn, a distance of thousands of 
miles, and taking months of time. So that it is often two 
years old before reaching the consumer, and many report 
finding vermin through it, caused by keeping so long. 

The IMPROVED should be fed as per direction [or healthy 
Poultry, old and young. For cases of severe sickness of 
any kind, the Improved should be made into pills twice 
the size of a large pea and forced down the throat morn- 
ing and t renitig. This done it will break any Poultry 
disease in 48 hours. 

PRICES— 1-Ib. box, 40 cents; 3 lbs., §1; 10 lbs., $2.50; 

25 lbs, , $5. 

The PERFECT HATCH BR needs no watching. Turns 
1,000 eggs in two minutes. Never have to clean the 
Battery, and never have to sprinkle the Eggs. 


Proprietor Improved Egg Food and Agent of the Per- 
fect Hatcher Company. Seed Store, 426 Washington St. 
San Francisco, Cal. 



Importers and Breeders of THOROUGHBRED 


Choice RAMS and EWES for Sale. Ranch at Fulton, 
Sonoma county, Cal., and N P. R. R DIRECT TO THE 
RANCH, via Kuernevi.le Branch at Fulton. Address 


Fu'ton, Sonoma Co., Cal., or 418 California Street, S. F 

ELIAS GALLUP, Hanford, Tulare Co., Cal. 

Breeder of pure-bred Poland China pigs of the Black 
Beauty, Black Bess, Bismarck, and other noted families. 
Imported boars. King of Bonny View, and Gold Dust at 
head of the herd. Stock recorded in A. P. C. R. PigB sold 
at reasonable rates. Correspondence solicited. Addross M 


Big Hedge Poultry Yards, 



20 Houdans, 25 Black Spanish, 

20 Langshms, 50 Buff Cochins, 

50 Brown Leghorns, litO Plymouth Rocks, 

60 White Leghorn i, 25 Golden Poland*. 

For further particulars address as above. 

Calvert's Carbolic 


$2 per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying ti e vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON, 
S. F., Sole Agent for Pacific Coast 

For Sale at our Farm at mountain View, 

Prom our Thoroughbred Berkshire Boar and Sow, which we 
imporcea fiom England in 188J. Pigs from Impofi^d Boar 
and Sow, $25 each; from Imported Boar and Thoroughbred 
Sow. $10 to 820. Our Imported Pigsaie nsnice Pigsas there 
are in the State. Address: L J. TKUMAN. San Francisco 



Spanish Merino 


First Premium Flock for Four Years. Two hundred 
head for sale cheap for cash, or on terms to suit custo- 
mers. tS~ Orders promptly filled ! 


Address, E. W. PEET, Manager, Haywards, Alameda 
Co., Cal. Box 1164. 

Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and prices on application to 

Baden Station - - San Mateo Co 

IIIQT RFPPIVFn- Excelsior, Roots, ami V. S 
JUOI nLULIILU. Btandard Honey Extractors 
Wax Extractors; Bingham's Smokers and Honey Knives 
Cook's Manual of the Apiary. Price, 81.25. .). b. ENAS 
Sunnyside (Napa P. O,), Cal. 


Unscrupulous persons, envious of the Fame and World- 
wide Reputation of 


Are, by fraudulently imitating the style of packages even 
to forging the very trademark of the Imperial, endeavor- 
ing to put upon the market 

Worthless Stuff of No Value to Fowls, 

Under a name so similar to the Imperial as to be easily 
mistaken for it at first sight. We take this means of 
cautioning our uumerous customers against the fraud. 

The Imperial Egg Food is now used in every part of the 
United States, and its sale on this coast is simply won- 
derful, our order book showing that every customer con- 
tinues to order, while every letter received is a testimo- 
nial for the Imperial. In purchasing, see that you get 
THE IMPERIAL and none other, no matter how nearly 
similar in name and appearance. Send for Circulars and 

Retail Price* of Imperial Egg Food :— 1 Pound 
Package, 50 Cents; 2} Pound Package, $1.00; 6 Pound 
Box,l$2 00; 25 Pound Keg, 86.25. 
Sold by the trade generally, or address 
8 New Montgomery St., (Palace Hotel) S. F. 


Took five first premiums 
out of eight pens exhibited 

Iat the State Fair, in 1881 
and 1882. 

Choice bucksand Ewes for 
sale. Orders promptly filled. 

PRANK BTJLLARD. Woodland, Yolo Co., Cal. 



Free from Poison. Prepared 

by the Italian Government 

Co. Cures thoroughly the 

remedy known. Reliable testi- 
monials at our office. 

For particulars apply to 1 

CHAS. DUI8ENBE *tG & CO Sole Agents. 314 Sacramento 
Street. San Francisco 


Blanding Ave., bet. Everett and Broadway, 

Importer and Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Fowls. Lang- 
shans (Croad Strain), American 
Sebrights, Plymouth RockB, 
Brown and Whi te Leghorns. 
Eggs for hatching. 

CHAS. W. SMITH, Manager. 
Address: Brooklyn, Ala- 
meda Co., Cal. 


For hatching chickens;. Self regulating, durable, practica 
and easily understood. This is not a Tup, but a Practical 
Mann/act uriinf Machine. Can be run in any Tempera- 
ture As Fanciers, Amateurs and others are ready to uee 
a good, reliable, Self-reguiating lucubator, that can be pro 
cured cheap, we now offer on* that holds 150 eggs. 
The Baby Price, $28. £S"Send for Circular. 

J. P. CLARK, Sole Agent for the Pacific Coast, 
630 Howard St., San Francisco. 



From $30 up. Send 
for descriptive price list. 
Thoroughbi-ed Poultry 
tod Kggs. 
1011 Broadway, 
Oakland, Cal 


Awarded First Premiums 

At State and otiikr Fairs over ai.l Leadino Machines. 

Perfectly Self- Regulating I 

| £3TSend for Circulars. 

I. L. DIAS. 

2 and upwards. 
P. O. Box 242. 



Price Reduced 


Twenty gallons cf flu'd 
mixed with cold water will 
j^make 1,200 gallons Dip. 

Apply to FALKNER, 
BELL & CO., San Francisco 


For Jersey Farm, San Bruno: 

200 Young Dairy Cows. 

8 (iood Sized Young Mules. 

1,000 Tons at Hood Hay, 

837 Howard St., San Francisco. 

To Fish Raisers 

I am new ready to sell Carp which were imported by 
me from Germany In 1872, in lots to suit. Address 
J. a. POPPB, 8onomft,Cal. 


Note.— Our quotation? art for Wednesday, not Saturday 
the date which the paper bears. j 

Weekly Market Review. 


s.\n Francisco, July it, i88s. 
There is no disposition yet to trade in anything 
but supplier for present uses. The great staples are 
either quiet or weak; Barley giving the best sign of 
doing something. Ahrond the situation is still un- 

Liverpool, July 10.— The spot market is weak, 
at 8s odfoias. Cargoes are dull, at 44s 6d for just 
shipped, 44s for nearly due and 44s for off coast. 
Eastern Grain and Provision Markets 
Chicago, July 9. — Flour, dull, unchanged. Reg- 
ular wheat, Active, weak, lower; 97 July; 99 5 » 
August; No. 2 Spring, <)7H(<i ; No. 2 red Winter, 
4'/i. Corn, unchanged, generally lower, weak ; 49K 
cash Julv; <j}i August. Oats,' dull, weak; 34 % 
cash; 4H July; 28*11 August. Rye, steady, un- 
changed; S3. Pork, active, $1 10 lower; $14 20@'i.5 
cash, July ; 2S(«,27H August. Lard, active, $1 10 
lower; $8 70 cash, July; 756/ 77!* August. Hulk 
meats, fair demand, lower; shoulders, $6 6<>; short 
ribs, $7>A ; short clear, $8 10. 

Freights and Charters. 

The following is a summary of the engaged and 
disengaged tonnage at this and adjacent ports, and 
on the way to this port yesterday morning: 


Engaged tons in port 2!),41fi 

1-lisengaged S4,37. r > 

On the way " 2so,UU0 

Total 401,090 

Increase 81,7*0 

Tons under engagement to load Wheat.. 19,470 

I ncrease 






* Includes 19,568 tons for Wilmington. 

There were 15 vessels under engagement at tliis 

port to load Wheat, and none at neighboring ports. 

There are 55 disengaged vessels at this portanrl none 

at neighboring ports. The engaged and disengaged 

tonnage, as above, has a Wheat-carrying capacity 

for 165,675 short tons, against a capacity for 104,475 

tans on the corresponding date last year, being an 

increase of 61,200 tons. The bid and asking rates 

for Whe-tt cargoes were reported as follows: 

Bid Asked 

Iron— Liverpool direct .Vis (id 

Iron— Cork for orders to United Kingdom. .5S» Oil 

Iron— Cork or Continent 

Wood- Liverpool direct 4m (hi BOB Od 

Wood— Cork for orders to United Kingdom.. 10s Od n2n (id 

Wood— Cork or Continent fiSa 8U Ms od 

The Foreign Review. 

LONDON, July 9. —The Mark Lane Express. 
in its review of the grain trade for the past week says: 
''Favorable weather has been of the greatest benefit 
to crops. Trade is quiet and slightly in favor of buy- 
ers. Foreign wheats are depressed, there being an 
over supply. Best brands of flour unchanged; others 
somewhat cheaper. Trade in cargoes of off-coast 
stagnant. Eleven arrivals during the week and one 
sale; one cargo withdrawn and eleven remain, of 
which four are California cargoes. Sales of English 
wheat during the week 38.533 quarters at 42s 4<l i»-r 
quarter against 14. 191 quarters at 47s 7d during the 
corresponding week of last year." 

BAGS — Rates are about the same as last week. 
There is complaint of bags injured In over pressing 
in the bale and makes buyers of Calcuttas 
suspicious and cautious. The rate of Calcuttas in 
large lots is f% c. 

MAR LEV — Barley is doing best of the grains this 
week and is about Z%C higher, both for feed and 
brewing, than a week ago. Futures continue quiet. 
Sales at 11:15 were: )uly— 100, 90c. Seller '83— 
300, 85 # c; 400, 85 Vic; 300, 85 % c; 600, 8554c. 
Sales at 3 o'clock were: Seller season — 100, 85MC 
Seller '83—100, 85 He; 300. 86c; 600, 86; 8 c; 900 
86J^c; 100, 86Hc. Sales on the drain Exchange of 
100, seller '83. 84 'sc. 

BEANS— There is very little variation this week 
and the trade is only in small lots. Prevailing rates 
are given in our table. 

CORN— t 'alilo! ni t large yellow goes at $1.50 and 
is slow. Small round is in request at $1.60 (a 1.62 14 
t* ctl. 

DAIRY BRODUCE -Batter prices are unchanged. 
There is still some complaint Of soft and unshapely 
rolls and low grades are hard to work off. Cheese is 

EGGS — Eggs are still selling at last week's tange 
with 29c. as the top for choice ranch eggs. 

FEED — I lay has dropped off another dollar and 
is now selling freely. Receipts are large and Mock 
should be well fed now. The range is as follows: 
Wheat, $12(11 13; Wild Oats, $I2(W 13; Barley, $11(11 
12; Stable. $11(11 12; Cow, $<)(« it; Alfalfa, $6fo;8 

F RESH M EAT — There i.s no change in the meal 
list this week. Pork is still linn anil in moderate 
supply. Beel is in good condition, and mutton is 
weak as usual. 

FRl'IT — Peaches have been in large supply and 
have sold very low — as low as 15c for some held ov er 
night. Crawfords are just coming in. The first 
grapes came from Hall & Rogers, of Yacaville, and 
sold at $1.50 |>er box. Crawford peaches sold at 
$i.50@2 per box. Apricots are higher. Prices of 
other fruits may lie found in our list. 

HOPS — Hops are quiet, at 2o(it3oc |> lb. There 
-e a few small sales within the range. The latest 

New York mail advices say: " The market remains 
steady at 40ft' 45c for prime and choice new, and 
30(0400 for yearling?, with light sales to brewers." 

OATS — Oats are dull and neglected, the top for 
choice old being $2 fcf ctl. New black oats are in 
and sell at $1.55. 

UN IONS ( hiioiis arc about 5c lower per i ll. , all 

POTATOES Potatoes hold up well, and go in 
the same rates as last week. The top rate made by 
choice potatoes in boxes is $1.40 per ctl. 

POULTRY AND GAME- Hens, roosters and 
broilers have all advanced about $r.qo |>er dozen 
above last week's rates. Ducks are reduced, the 
present rate being only half as much as could have 
been had two months ago. I hicks have shown wide 
fluctuations this year. 

PROVISIONS The market is well supplied with 
Eastern hams. Prices generally of cured meats are 

VEGETABLES Ml sorts are much reduced this 
week. Prices are given in our list. 

WH EAT — Wheat is quiet and values seem dis- 
posed to shade off. At the Produce Exchange call 
there was no general interest shown in proceedings, 
and only two sales were recorded, embracing 100 
ton- No. 1 White, seller 1883, at $1.55, and too tlo. 
at $'-55 's ¥ CrJ. At the Grain Exchange this after- 
noon there was a fair array of buyers, and as the 
selling interest was prompt in response, some 1,300 
tons No. 1 White sold. Details were as follows: 
Seller, 1883 — 600 tons, $1.53; 200, $i.$2%. Sep- 
tember, actual delivery 400 tons. $1.55)4. Decem- 
ber 100 tons, $1.55 ; Vi J* ctl. 

WOOL — As the week has been broken by the 
holidays, sales did not cover so large an amount as 
usual. 500.000 His of different grades are reported 

sold. Prices are given in our table. 

Domestic Produce. 

jWHol.KHAI.K I July II, 1883 

hkans AM) PKA& (Pagans.,,. 

liay... ctl 5 •£> m 5 . r «l Peauuta .. 

Butter 4 25 <•/ 4 SO KUhertl .. 

Castor (« 4 00 

Pea i 7fj Iff 3 !8 

Red 4 00 W 

Pink 4 on (fl 4 

Large White ... 3 00 m 
Small White.... 2 75 ui 3 25 

Lima 3 00 (« 3 12£ 

F id Peas.hlk eye 2 511 1" 9 INI 

on trreen m 

Bitot IM coKN. 

southern 3 (" 3J 

Northern 4 H li 


California 4 in 4g 

Centum tijV" 7 

DAIRY I'RiiDl'i 'tf. ETC 




14 hi 
7 (ir 
14 1.1 


Roil 50 1" 

Silverskin, new. 75 (« 

1 Iregi hi 111 

New. ctl 45 in 

Barb Rune 87J© 1 00 




il" Kidney ... hi 
do Peachhlnw. (ii 

.Jersey Blue hi 

l 'utfey < 'ore (ir 

River, red in 

Chile hi 

tlo Oregon. ..• 111 

Peerless — (ff, — 

Salt Ijtke - (11 

Sweet hi 

I'ol I.TKV AND liAMK, 

Ileus, dot 8 00 hi 10 01 

Roosters 8 00 ("11 50 

Broilers 3 50 m 7 00 

Ducks, tame ... 4 00 in 50 

(ieene, pair 1 50 m 2 121 

QotilncH 1 50 (« 2 00" 



CaI 23 hi 24 

do Fancy lir'mls 25 hi 20 

Pickle roll 25 hi 26 

Firkiu. new S8M 25 

Rasters 17 1 20 

New York (« 


Cheese. Cal . It... »w 11 
do boxed ... Hid 15 

Cal . fresh, doz'.. 25'" 2» YVild Cray. ,l..z I 75 w 2 00 

Ducks 20(11 27! White do... 7.-, ..1 Ion 

Oregon m Turkeys, lb 22 m 

Kastcm. hy ex.. 25 hi 20 do Dressed. 

Pickled bare.... (a Turkey Feather-. 

I 'tali aHiti 27 tail anil wing loin 211 

FEED. Snipe, Bog., dm. 2 00 «» 

Bran, 15 00 ("16 00 do Onnii 1 75 m loll 

Corumeal 35 50 (a36 00 t/imil 1 50 (a 

Hay 00 hi 13 00 Rabbits I 50 hi I 75 

Middlings 20 00 "i22 00 Han- 2 25 £ 2 50 

Oil Cake Kiel.. (11 35 (10 Venison 12l> 

Straw, bale 50 t" 70 PROVISION'S 

FLOUR Cal. Bacon. 

Kxtra. City Mills 5 37'.<" 5 50 Heavy. 0.. 

do ( '" ntry Mills 5 00 (" 5 25 Medium . . 

Superfine 3 75 i« 4 00 Light 


Beef. 1st. |ual . lb 7Jt" 




Spriug Laud; . . 

Pork, undressed «}c 8 Alfalfa... 1U@ 

Veal... . 

Barley . feed. ctl. !K> in 
do Brewing.. 1 0711a 
Chevalier . . 

Buckw he a t . 


4 Id 



7 c 

U in 
16 (a 

Ugbt 16 lit 

I-trd 14 in 

8J Oal.SmokedBcef 141hi 

7 Shoulders 9J(ii 

6 Hams, Cal 15 (u. 

5 do Kasteni.. 16Ji« 

8 Alfalfa 

Hi; do Chile 

In Canary 

' (Clover, red. 

95 White . . . 

. 10 Cotton 

1 3(1 H' 1 10 Flaxseed . 

3 00 (« Helii| 

Corn, White 165 m Italian RyeQraaa 

Yellow 1 50 in Perennial. ... 

Small Round. 1 DO hi 1 6SilMfHet, Oenrjau.. 

Oats 1 60 «/ 1 90 do Coutuou. 

Milling 1 90 m 2 00 Mustard, white 

Rye 1 30 in 1 35 Browu 

Wheat. No I... 1 55 hi 1 57 { Rape 

do No 2.. 1 52i(d 1 55 Ky Blue Grass. 
Choice milling 1 60 (a 1 65 

1 1 

17 (" 
12 (ir 
7 if 
5 111 


Wet salted .... 

Beeswax, lb 

Honey ill comb. 
Kxtraeied. light 
do dark. 


Oregon 20 (it 

Calif oruia. 20 M 

Wash Ter 30 (« 

old Hops — rai 


Walnuts. Cal .It, 9 hi 

do Chile.. 71c 

Almonds, hdshl. 8 «r 

Soft shell 13 tn 

Brazil 10 (or 

14 hi 
45 «i 

20 I" 

'_»5 (ii 

25 (iV 

10 hi a 

7 (a, 10 

2 6? 21 

3 <o> 3) 

20 hi 25 

2d iiuality 10 (1/ 18 

Sweet V Grass. 75 (ir 

171 Orchard 20 1 a 25J 

11 Red Toil 15 in 

Hongerlu] 8 n 10 

S8| Lawn 30 m 40 

16 Mesiiuit 10 111 121 

8 I Ti thy 8 lit 11 


( 'rude. Hi 

8 H' 




11 (in 
Ki( ' 







San Joaquin. 

13 (.' 


( 'alaveras 

20 hi 



Northern, tree. . 

22 & 



Northern, burry 

18 hi 



Oregon Kasteni 

17 in 



do valley . . . 

— {ft 

Retail Groceries, Etc. 

•WKIiNKHIiaV. .1 

Butter, ('alitor IKice 

uia Choice, Hi. 25 «' 35 Sugar. White 

Caudles. Adiii'te 15 m 25 Crushed 

Coeeaa. 17 m 25 i Light Brown.. 

Eastern 25 «' 30 Soap. Cal 

Corn Meal, lb . . 2Jm 3 Syrup, 8. V. 

Coffee, greeu.... 23 m 35 (li.ldeli 

Dried Apples, lb 10 in 15 Tea, Hue black . . 

Prunes, Cer.. 12i<« 2U 1 Finest Japan. 

Figs. Cal 9(« 10 Wines, old Port, 

Peaches 15 m 25 French Claret .. 

Flour, extra f, on Caldozlait.. 

bbl i 00 m 9 00 Whisky. OK. gal 

Lard. Gail 18 (« French Braudy. 

Fasten 20 m 25 Yeast Powder, 

Oils. Keroseue.. 50 m 00 dm 

oystus cau.d../ 2 Dt ..« 3 00 

uly II. 1883 
8 m 10 

8 m 
7 (« 

75 m 1 10 

50 m 1 (Id 

55 Hi 1 00 

3 50 hi 5 00 

1 (10 hi •_' 50 

2 nil "i 4 SO 

3 50 in 5 00 

4 (10 m 8 00 

1 50 W 2 00 

General Merchandise. 


Crystal Was.... 15 (if 
Biaarie Acid.... 14 m 

Eagle 12 m 

Asstd Pit- Fruits, 

2i Iti cans 2 25 m 

Table do 3 50 m 

Jams and Ji-Uies 75 m 
1'ickh-s. hf gal. . . 3 25 hi 
Sardint^i, nr box. 1 67 m 
Halt" boxes.... 1 '.HJ hi 
Merry'. Faull & 

1 'o s Presi-rved 

Beef. 21b, doz. 3 25 m 
do 4 lb, doz... 6 50 (O 

Preserved Milt 

ton. 2 tti 3 25 I" 

Beef Tongue 5 75 m 

Preserved Hani. 

2-tb. doz 5 50 g 

Ih-viled Ham. 1 

lb. doz 3 00 f 

do. > n.. do/..;. 2 50 hi 
Boneless Piggs 

Feet. 3 n 3 50 m 

2 It 2 75 (ii 

Sped Fillets. 211.. 3 50 hi 
Headcheese, 31b 3 50 "i 

COAL .Iocbisi. 
Auztraliidi. ton. 8 50 (" 

Coos Buy 6 00 (ii 

Bellinghaiii Bay (if 

Seattle 7 00 I" 

( 'umberlaud 13 00 m 

Mt Dial, I Ill 

Lehigh — W 


West Hartle) 

Scotch 9 00 (« 

Serantoii — i/t 

Vaucottver Isld. m 

Welliugton 10 00 m 

Charcoal, sack.. - «r 

Coke, bu hi 

( oFFKK 

Sandwich Lis. It. 

Costa Rica 




Ground, in cs. . . 


Bacto DryCisl . 
do Iu cases. . 

Kasteni Cod 

Salmon, bbls ... 7 00 m 

Half bbls 3 50 m 

1 II. cans 1 12*m 

Pkld Cod. bbls.. — (ir 

Half bbls -ii 

.Mai'ki-ui. No. 1, 

Half bbls 8 50 in 

Iu kits 1 70 in 

Kx Mess. kits. 3 00 (" 
Pkld Herring, kg I 75 m 

BostoU Smoked 

Herring. ... 65 VI 
Plaster. Golaeii 

Gate Mills.... 3 00 hi 
LandPUater.tonlO 00 ml 
Lime. S Cruz.bbl 1 25 m 
Cement. Rosen 

dale 1 75 (ii 


WkiisksiiAv. July II. 1883 

Portland 3 75 m 4 00 

17 NAILS. 

Assrtd sizes, keg 3 75 ••• 4 110 

Pacific film- Co'~ 

Neatsft. Nn 1. 1 00 111 
Castor, No 1... 1 (15 hi 
do No 2... 95 hi 
Bakers A A. . . 1 30 m 
olive, PlagltoU. . 5 25 hi 5 75 
" issel 4 75 "i 5 25 

. Ill 110 hi 

12 m 
12 1" 
18 m 
15 I" 

6 <«- 

7 m 
7 *■ 

9 ( 

60 hi 

65 hi 

6 J ■« 

70 hi 

I 40 n. 

35 Hi 

1 00 m 


28 (•• 




no , 

2 50J Palm, II, 

Linseed, raw. bbl 
00 Cocoanut 
00 China Nut. cs... 

( oast Whales . . 

Petroleum. 110 . 
do 150 

Pure White Iaiail 7jm 
Paris Whit 
( Ichre 

Venetian Red 
Averill mixed 
Paints, white 
aud tints, gal 

Qfaea, blue \ 

Ch yellow 3 00 hi 3 50 

Light red 3 00 m 3 50 

Metallic roof . I 30 hi 1 60 

China Mixed, lb. 4Jm 5 

Hawaiian 4aci 


Cal Bay. ton... 14 00 (ii22 (10 

Common i, 50 ml4 00 

Carmen Isld 14 oo m22 uo 

Liverpool. Hue. 14 (III hi'JO i»i 

Castile. Iti 10 (ir 

14 ( 'oiiimon brands 4im 6 
14 Fauey brands . . 7 m 8 

- Ifloves. Itc. 371m 40 

Jt'assia 19 m 20 

Nutmegs 85 m 90 

Pepper Grain. . . 15 m 16 

Pimento 16 m 17 

71 Mustard. Cal . 1 

50 II,. glass 

00 SUGAR, 

224 Cal Cube, H 

i Powdered 

Fine Crushed... 

i inundated 

00 Golden (' 

80 Cal Synip. kegs 
50 Hawaiian Mo 

00 lasses 


Young Hysou, 

Moyuue. etc. . 
Country iiackcd 
25 ( iunpow der St 

(Ml Imperial 35 in 

50 Hysou 35 in 

K 'how o 27b.ii 

00 Japan, medium. 35 m 

1 25 hi 
BTl ' 

11 3m 

11 III 

10 m 

65 in 

25 lit 

40 • 





* HocnaAioT | 



50 do pared 

00 Pears, sliceil . . . 

do whole 


do pitted ... 


Raisins. Cal bx 
do halves.... 
do ipiarteis. . 
do eighths... 

/.ailt.e I 'lUTUllts. 

Fruits and Vegetables. 


Inly 11. 1883. 


Apples. Imix 75 m 1 

Apricots. ls,x. .. 80 "i 1 
Bananas, bunch. 1 50 Hi 2 ■ 
Blackberries, cht 6 00 m 8 ( 
Cherries, cht... 13 00 ml.'i 
cheny Plums.bx 75 hi 
Cocoanuts. 1011.. 6 00 m 7 i 
Cralmpples. bskt (n 1 I 

Cranberries, bbl 15 00 m 17 ( 
Currants, cht... 5 00 m 6 I 

Figs, box 75(n 1 : 

Gooseberries, II.. 4 hi 
Crapes, box. ... m 
Limes. Mex ...11 on "i 
do Cal.. 100. . m 

la-lnon*. Cal . bl S INI ,o ,1 I 

do Sicily, box. '.i i hi „>lu i 
do Australian. ( 
Oranges. Cal . bx 1 50 i 
do Tahiti M IS Oil m2o ( 
do Mexican... m 
do Panama... in 

Peaches, Imix 40 m 

do Crawford.. 1 75 m 2 

Pears, box 50 m 1 

Piueapples. doz. I Oil hi 6 

Plums 50 hi 1 

Raspberries, cht 9 00 mil 
Strawberries.cht 7 00 ("12 I 

Apples, sliced, lb 71(0 
do BTanoteted. 10 (il 
do quartered . 





Figs, pressed 

7 m 
11 m 
14 hi 
28 hi 

9 hi 
7 m 
5 m 

Nectarine* 11 m 

Asparagus, box. 
Artichokes. d.»z 

Beets, ctl 

i", Cabbage. 100 lbs. 

( 'arrota, sk 

5n Cauhtlower. doz 

00 Celery, ona 

( 'ucuudiers. Imix. 

Kggplant. It 

50 Garlic. It. 

00 do pmir 

25 Green Corn doz. 

(Hi Green Peas 

(HI Lettuce, doz . . . . 
no Mushrooms, Imix 
no ( Ikra, green. II. 

Parsnip. !h 

s Peppers. 11. 

12 .lo Chile 

7' Rhubarb 1 

121 Hquaah, Marrow. 

- fat. It. 

;wi Squash. Bununer 

10 Ikix 

8 String Beans ... 
6 Tomatoes, Imix . I 
12J Turnips, ctl 

12 HI 


15 hi 


8- (ii 


6 HI 




11 in 


9 m 


75 Hi 

2 00 


— it 

— tf» 

8 ui 



00 in 

1 50 

10 m 


00 m 

(HI „. 

1 10 



60 m 

;«i ,.. 

50 hi 

1 50 

15 m 

2 III 


I (ir 

lo m 


2 m 


10 in 

-.11 HI 

1 HI 

5 m 



50 m 2 75 

4 in 

50 (ir 

2 in 

25 m 

1 50 

75 m 

1 00 

OvKit 180,000 Howe Scales Sold -Haw ley 
Bros.' Hardware Co., (ieneral Ageuts, Sau 






Lick House, - San Francisco. 

Stock and Grain Land. 

parlies wishing to purchase irnntl stock ralatog lands, 
no all, n ted bj severe drouths, will do well to address the 
under abtfi ed. The lamls can be purchased cheap, iu Iota 
from 1 00 to !,000 acres. It is partl.v low tabic ami rolling 
land, partly clear and level. GoimI lor vine and fniit 
raising. Will raise vegetable- and all kinds of grain. 
( 'cups certain even year. Near tow n and a public 

scl I house. Price. SI to v.', per acre. Good local market 

for fruit, vegetables, grain, poultry and dairy produce. 

Add rem the proprietor, 


Anderson. Shasta bo., Cal. 

The Secret 

of the universal success of 
Brown's Iron Bitters is sim- 
ply this: It is the best Iron 
preparation ever made ; is 
compounded on thoroughly 
scientific, chemical and 
medicinal principles, and 
does just what is claimed for 
it — no more and no less. 

By thorough and rapid 
assimilation with the blood, 
it reaches every part of the 
system, healing, purifying 
and strengthening. Com- 
mencing at the foundation 
it builds up and restores lost 
health — in no other way can 
lasting benefit be obtained. 

•j^ DearViorn Ave., Chicago, Xov. 7, 
1 have been a great sufferer from 
a very weak stomach, heartburn, aod 
dyspepsia in its worst form. Nearly 
everything I ate gave me distress, 
and 1 could eat Out little. I have 
tried everything recommended, have 
taken the prescriptions of a dozen 
physicians, hut got no relief until I 
took Brown's Iron Bitters. I feel 
none of the old troubles, and am a 
new man. I am getting much 
stronger, and feel first-rate. 1 am 
a railroad engineer, and now make 
my trips regularly. I can not say 
too much in praise of your wonder- 
ful medicine. D. C. Mack. 

Brown's Iron Bitters 
does not contain whiskey 
or alcohol, and will not 
blacken the teeth, or cause 
headache and constipation. 
It will cure dyspepsia, indi- 
gestion, heartburn, sleep- 
lessness, dizziness, nervous 
debility, weakness, &c. 

Use only Brown's Iron Bitters made by 
Brown Chemical Co., Baltimore. Crossed 
red liucs aud trade-mark on wrapper. 

Friend & Terry 



At Wholesale and Retail, and 
Manufactured to Ord>r at the Mills of the 
Company., llooKs, Wimmiws, Blimik, Siiakk.*, SUINflLM, BOftM 


No. 1310 Second Street, near M . 


Comer Twelfth and J StreeU, 


The German Savings ?rd Loan Society. 

For the half year endijn|| J one 80, 1888, the Board of 
Directon of the sayi.ncs and LOAM so- 

CIKTY ha- declared a dividend on Term I icpo*itH at. the 
rate of four and thirt\ -two one hundredth* (4 .S2-10U) per 
cent per annum, and on ordiuarv Depoatta at the rate of 
three aud six-tenths (.'! M0) per cent par annum, free from 
Federal Ta\e-, and payable on and after the :!d day ol 
July, 1883. Bv order, 

OHX l.KTTK, Se. retan. 

Don't Fail to Write. 

should this paper he received b) anv auba trlb a r who 
lo, - not want it, or heyoml the time Ihnj intern! to pay 
for it, let them not fail In write us direct to atop it. \ 
| card (eostine; onl.t one cent) will sumee. We will 
not knowingly send the r ,|-cr to anyone who docs not 
wish it, hut if it is continued, through the failure of the 
suhscriher to notify uh to discontiune it, or some irre- 
s|Minsihle |iurty rei|Uested to stop it, we shall pneftjvnh. 
demand payment for the time it in sent. 

Cokkksi'oniikncb is cordially solicited from rcliahle 
sources upon all topics of interest and value to our readers. 

July 14, 1883.] 

p>A6IFie i^URAL fRESS. 




OFFICE and WAREHOUSE— Nos. 213 and 215 Market St., San Francisco, Oal., 



California Raisins and French Prunes, California Comb and Extracted Honey, Almonds, Walnuts, Etc. 

gf As the Leading House and Headquarters in all these Products, we are ready to correspond with the producers with the view of purchase or contract for the 
ing crops. HEMEMBKK, that we purchase outright, either at points of production (paying freights, ete. , ourselves), or delivered in San Francisco, freij, r l 


through strictly Kikht Hands 


*ht paid. Remember, also, that in dealing with us you are operating 



• AND • 


Including Horses, Cattle, Sheep Swine, and Poultry, 

With the Breaking, Training, Sheltering, Buying. Selling, Profitable t'se and General Care; embracing all the 
Diseases to which they are subject; the Causes; How to Know, and What to Do; and with Directions that are easily 
understood, easily applied, and Remedies that arc within the reach of the people; giving the most Recent, Approved 
and Humane Methods for the Preservation and Cure of Stock, the Prevention of Disease and Restoration to Health. 




The Largest, Handsomest, Mobt Comprehensive and Best Illustrated Work on 
Live Stock ever Issued in tbis Country. 


£eic g the Result of 25 Years' Experience as a Farmer, Stock Reiser and 
Dealer, also an Extensive Practice as Veterinary Surg on. 

With 400 ILLUSTRATIONS and 2 CHARTS I lustrating the Ages of Horses and Cattle. 

Commission Merchants. 

Grangers Business Association, 


No. 38 California St. SAN FRANCISCO. 

Consignments of GRAIN, WOOL, DAIRY PRODUCE, 
Dried Fruit, Live Stock, Etc., solicited, and liberal ad- 
vances made on the same. 

Careful and prompt attention paid to oid th for the 
purchasing of Grain and Wool Sacks, Wagons, Agricul- 
tural Implements, Provisions, Merchandise and Supplier 
of all kinds. 

Warehouses and Wharf, 

At "THE GRANGERS,'" Contra Costa Co 

Grain rbcbivkd on storagb, for shipment and for 
sals on consignment. Insurance effected and liberal ad- 
vances made at lowest rates. Farmers may rely on 
their grain being closely and carefully weighed, and on 
having their other interests faithfully attended to 

Commission Merchants. 


AGENTS WANTED in ever.1 county and town to canvass for this and other equallj valuable and quick selling 
hooks, which arc needed in even household, ga Send for DESCRIPTIVE CIRCULAR and Liberal Terms to 

A. L. 


721 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Grain in Warehouse & Buildings. 


Phoenix Assurance Company 


CASH ASSETS, - - $5,364,504.50. 



Late Miller & Co. 


(Successors to MILLER & CO..) 
lODavUSI., near Market, San Francisco. 

Personal attention given to all sales, and to filling any 
orders for 


And Other Ranch Supplies. 


Western Assurance Company 


CASH ASSETS, - - $1,411,086.29. 

$100,000 U, S. Bonds Deposited in Sacramento. 

BUTLER & HALDAN, General Agents for the Pacific Coast, 

413 CaUfornia Street, San Francisco. 


Patent Agency. 

Inventors on the Pacific Coast will find it greatly to their advantage to consult this old 
experienced, first-class Agency. We have able and trustworthy associates and Agents in Wash, 
ington and the capital cities of the principal nations of the world. In connection with our edl 
torial, scientific and Patent Law Library, and record of original cases in our office, we have 
other advantages far beyond those which oan be offered home inventors by other Agencies. The 
Information accumulated through long and careful practice before the Office, and the frequent 
examination of Patents already granted, for the purpose of determining the patentability of 
inventions brought before us, enables us often to give advice which will save inventors the 
expense of applying for Patents upon inventions which are not new. Circulars of advice sen1 
free on receipt of postage. Address DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 252 Market St., 8. F, 



Raised at the Lanvhodie Nurseries, in the foothills, 
without irrigation. Sound and thrifty, and free from 
pests. French Prune, Oregon Silver Prune, German 
Prune, Moorpark Apricot, Bartlett and Winter Nellis 
Pears. In lots to suit. Liberal discount to the trade. 


San Jose, Cal. 

C n rvvrt if I n *v Su P enor Wood and Metal Engrav. 
t H B In V I II C? in S> Elcctroty ping and Stereotyp- 
UIIQIUIIMQ, ing done at the offlc() Qf the MmiNC 

am> SoiiNnric Paws. San Krancisoo, at favorable rat<» 


And graded 


Rams for Sale. 

i&» Bred from the first Impol 
Jw tatiou of .Spanish Merini 
lb Sheep to California, in IHM 
" Thoroughbred and Higl 
.... reasonable. Residence, on. 
mile north of McConnell's Station, Western Pacific .Division 
P. R. R. P. O. address, 


Elk Grove, Sacramento Co., L'hI, 


Grain, Flour, Wool, Etc. 

(Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange] 
211 and 213 Clay St., 8. F. 
V Liberal advances made on Consignments. 


J. E. Suoobe rt. H. W. Woodward. Truxtun Beals 


Wool Commission Merchants 

And Agents for the sale of all kinds of Live Stock. Ad- 
vances made on Consignments. 

405 Montgomery St., SAN FRANCISCO 

Stock Yards. South San Francisco. 




Commission Merchants 

And Dealers in 

Green and Dried Fruits, 

drain, Wool, Hides. Beans. Potatoes. 

404 & 406 DAVIS STREET, 

P. O. Box 1936 SAN FRANCISCO. 





Greatest Economy with Perfect 
Simplicity in Operation. 

Manageable Range of Heat from 130 to 
220 or more Degrees. 


No Sweltering of Fruit in its Moisture 


No Poisonous Sulphur Bleaching Needed. 


The Flavor and all the Peculiarities of 
Fresh Fruit Retained 

Fruit Trays, Fruit Presses and Ladders 

On Hand and Made to Order. 
gg~ For Circulars and Information, Address 


Proprietor Ely Meeker Sun Fruit Drier, 

Fifth and Bryant Sts., - San Francisco. 

SedgwickSteel Wire Fence 


Wholesale Grocers, 




Front Street Block, bet. Clay & Washington. San Franclso 
■V Special attention given to country traders _w 
P O Box 1S40 



(Successors to J. W. GALE & CO.,) 

Fruit and General Commission Merchants, 

And Wholesale Dealers in California and Oregon Produoe, 
Also, Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans, Potatoes, Cheese, Eyas, 
Butter and Honey. 

Drink- Qinpoc No. 402 Davis Street, and 
Dl ILK DlUrCb. 120 Washington St., S. P\ 

Prompt Returns Advance Liberally on Onnaienment* 


No. 76 Warren Street. New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

RsFHRiwom— Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. ; Ell- 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y .; C. W. Rood Sacra- 
tnouto, Cal.j A. Lusk * Co., Sen '»«••.. CM. 

Is the only general purpose Wire Fence in uso, being n 
Strong Net- Work Without Barbs. It will turn dogs, pi; , 
iheep, and poultry, as well as the most vicious -in k, 
irithout injury to either fenoo or stock. It isjustthe fence 
for farms, gardens, stock ranges and railroads, aDd very 
neat for lawns, parks, school lots and cemeteries. Covered 
with rust-pi oof paint (or galvanized) it will last* life-time.. 
It is Superior to Boards or Barbed Wire in every respect. 
We ask for it a fair trial, knowing it will wear ilBelt 
into favor. The Sedgwick dates, made of wrought- 
iron pipe and steel wire, defy all competition in neatness, 
itrenglh and durability. We also make the best sncl 
cheapest All Iron Automatic or Self-Opening Gate, also 
Cheapest and Neatest All Iron Fence. Beat Wire 
Stretcher and Post Anger. Also manofnc 
turr Kiiwk-II'h rxrellrnt Wind l iitmr- for 
pumping water, or geared engines for grinding 
and other li^tit work. For prices and particulars ask 
hardware dealers, or address, mentioning paper, 
SEDGWICK IIROS. Mfr*. Riehmonil. - -". 


914 Market St., San Francisco. 
(Near the Baldwin Hotel.) 



[July 14, 1883 


Wheeler's Patent Cannery ! 


Fruits, Jellies, 

Jams, Vegetables, 

Meats and Fish. 

As Well as to Large Canneries 

It imparts Superior Flavor ! 
It is Economical of Labor and Fuel . 
Its Productions will Bear Stronger Tests 



TO TilKgl CLAIMS »« 

Challenge Contradiction. 


No Processing Required to be Learned ! 

Management extremely Simple ; can be 

Imparted by a few minutes' 


Sole Agents on this Coast (or the 

Empress Fruit Jar 

Best and Cheapest ever offered to the public. 

Have always on hand Tin Cans, Solde>ing Irons, Solder, 
Peach, Apple, and Pear Peelers, Packing Cases 
for Glass, and, in fact, everything 
requisite for canning 

T. A. MUDCE, Agent, 

111 Sacramento street, 

San Frantisco. 












Curvature of the Spine, Wry-Neck, An- 
chylosis, Club Feet and Bow Legs. 

Trusses and Crutches, Elastic Stockings for Varicose 
Veins. Supporters and bandages of every description. 
Also, inventor of the Celebrated Autenwrieth's Club-Foot 
Shoe. Send for circulars. WM. AUTENRIETH 
71 Went Sixth Street. Cincinnati, Ohio. 


Leffel's Iron Wind Mill. 

EH Manufactured by 

f U & CO., 

'"Sprinifielu, Ohio. 

State where you saw the Advertisement 
*37"Send for Catalogue and Prices. "«» 



"Farmers' Headquarters." 


Rates, 91.25 lo S3.0U. 
Free Couch fro-n all Railroad and Steamboat Stations 

A. «fe.T H >K HN. Proprietors. 

Silos Reservoirs, Head Gates, 

IBmUl 8T0NK AMI ( DM liKTK. 

-AA'SOME, 102 Montgomery St., S. F. Bond for.Circular 


350 Percheron-Normans ! 

Have been purchased in France the pist Ninety Days, by 



Oaklawn Farm, Wayne, DuPage Co., Illinois. 

































i — 








r K) SEPTEMBER 1st, . 
When it is believed U19 number of Pure Breda then on hand at Oaklawn will be nearly 


Upon their arrival a New Catalogue will be issued. Come and see lor yourselves the greatest import- 
in? and Breeding establishment in the world Visitors always welcome, whether thev desire to purchase 
or not. Carriage at depot. Telegraph at Wavnc, with private Telephone connection with Oaklawn. 

Our Colorado Ranges ot 700 square miles now contain 2.000 Mares and 20 Imported Pcrcherofl 
Stallions in service 



In the Market 

Write for 


Giving Full Information 


Nos. 2 and 4 California St., : San Francisco. 






This Mill bas been In ufc'on this Coast for four years. It has three litres 


And has met with general favor, there now being 

Over 125 of them in Use in California! 

It is the most economical and durah'n Fred MiM in use. lam sole manu- 
factom of the Corrugated Roller Mill. The mills are all ready lo mount Co 


I thank the' public for the kind oatronage'received thus far, and hope for a continuancofo'i the same. 

M. L. MERY, Chico Iron Works. Chico, Cal. 



Hay, Stock, Portable Platform, 
Butter and Counter Scales, 
Trucks, etc., 

— roa sals by— 

Fairbanks & Hutchinson, 

No. 401 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 




Self- Reg ulatlng 


Is recognized as the 

Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLE, 

STRONG and DURABLE in ail parts. 
Solid Wrnught-iron Crank Shaft with 
doubls BRARiRos for the Crank to 
work in, all turned and run in adjust- 
able babbitted boxes. 
Positively Self-Regulating 
With no coll springs, or springs of any ' 
kind. No little rods, joints, levers, or anything of the 
kind to get out of order as such th ings do Mills In use 
6 lo 1 2 years in good order now, that have never e it one 
cent for repairs. All genuine Enterprise Mills for the 
Pacific Coast trade come only through this agency, and 
none, whether of the old or latest pattern, are genuine, ex- 
cept those bearing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out 
for this, as inferior mills are being offered with tes- 
timonials applied to them which were given for ours. 
Prices to suit the times. Full particulars free. Boat 
Pumps, Feed Mills, etc. , kept in stock. Address, 



San Francisco Agency. LINFORTH, BICE 
St CO., 323 6* 325 Market St., S. F. 

Liberal Terms to Dealers. 

. W. EVANS, General Agent 

29 POST St., S. F., Cal. 


Nkki'Iiam's linn Clovkr 
Ki/ihkouk, ami extracts prc- 
jiared from the blossoms rurc 
Cancer, Salt Rheum and all 
diseases arising from an impure 
State of the blood. It will also 
clear the complexion of all 
pimples, eruptions, etc Is a. 
sure cure for Constipation, 
Pile, uinlwaauv other diseases. 
Is both laxative and tonic. Kor full particulars, address 
W. r. NKKDIIAM, llox 422, San Jose, Cal. Residence 
•To Third street. 

RBWTTAKCIU to this ollii-c should e made )i\ .•-!,, I order 
r registered letter, when practicable. ciwt of postal 
rder, for #1.'. or less, lo rts.: lor registered letter, in addi- 
tion to regular postage (at u ota. per tmUjaua , in ct«. 

July 14, 1883.] 


Seeds, Plants, Etc. 




Thrifty, Well-grown, Fruit, 

Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

Palms, Bamboos, Shrubs, Roses, etc. Small Fruits, in- 
cluding a large variety of Grapevines, for table, for 
wine and for raisins. 


Of newest and best varieties for market and for profit. 

Descriptive Catalogues will be sent as follows: 

No. 1. Fruits, Grapevines, Berries, etc 3 cts. 

No. 2. Ornamental Trees, ShrubB, Roses, etc 3 cts. 


San Jose, ----- California. 

[Established in 1875.) 



Sarcoxie, Jasper Co., Missouri, 


Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Tree8, Forest Tree Seed- 
lings, Deciduous and Evergreen, Fruit Tree 
Stocks of Apple, Peach, I'ear, 
cherry, Plum and Quince. 
We arc prepared to hud 800,000 Peach Seedlings to the 
Leading Varieties of Peaches, Apricots and Plums. 
Trices per 1,000 for Peaches, 416; Apricots and Plums, 
$20. Packing free. Budding commences June 1st. None 
but healthy stocks used. No Yellows! Secure orders 
with one-tenth cash. Balance before shipment. 

gfOnr Prick List, containing everything we grow 
will he ready early in Julj and will zzrAzAn JVailroad 
Freight Rates to leading points. Write for it. Free. 







Sibley & Co 

179-183 MAIN STREET, 


200-206 Randolph St.Chlcago, II' 


Established In 1858. 
I grow all kinds of hardy Fruit Trees, Evergreen Tree 
and Shrubs, Shado Trees, Roses, Flowering Shrubs 
Plants, etc. Grown without irrigation, clean and 
healthy. The demand is likely to exceed the supply of 
some kinds of Fruit Trees. Prices and kinds will be 
given on appication. Address W. H. PEPPER, 
Petaluma, Sonoma Coun ty, Cal 


South of Oolton. 

Of choicest varieties of Peach, Apricot, Prune, etc., from 
3 feet upwards. They are all on 2-yeaY-old roots and true 
to name. Prices lower than Eastern Trees, if engag d 
early. Also Rartlett Pears in dormant bud, very cheap 
DAVE TURNER, Colton, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 

Garden Seeds! Warden Seeds! 

T H. *>*««. MKITRB'N, Importer, Whole- 
sale and Retail Dealer in Seeds, Trees, Plants. Al- 
falfa, Red and White Clover, Australian Rye Orass, 
Timothy and Orchard Grass, Kentucky Blue Grass, 
Hungarian Millet Crass, Red Top, etc. Also, a 
large and choice collection of Fruit and Orna- 
mental Trees. Bulbs, Roses, Magnolias, Palms, etc. . 
at reduced prices. Budding and Pruning Knives, 
Greenhouse Syringes, Hedge and Pole Shears, etc. 
Thos. Mehkrin, Mfi Battery St., San Francisco. 

Agent for II. I». Fox's Nursery. 



E. A. SCOTT & CO., 

Proprietors for the Pacific, 

P. 0. Box 293, Sacramento, Cal. 

Hayes' Fire TrucK. 

fWOiroulars Forwarded Free to anv Address.jB 




/ 1310 TO 1316 MARKET ST.S.F. 

Wager Peach & Kieffer Hybrid Pear! 

We offer a large stock of the above new fruits, together with all the leading varieties of 



Wc arc the first to grow the WAGER and KIEFFER on this Coast. SS- PRICES LOW. 


Corner Tenifi & Jackson Sis. - - - Oakland, California. 

Qpum>n>! 6 Latest Style chromo cards, name, 10c. Pre 
Omiuni with 8 packs. K. H. Pardee. New Haven. Ct. 

Fruit Trees for Sale. 

A very large and fine stock of FRUIT TREE', embracing all the leading varieties of Apple, Pear, Peach, Apricot 
Prune, Plum, Cherries, Small Fru ts, etc., etc. A large assortment of Snade and Ornamental Trees, Shrubbery 
Vines, Plants, etj. All thrifty and well grown. 

The Kelsey Japan Plum and While French Gooseberry our Specialties. 


New Fruits, Roses, Clematis, Etc., on the Pacific Coast. 


DEPOT-Cor. Ninth and Clay Sts., Oakland. Send for Catalogue and Prices to 

W. P. HAMMON & CO., 

8044 Broadway, - OAKLAND. CAL. 




fimothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Red bp, 
Blue Crass, Lawi Orass, Orchard Orass, Bird Seeds, ic. 

Office, 115 Kinzie St., 


115, 117 & 119 Kinzie St. 
104, 106, 108 & 1 10 Michigan St 






© p 

o o 



400,000 TREES 

For tlio 

Of 1888-84 



Apples, Pears, Peaches, Apricots, Nectarines, French and Hungarian 
Prunes, Plums, Figs, and Cherries. Cypress, dims, Acacias, 
Ornamental Plants and .Shrubs, Roses, Green- 
house Plants, Etc., Etc. 

All Thrifty, Strong Growth, FREE from Scale or Aphis. 

ttr Ten per cent . Discount can he reserved on all orders accompanied by the 
rash received before December 1st. LIBERAL KATES To DEALERS. 



p. o BOX 175. Fresno City, Cal. 






< — < 
m so 



r- o 
m 30 
• o 



S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 

MTFree Coach to and from the House J. "W. BECKER. Proprietor 

Do You Want a Barley Crusher? 



ft fc 

The onlj Crusher in the State that will crush SIX TONS per hour, and the ROLLERS ALWAYS RUN COLD. For 

particulars, call on or address 


California St., bet- Main and Market, STOCKTON, CAL-, 

Who also makes a PERFECT ELEVATOR for piling sacks in warehouses or tor loading wagons in the field. 

Price of Field Elevators, $10. Warehouse Elevators, $25. 



Croup, Asthma, Bronchitis. 

tively prevent these terrible diseases, a. id will cure nine 
cases out ul' ten. Information that will save many Uvea, 
sent free by mail. Don't delay a moment." Prevention la 
better tbau cure. L 3. Joujoon & Co., Boston, Mass. 




Buckkyb Grain Drills. Broadcabt Skkbbrs, 
Cultivators, Plow Sulkies, Cider Mills, Lawn Mowers, etc. 

P. P. MAST & CO., 

33 Market Street, San Francisco. 

Send ft r Circulars and Price Lists. 

H. Kizkr. W. II. BOWMAN. C. E. Bowman 


Gllroy, Santa Clara Co , Cal., 

KIZER & BOWMAN BROS., Proprietors. 

We have a I.aroe Stock of Fruit Trees for sale. None 
but the best drying, canning anil shipping varieties culti- 
vated. Also Forest Trees, Hedge Plants, Ornamental 
Shrubbery and 


Our Apricot trees are on Apricot root, our Poach trees 
on Peach root, and our Plum and Prune trees are 011 
Almond root. This, we claim, makes the Plum and 
Prune hardier, longer lived, less liable to sun hurn, and 
a more abundant hearer. 



We are now prepared to take large and small contracts 
of orchard planting*. For further particulars, address 


Qllroy. ... California. 

Fruit Jars! Fruit Jars! 

The celebrated Peoria Acid and 


'Hie Best in the World for 
Keeping Fruit. 

Merchants & Housekeepers 

TAKE NOTICE: I have a 
carload (1,050 dozen) soon to 
arrive, which I offer for sale 
to the Trade and others at the 
lowest figure. 

The number for the season 
is limited. First some, first 
served I All are invited to call. 

jt-r Alsn, BUTTKR COOl.KRS for keeping butter 
hard without, ice - . Send foi I uvular. 


Stand, 317 .T Street, Sacramento. Cal. 


Of California, 


Authorized Capital, - $1,000,00 
In lO.OOO Shares of SlOO each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $531,200. 

Reserve Fnnd and Paid ap Stock, 111,178. 



A. D. LOGAN Vice-President 

ALT5ERT MONTPKLI.IEK OaahJer and Manager 



JOHN LEWELLING. President Nana Co 

J. H. GARDINER Rio Vista 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus Co 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara Co 

J. O. MERYFIELD Solano Co 

H. M. LARUE Yolo Co 

L O. STEELE San Mateo Co 

THOS McCONNELL Sacramento Co 

0. J. ORES8KY Merced Co 


A D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and oonduotedin the 
usual way, bank boohs balanced up and statements of ac- 
counts rendered every month 

LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 

COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made 
promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 

GOLD and SILVER deposits received 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on 

BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic Statos bought 
and sold. 

Cashier and Manager. 
Ban Francisco, Jan. 16, 1882. 



[July 14, 1883 



Those Ties can be used from four to six times, and, if carefully used, will last Ten Yk. \ks. 


Any Press can liale faster by the use of these Ties than with EITHER (.'oil. Wire OB Hope 
It pays the Farmer and the Merchant; saves time and money. 

Experience will teach that the same number of tons of hay can be more safely secured, and 
at less cost by our prepared ties, than by the use of coil wire. In the use of coil wire one or two 
BUM larger is required, and then the wire is not reliable at the fastening; add to this the bother 
and loss of time in its use, the loss of wire, cost of repressing and loss of hay in transit and in the 
market by reason of broken bales, and wo are certain coil wire or rope cannot be economically used. 

Why waste time making ties in the field when you can buy them ready made almost as 
cheap as the wire in the coil. We have on hand a large quantity of steel bale ties ready for 
immediate delivery, which we will sell at the prices in the following table: 

No. 14 Wire, 8 feet 6 inches lon^, $5.60 per Bundle of 250 Ties. 
No. 14 Wire, 9 feet long. - $5.90 per Bundle of 250 Ties. 
No. 14 Wire. 9 feet 6 inches long, $6.70 per Bundle of 250 Ties. 


For I»ederick Presses, 17x"J2 bale, use tie 8J. feet long: No. 14 for heavy work. For I»eder- 
ick Presses, UxlS bale, use No. 14 wire. 84 feet long. For the California Chief and Kconomy 
Presses, use N<>. 14 wire, i> feet long. For the Price or Petaluma Press, use No. 14, !> feet long. 
For all other upright presses, use No. 14 wire, of such length as may be required by the size of 
the bale. Our Ties are Steel, and No. 14 wire is as strong as No. 12 common wire. 

A SAMPLE BUNDLE Sent for $3.50. 


Baling Presses, Dederick s Baling Presses, Price i Petaluma i Press 




509 and 5 1 1 Market Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Simple ! 


No. 1. $50. No. 2. $55. 

No. 3. 

No. 4, $65. 


If you would be happy, buy a I.iglit-running. Selfthreading, Hi^li 
arm "NEW DAVIS" Sewing Machine. MARK SHELDON, 
Manufacturer!,' General Agent, Nos. I), 11 and 13 First Street, San 
I RAM is, '•, Cal. Local Agents everywhere. 



No. 8. $70. 

No. 10. $75. 

No. 9. $85. 

No, 6. $110, 


Reliable ! 


I* conttrtt^ed <>u new primiptafl arid is diflferait from am other grinding machine now in use. It has an iron fram* 1 . 

weigh* l,&60ttbiin<b. »nd"ha* three rolls: r nine inr-ht-s in diameter, and two rolls, each fi\r inches in diameter 

The t»" -mall rolls work ai.'ainst the lur;;, one. and ^rain |>a»s, through between two vets of rolls and is crushed by 
irradiml re.ln, -tion. All the rolls have, an end movement, and this ,-nd movt'iii.iit eauses the faces of the rolls to be 
always moTinfi when crushing, Thus the machine combine* fOUR principle* of grtatduw, while there are bur hoo 
used in the onlinarv roll sv-t. in of .'rinding, vi/.: The Cm kiiimi am. the Diukrkntiu, Moiion of rim RoUA 


That hate never been used before, are: 

First— The Grain Passes Through Two Sets of Rolls. 

Second— The End Movement of Rolls 

This machine can he attached to the engine of a thrashing machine in the Held and grind the /rain as it i« 
thrashed, at the rat. of !iO barrels of Hour per day; or at the same time it can chop from 4o to .Mi tons of Marie . If 
this Mill does not do the work satisfactory and the purchasers are dissatisfied alter a lair trial of the machine, it « j|| 
be taken back and all nyreeinents canceled. Dirwt all OMMBJI to 

BEST c*5 ALT: 

6 I 4 Broadway 



Grain Separators! 


Your attention is called to our 

Improved Grain Separator 

Which w . attach to Thrushiiur Machine!.. 

We hate the only machine that has made a 

Complete Success of Cleaning Ihe Grain from the 
Thrasher in Ihe Field ! 

And we CHALLENGE THE WORLD to test our ma 
chine for Speed am. Quality ok Work. 

We are prepared to fill Orders on Short Notice. 



(OFFICE, 1114 Hroadway. 



AND . 

Grain Warehouse, 


65,000 Tons Capacity. 

t'J Sroii v.K \ i !,■!« i -i Km-.s. • t 



OFFICE 310 California St , Room 3. 

Buoo 86fi fill Patent Solicitors. 

A> Ik-ttej *v Co. have Urn in the* > • 4 ' ■ t soliciting busi- 

iii-fAi - .a thi» • oust now for s am \ t ,*r-, tin- linn | HHpi 

is a well-known one. Another reason for it*- popularity is 
that a great proportion of the Pacific Coast ]>a tents issued 
h\ the CIo\ eminent have been procured through their 
agency. They arc, therefore, well nnd thoroughly posted 
on the needs of the progressive industrial classes of this 
coast. Tlicy are the host posted firm on what has been 
done in nil branches of industry, and are ahlc to judge of 
what is new and patentable. In this they have a great 
advantage, which is of practical dollar and cent value to 
their clients. That this is understood and appreciated, 
is evidenced by the number of patents issued through their 
St IKNT1KU PitKss Patent A genet (S |\) from uw k U> 
Wvtfk and vcar to yuar. 

Volume XXVI.] 

Hungarian Grass. 

In our Agricultural Notes last week was given 
the experience of Mr. Bixby, a Los Angeles 
county dairyman, with what lie calls "Little 
German millet." He has fifteen acres of this 
plant growing, and finds it yields a great 
amount of sweet forage in the leaves and stems, 
and that the grain lias a high nutritive value. 
This is the usual experience of those who have 
grown the plant in different parts of the world, 
for it lias been known to agriculture for a long 
time, and has been generally distributed. One 
great objection to the plant is that it is an an- 
nual, and consequently has to be seeded each 
year unless it should be found to volunteer from 
such heads as [happen to ripen. As an annual 
crop, however, it is of high rank, and furnishes 

vast amount of fodder and is excellently 
adapted to the soiling system. 

There is this to be remembered, however, 
with the German millet or Hungarian grass: it 
does not succeed in all parts of the State and 
therefore should be tried with caution. Wo 
have had favorable reports of it from the foot- 
hills of the Sierras, and from regions adjacent 
to the coast, and we have had reports of failure 
from tin- hot, dry valleys. There is need, how- 
ever, of fuller information before generaliza- 
tions can be made on the behavior of the plant 
in this State. Thinking that perhaps our dairy 
readers might be interested by the report from 
Los Angeles in the last week's RURAL, and be 
ready for fuller information on the plant which 
pleases Air. Bixby, we give on this page 
an engraving of the head and leaves of 
the German millet or Hungarian grass. 
It has long been cultivated as a fodder grass, 
both in Europe and in this country. It is sup- 
posed to be a native of the Kast Indies, but has 
been extensively introduced into most civilized 

It is an annual grass, of strong, rank growth, 
the culms erect, two to three feet high, with 
numerous long and broad leaves, and a terminal, 
spike-like, nodding panicle, four to six inches 
long, ami often an inch or more in diameter. 
This panicle is composed of a vast humbei of 
small, crowded branches, each of which is com- 
posed of a small group of flower spikelets, at 
the base of each of which there spring two or 
three bristles, sometimes short and sometimes 
so long as to give the head a very bristly ap- 
pearance. These bristles are roughened or 
barbed by numerous teeth like processes on the 
margin pointing towards the apex. The spike- 
lets are about one line long, with three mem- 
branaceous, smoothish glumes, the lower one 
about one third as lorn; as the others; the grain- 
bearing glumes and palets are coriaceous and 
hard, ovate or oblong-ovate, and finely punc- 

The grass owes its value as a fodder plant to 
the abundance of its foliage, and to the large 
quantity of seed produced in the panicle, 
tlrcat objection has been made, in some in- 
stances, to this grass, on account of the stiff 
bristles which surround the seed spikelets, and 
which are said to penetrate the stomach of cat- 
tle and cause inflammation and death. 



Thk Product of the Mesqvite. The Ari- 
zona Citizen says : The niesquite trees are now 
loaded with their fruit, which resembles the 
locust pod and bean, to which species the mes- 
ylate belongs. The pods measure from eight to 
ten inches in length, and are very edible for 
Indians and burros. The I'apagoes eather the 
beans, dry them, and grind them with stones 
to a Hour, which, mixed witli water and baked 
on heated rocks, forms a very pleasant eakv, 
■slid is good to keep one from starving. 

CAMPERS ami Their Behavior. — Farmers 
are disposed to treat campers with all due con- 
sideration, and if they behave themselves they 
will not get into trouble; but sometimes they 
are a great nuisance and an actual loss to farm 
ers, and their trespasses are prone to excite 
righteous ire. The Haywards Journal tells of 
such a case: "Once in awhile ranchers meet 

Rcst-Proof Wheat. — The letter from our 
Australian correspondent in this issue con- 
cerning the development of rust-proof wheats 
will be read with interest by many grain grow- 
ers. The idea that sonic varieties may resist 
rust because of some peculiar character of their 
cuticle is not new, for it was announced many 
yea rs ago. \Vc have read of it in the proceed - 


so me contemptible coon, who probably spent all 
bis life in spunging off of his friends, and with- 
out taking the trouble to ask for things, pro- 
ceeds to cut down and trample grain, steal 
corn, borrow (?) wood, and make himself gen- 
erally at home with the farmers. Such a chap 
located near .las. McCoy's place in Redwood 
canyon, and we learn that Jim would have 
made it very unhealthy for him if he had met 
him afterwards. Our farmers are willing to bo 
neighborly, but when old beats try to play 
them for suckers, they don't bite worth a cent," 

HUNGARIAN GRASS. (Setaria Italica.) 

ings of the Royal Agricultural Society of Eng- 
land, and elsewhere. But the suggestions given 
for turning this possible quality of some va- 
rieties to actual account is very valuable, and 
we trust it will lead many to observe and ex- 
periment in the direction described by our cor- 

An English syndicate has leased 15,000 acres 
of agricultural land in the Kootenay district, 
B.C.t for f arming purposes. They will bring 
out an English colony to settle, 

Aphis-Proof Apple Stocks. 

Can we get an apple root which will not bar 
bor the woolly aphis? This is a question which 
has engaged the attention of California tree 
growers to some extent, and they have had 
some reason to think that stocks resisting this 
grievous pest were to he hail. In the last re 
port of the State Horticultural Commission, 
Mr. C. 11. Dwinellc writes as follows; 

The similarity of the insect to the phylloxera 
of the vine suggested to me the search for a re- 
sistant stock on which to work apples, and 
thus render them proof against the pest. In 
answer to iny inquiries, John Lewelling stated 
that he had found seedlings of the Golden Rus- 
set and Kawle's Jennet to be free from the at- 
tacks of the woolly aphis, and that in selecting 
young stocks he found those with deep, straight 
roots to be better than such as had fibrous roots 
near the surface. He also commends placing 
lime and wood ashes about the crown of the 
tree as a remedy for the aphis. Afterwards, 
John Rock, of San Jose, presented to the Uni- 
versity two trees of a local seedling stock, 
which, as far as he had observed, was free from 
woolly aphis. They were planted in an infested 
orchard, and repeated attempts have been made 
to colonize them by placing twigs covered with 
the insects about them in the soil. Thus far, 
none have been observed upon them. If they 
withstand for another year, we shall think that 
a very valuable stock has heen discovered. 

In connection with this allusion to California 
experience and observation, it will be interest 
ing to read the letter of our Australian cor- 
respondent, on page 41, in which be speaks 
very confidently of the resisting power of sev- 
eral apples which are different from those 
named by California observers. It seems that 
the resisting quality of some stocks is so marked 
that Australian nursery men make them a re- 
liance in their propagation. The subject is 
worthy of fuller investigation. Who has ex- 
perience to contribute on this point ? 

How Did the San Jose Scale Get to 
Hanford ? 

Editors Press: — Two years ago my neighbor, 
1.. 1.. Walton, received a lot of fruit trees from 
Bloomington, 111. Some of the pear trees were 
affected with a greasy-looking scab on the limbs. 
At his request I send you a specimen. What is it? 

— o. O. Butler, Hanford, Car. 

Editors Press; Your favor of yesterday, 
containing letter and specimens from Mr. But- 
ler, of Hanford, at hand. In reply, I will say 
that the branches received are seriously in- 
fested with the so-called "San Jose scale"— 
Aspidiotua pernicious. This pest has not been 
yet reported from Illinois. Therefore, I recom- 
mend that Mr. Butler and Mr. Walton make a 
thorough investigation. First -Were the trees 
received grown in Illinois ! Second — If so, were 
they infested as they appear now, oratleastpar- 
tially so! Third— Were the orchards or fruit 
trees in the vicinity where the imported 
trees were planted free from scale insects — 
i. c. , San Jose scale? I am inclined to 
think that either Air. Walton has been 
imposed upon, or that the young trees were 
planted in the vicinity of infested trees. 
Every fruit grower in the vicinity of Hanford 
should examine his trees. Mr. Walters can 
evidently furnish genuine specimens to com- 
pare by, and if any indication of this pest is 
found immediately have his trees sprayed with 
the whale oil soap and sulphur mixture. One 
pound to each gallon of water used. This "ill 
not destroy or injure the fruit or foliage, and 
will destroy the pest if thoroughly applied, or 
use whale oil soap ten pounds; sulphur, three 
pounds. Lye (should hi; dissolved before boil- 
ing), one pound. These should he boiled to- 
gether for twenty minutes. They will make 
eighteen gallons of solution for spraying. — 
Matthew Cooke, Sacramento, Cal. 

CtllCAGO reports eight persons fatally injured 
and twenty three maimed for lift! n\\ the fourth. 


[July 21, 1883 


Ventura Notes. 

Ki'iToi.s ]>b Our farmers are now in the 
heat and hurry of the heaviest harvest ever 
gathered in southern California. Scarcity of 
hands has somewhat retarded harvesting and 
delayed the starting of thrashing machines on 
the grain that is gathered and ready for thrash- 
ing, for it was impossible to get gangs of men 
to go with the thrashing machines, until after 
some of the farmers had finished cutting. The 
most ot the grain has now heen headed, or cut 
by self-binding reapers, and three steam thrash- 
ing machines are already busi'y engaged in 
thrashing the new grain crop. Other machines 
will be started this week and next, and very 
soon every grain liehl will have its ricks of 
sacks of grain piled high in the Held, where 
i,,,w stand only scattering piles of unthrashed 
g -ain. . 

The ijiiality of grain this season is good, and 
the yield, per acre, larger than usual. Ven- 
tura will this season export more grain in pro- 
portion to her population, than any county in 
the State. And if prices of grain are only fair, 
our farmers will this season receive a good re- 
turn for their toil and capital. 

At the present writing, corn and beans look 
exceptionally well, but itisyettoo soontodeter- 
niine what the bean and corn crop will be, when 
it is ready to harvest. 

The only [crop failure in Ventura (and I believe 
it is the same throughout southern California), 
this season is the almost entire failure of the 
honey crop. In May, everything indicated a 
good' season and large yield of honey. The 
owners of apiaries prepared for extracting by 
purchasing a full supply of cans and cases for 
the expected honey. But instead of having 
plenty of honey to extract until August, the 
bees did well only about two weeks in June; 
then the How of honey ceased, and that put an 
end to- extracting for this season. Both the 
white sage and sumac are now in bloom, and, 
although the flowers appear perfect, yet the 
blossoms do not seem to yield any honey. Most 
of the apiarists extracted once, and some of 
theih twice before the flow of honey ceased, and 
those who extracted too late, if they extracted 
close, will now probably have to feed their bees 
or lose them. The honey of this season was of 
excellent quality, both in color and taste, and 
the yield will be about one-fourth of a crop. 

Since the time prohibiting by law the killing 
of deer expired on the 1st met., the Matili.ja and 
Sespi mountains have been tilled with deer 
hunters from Venturis and Santa Barbara. 
Last week a party of Ventura hunters came 
across an old grizzly bear with two cubs, about 
half a year old. The bears took to the brush, 
and there the old grizzly turned and gave bat- 
tle. But the hunters had the advantage of su- 
perior numbers, and besides they were better 
equipped for long-range warfare than the bruin 
family: and although madam grizzly fought well, 
and for a time made it hot for the hunter who 
dared to venture too dose to her brush fort, 
yet she was over-matched in the tight, and at 
last, after being hit many times, fell dead in 
front of her cubs, with her back to the brush 
and her teeth to the foe. All three bears were 
killed, and their pelts brought in as trophies by 
the hunters. Rout. Lvon. 

Cliff Glen, July 10, 1883. 

From Another Correspondent 

KhlTOKS Pkkss : Since the last writing the 
outlook for honey has been far different from 
that then stated. Extracting ceased entirely 
before the 1st of July, and many apiarists fear 
they have robbed their bees, so suddenly did 
the bloom dry up. Half a crop is all the honey 
taken, and very many have not taken as much 
as that. Before the 20th of June the best white 
honey, very heavy, could be bought for five 
cents. Now every man wants to hold his crop 
for a high price, which, considering the short- 
age in the counties east and south of us, they 
will be likely to realize. One man in this neigh 
borhood will be likely to buy largely for the 
Liverpool market, from which he receives or- 
ders. We try to Vie thankful for half a crop, 
and succeed pretty well. Mm.. 

Santa Paula, July 12, 1883. 


Per cent. 





Ke-fainting an Old Wagon. — Some one 
recently asked the Blacksmith ami Whed 
loright if it was possible to make a good job of 
painting an old cracked or scaled wagon with 
out scraping or burning all the old paint off 
That journal replies as follows: "When a body 
is slightly cracked, it may be pasted over with 
putty made of dry white lead, japan and nil 
bing varnish, put on with a wide putty knife. 
After it gets perfectly dry, grind down witl 
hard pumice stone and water. For burning '.1! 
a body 1 use the alcohol burner. It costs 
about SL00, but is the best burner I ever B*w. 
For cleaning oft' the grease, I use an old half- 
round tile ground up to an edge. Scrape all oil 
clean, sand paper, and paint up as a new jol 
In painting over old paint that has commenced 
to scale off, it will continue to do so and throw 
off the new." 

An mi, for belting is recommended which con 
sists of nine parts of linseed oil and four parts of 
litharge, ground in water. These, boiled to a 
plastic consistency, then liquefied by an addi 
tion of turpentine, furnish an oil which, it is 
claimed, promises many admirable qualities. 

The Sorghum Sugar Industry. 

We have received a copy of a report just is- 
sued from the I iovcrnment printing office, at 
Washington, containing the report of the 
Committee of the National Academy of 
Sciences, on the investigation of the sci- 
entific and economic relations of the sor- 
ghum sugar industry. The committee was 
appointed at the request of Hon. (i. B. 
Loiing, Commissioner of Agriculture, and was 
omposcd as follows: Profs. B. Silliman, W. H. 
Brewer, and S. W. Johnson, of Vale college, 
Dr. C. F. Chandler and Dr. G. K. Moore, of 
New York, ''and Dr. J. Lawrence Smith, of 
Louisville, Ky. Their-report with its appendices, 
occupies a large pamphlet of 150 pages and con- 
stitutes a full review of the history and present 
condition of the sorghum crop and its utiliza- 
tion. We shall present for the consideration 
of our readers, the leading conclusions arrived 
at by the committee. 

Sugar in Sorghum and Maize Stalks. 
From records examined by this Committee, 
it appears that, during the three years prior to 
188-2 there have been made at the Department 
of Agriculture almost 4,500 chemical analyses 
of the juices of about 40 varieties of sorghum 
and of 12 varieties of maize. These analyses 
have shown the constitution of the juices of 
each variety at the successive stages in the de- 
velopment of the growing plant. They not 
only confirm the well known fact of the pres- 
ence of sugar in the juices of these plants in 
notable quantity, but they also establish be- 
yond cavil, what seems surprising to those who 
have not examined the facts, that the sorghum 
particularly, holds in its juices, when taken at 
the proper stage of development, about as much 
cane-sugar as the best sugar-cane of tropical re- 
gions. . 

An examination of the analytical tables IB the 
reports of Dr. Collier, synopses of which follow, 
will show that the juices of sorghum in certain 
exceptional, but not isolated, cases were re- 
markable for the amount of cane-sugar they 
contained, viz: 

Of true crystallizable sugar in the juice — 

analyses of five varieties gave over. . . 

:i analyses of IT varieties gave over 

7ft analyses of 23 varieties i^avc over 

152 analyses of 30 varieties gave over 

As compared with the juices of sugar-cane, 
which gave by analysis under 15 per cent, of 
sugar, these results are unexpected and surpris 

But the average results obtained during long 
periods of working and from different varieties 
are of more value to the practical farmer than 
any exceptional instances. 

The average results obtained from 122 analy- 
ses of 3."> different varieties of sorghum, and dur- 
ing a working period of one or another -of the 
above varieties of at least three months in the 
latitude of Washington, are as follows: 

By reference to the tables it will also be seen 
that of the eight varieties of maize examined in 
1881, seven of which were of common field and 
one of sweet corn — 

l'ur cunt of cane sn;jar 

1 analyses of S varieties gave over M 

i analyses of 7 varieties gave over IS 

22 analyses of 7 v arieties gave over 1 

29 analj ses of 7 v arieties ^ave over 10 

analyses of 7 v arieties jjave over 9 

Often varieties of maize grown in 1880, the 
following results were obtained : 

Per cent, of 
Cane Sn^'ar 

124 Analyses of 10 varieties gave ov er 1 

:io Analyses of In varieties gave over H 

;,'.) Analyses of ft varieties gave over II 

■jj Analyses of ft varieties gave over 1] 

s Analyses of 4 varieties gave over V. 

2 Analyses of 1 variety gave over 1' 

1 Analysis of I variety gave over II 

In 1880 over 62,000,000 acres of our land 
(rare in maize, or 38 per cent, of all the culti- 
vated land of the United States. The amount 
of sugar thus apparently lost, calculated on the 
results obtained at the Department of Agricul 
ture in the last three years, is equal to the 
present product of the entire world. It 
is premature to say that the profit- 
able extraction of sugar from corn stalks is 
demonstrated, but such a result may yet be 

Little Difference in the Varieties of Sorghum- 
The results of the investigations at the I >e 
partment of Agriculture have shown the re 
niarkablc uniformity of the several varieties of 
sorghum as sugar-producing pi. Ilia when fully 
developed; and have also shown ilie different 
varieties to vary widely in the time i nquired 
for their full development, varying, as has been 
shown, year after year fully three months 
as between the earlier and later maturing va 

This fact of the wide Variation in the differ 
ent varieties in their period of reaching full 
maturity, although previously recognized, has 
not received the consideration which its ex- 
treme importance demanded, as is evinced by 
the fact that at present, as for the past thirty 
years, those varieties are largely grown in the 
Northern States which could only reach ma- 
turity at rare intervals and in exceptional sea- 
sons in these latitudes. This satisfactorily ac- 
counts for the occasional production of crystal- 

lizable syrups, and the general failure to secure 
similar results continuously. 
Importance of an Even Crop with no 

The experiments at the Department of Agri- 
culture this past season have fully confirmed 
the practical wisdom of a course whicli is pur- 
sued by the sugar planters of Louisiana and 
Cuba, viz.: the exclusion from the matured 
crop of all immature canes, if the production 
of sugar is contemplated. This point, if pre- 
viously recognized by sorghum growers, has 
never been properly understood and considered 
lis it deserves to be. 

Importance of Promptly Working the Crop. 

Its importance can hardly be overstated. If 
leparture from this rule is at any time admis- 
sible, it is at least safe to say that the condi- 
tions which would warrant such departure are 
as yet not determined. Prompt working of the 
cane so soon as cut is always safe, and any 
delay is fraught with unavoidable risk of loss. 
This' conclusion is established as well by the 
work of Dr. Goessmann as by that of the 
I lepartment of Agriculture. 
Sugar has been Made from Sorghum and 
It will be seen from the reports of the past 
three years at the 1 Vpartment of Agriculture, 
as well as from a wide range of experience else- 
where, that sugar in large quantities has been 
shown to be present in the juices of sorghum 
and maize. Also, which is of the first impor- 
tance from the economical side, high grade 
marketable sugar in considerable quantity has 
been successfully made at various places, as 
dready cited, from sorghum juice, comparing 
favorably with the sugar from the true sugar- 
cane or from the sugar beet. 

The testimony of the sugar boiler at the De- 
partment of Agriculture who worked up the 
sorghum in 1881, and who produced a sugar 
which polarized 97.5 percent, is of special value. 
He says in his report that "sugar of this char- 
acter could have been produced day after day 
from sorghum such as produced tlii-:" and also, 
in reference to the sorghum, he testifies "it was 
only fairly good. " ( Vide report 1 881 '82, Peter 
Lynch. I 

It will be seen that in successive years there 
was also obtained from the stalks of common 
maize, after the ripened grain had been plucked, 
at the rate of !>00 pounds of sugar to the acre. 
It also appears from the correspondence sub- 
mitted that many parties have practically se- 
cured results nearly equal to these in their work. 
The Proper Time for Working up the Crop. 

It will be seen by reference to the reports of 
the work at Washington that it is within the 
means of the common fanner to inform himself 
accurately as to the condition of his crop by 
simply examining the seed, and by the hy- 
drometer learning the specific gravity of the 
expressed juice. 

By reference to the reports of the I "apart- 
ment of Agriculture it will be seen that for 
each increase of .001 in specific gravity, be- 
tween 1048 and 1086 in the year 1SS0, there 
was an average increase (glucose excepted i in 
the several constituents of the juice of the sev- 
eral sorghums. 

For changes in specific gravity in successive 
stages of development, each increase of .001 
specific gravity corresponded to the following 


(ill VV ITT. 

101s to 102ft. 
102ft to 1012. 
1042 to 1662. 
1062 to 1061. 
1061 to 1071 
1071 to 1082. 



_ > 









• 2 

! a 

Per it. 

I'er ct. 

Per vt. 

Per i t. 
















— .Oftl 











From these it will appear that the sorghum 
juices, after they have reached a specilic gravity 
of about 1050, increase gradually and with 
great regularity in saccharine strength and in 
available sugar until a specific gravity of 10S0 
to 10S2 is attained, and that this increase is 
fully, upon the average, 0.3 per cent of the 
weight of the juice for each .001 increase in 
specific gravity, or an average increase between 
10:>0and 1082 of 9.6 per cent of the weight of 
the juice in available sugar. 

The practical importance of this fact, which 
appears to be demonstrated by the very numer- 
ous analyses made duriiie the past three years 
can hardly be too strongly emphasized. 

By reference, then, to the table giv en upon 
page 79, Special Report 33, the farmer may, by 
simply taking the specific gravity of his sorghum 
juice, readily estimate the approximate value 
of the crop for the production of sugar or syrup. 
Length of Period for Working Sorghums. 

Reference has already been made to the very 
great difference existing between the different 
varieties of sorghum as to the length of time 
needed for them to reach maturity. It is not 
known that experiments have been made to de- 
termine this difference accurately, until those 
lately made at the Department of Agriculture. 
It has also been shown, as already remarked, 
that those varieties requiring long periods for 
their complete maturity have been the varieties 
largely cultivated in the Northern States dur 
ing the past thirty years. 

The farmer in any section of the country can 
select such varieties as the nature of his climate 
will give him reason to believe may be success 

fully grown; or, if his season permits, he may 
select several varieties, which, coming to ma- 
turity in succession, will enable him to extend 
his working season, and yet have his cane of 
each sort in the best condition for sugar or 
syrup production. Planted, as these several 
varieties were, side by side in the same soil and 
on the same day, the comparative results given 
in the table referred to arc fully trustworthy, 
and could have been secured in no other way. 

These results are of direct practical value to 
the sorghum grower, and were continued by the 
experience of the past season. 

Effect of Rain Upon Sorghum Juices. 

The investigation of this question and there- 
suits secured otter a good illustration as to the 
importance of submitting doubtful questions to 
the test of actual experiment, since it is nearly 
certain that any one, reasoning from it priori 
considerations, would have concluded, and in 
leed such conclusion has been accepted as es- 
tablished fact, that the effect of rain would be 
manifest in a diluted juice, and that conversely 
a prolonged drought w ould result in a concen- 
tration and diminution of the juice. The re- 
sults, however, of very many experiments on 
every variety of sorghum, (hiring the past sea- 
son, prove the incorrectness of such conclusions. 

The Effect of Frost Upon Sorghum. 
The investigations concerning this question 
practically reconcile the discordant reports in 
regard to this matter. It has been shown that 
when fully matured the sorghum withstands 
even hard frosts without detriment, but that if 
immature the effect is most disastrous. 

It is shown also that this disastrous result is 
due not directly to the effect of the frost, but 
to the subsequent warm weather, which rapidly 
induces fermentation with inversion of sugar in 
the frosted and immature cane. 

Manufacture of Sugar from Sorghum. 
From the numerous results given in Dr. Col- 
lier's reports, it is obvious that the method of 
manufacture of syrup was such that nearly all 
of the sugar present in the juices of the sorghum 
or maize could be secured in the syrup without 

In 1879 the average of twenty-four experi- 
ments with the juices of several varieties of 
sorghum and maize, made at the Department 
of Agriculture (see Annual Report, 1879, p. 53), 
showed that the relative loss of sucrose in the 
syrup was only 5.36 per cent of that present in 
the juice, instead of being, as Dr. tioessmann 
found, 30. f 5 per cent. 

Hut of tar greater importance is the fact 
brought out in an average of forty experiments, 
including all made, that there was an actual 
loss of only 12.5 per cent of the cane sugar; i. 
c, there was secured as sugar in the syrup 
87.5 per cent of all the sugar present in the 
juice ; thus showing that the total loss by 
defecation, by skimming, an by inversion, 
was no more than usual with sugar-cane juice, 
for it is estimated that only about eighty per 
cent of the cane sugar present in the tropical 
juices is recovered in the sugar and molasses, a 
little over twenty per cent being lost in the 

In L're's Dictionary, Appleton's edition, 1685, 
vol. II. p. 7r>8, the writer upon sugar says as 

" The average quantity of grained sugar ob- 
tained from cane juice in our colonial planta- 
tions, is probably not more than one-third of 
the quantity of crystalline sugar in the juice 
which they boil." 

Gum a Product of Manufacture. 

In the purging of sorghum and corn-stalk 
sugar, it happens very often that this operation 
is of unusual difficulty, owing to the presence 
of a certain gummy substance, and this practi- 
cal difficulty has been by some so magnified 
that the economical production of sugar from 
these two plants has been confidently declared 

In this experience in Washington, as well as 
that of many observers, this peculiar substance 
lias been found often to be present in quantity 
so small as to offer little, if any, resistance to 
complete purging in the ordinary centrifugal. 

It is a matter of very great practical import- 
ance to determine those conditions whicli pre- 
vent its being produced in the manufacture of 
the syrup, since in no case has its presence 
been detected in the freshly expressed juices of 
either sorghum or maize. It appears to be 
formed by transformation of other constituents 
of the juice in the process of syrup production. 
Future Investigation. 

Although much important work has been al- 
ready accomplished, and results fully repaying 
the care and expense bestowed have been at- 
tained, there yet remains a vast amount of 
work, demanding further investigation. Kven 
granting that the questions already settled may 
suffice to place this new industry upon a safe and 
profitable footing, it by no means follows that it 
may not be made more profitable. 

The Cherry in Southern California. 

The inquiry of the Riverside Prrta as to 
where cherries can be grown successfully has 
called to the front considerable information. 
The Pomona Timm says: After cherries were 
fully ripe. Mr. A. K. Meserve, who lives about 
two miles north of Pomona, who has quite a 
number of cherry trees, and is a man well and 
favorably known throughout the county, 
brought to our otlice branches cue from his trees 
which were hanging as full of the fruit as they 
could hold, and that too, of a large size and 

July 21, 1883. 



fine flavor. This gift first attracted our atten- 
tion to the matter, and we have since talked 
with Mr. Meserve on the subject. He informs 
us that his trees have been steadily increasing 
in the amount of fruit each year, and that they 
bear each year. Since he has found out that 
a cherry tree needs but little water and has 
qBit irrigating, his trees have increased in bear- 
ing very rapidly. From this time on they will 
get no water save what nature supplies. Com- 
petent judges have visited his place, and are 
favorably impressed with his experiment so far, 
and will anxiously await the results of the 
coming year. 

The Los Angeles Exjrms* adds the following 
bit of experience : As remarked a few days ago 
in these columns, cherries are among the pro- 
ducts which it has been taken for granted would 
not grow in this climate. Several of our intel- 
ligent and enterprising fruit men are fast dis- 
sipating that prejudice by the most conclusive 
of all arguments, success in the undertaking. 
The trouble with the few trees heretofore in 
this vicinity seems to have been improper treat- 
ment. It is a great mistake to suppose that be- 
cause sauce for the goose is sauce for the gan- 
der, that, therefore, treatment good for an or- 
ange tree would suit a cherry tree. One might 
as well try to treat a horse as he docs his cow, 
and hope for good results. As an instance, we 
may mention a case known to us on a small 
place west of the city. There are half a dozen 
Hue Ox-heart cherry trees on the place, and the 
owner took good care of them. They were 
plowed, watered and cultivated just as the or 
ange trees alongside. Spring after spring they 
put forth a tine promise in bud and .blossom. 
But there it all ended. The blossoms all fell off 
and no fruit set. Two years ago he consigned 
his cherry trees to the demnition bow-wows to 
take care of themselves. Since then they bear 
in basketfuls. They do not want plowing and 
irrigating in summer. 

Suggestions on Rust Proof Wheats. 

Editors Press: — I send you herewith two 
copies of the Auxtralaxian newspaper, of Mel- 
bourne, which contain some letters of mine in 
reference to securing varieties of wheat which 
would be fairly "rustproof" under the condi- 
tions of our climate, and suggesting a course by 
means of which such varieties might be secured. 
These papers also contain articles commenting 
on my letters. I place these letters at your 
disposal, in case they arc of any value, for the 
following reasons: 

First. — That the principles they point out 
apply with equal force to your climate as to 
ours, and that it must be at least as desirable 
to secure "rust proof" wheats in California as it 
is here. 

Second. — That from having been in the habit 
of reading the I'm 11 ic Pvt'RAl. Pkkss, I am led 
to think that there are many amongst you who 
are always ready to undertake, and who would 
carry through in an intelligent manner, experi- 
ments that appear likely to lead to valuable re- 
sults — and to secure "rust proof" cuts of wheat 
can, with very good reason, be considered an 
aim that is worth experimenting for. 

Third. —That so many in your State possess, 
in the means of irrigating their crops, the means 
of subjecting the plants under experiment, by 
supplying them with abundance of water at the 
critical stage of their growth, to the conditions 
that would invite the occurrence of rust. This 
is an advantage which, unfortunately, very few 
in this country possess. 

In order that my letters may be more fully 
understood it would be well for me to explain 
some points. That great pest, the apple blight 
or woolly aphis (aphis lanige.ra,) has been got 
over in a great measure in Australia by the fol- 
lowing means: 

A few sorts of apples, and amongst them the 
Northern Spy, the Winter Majetin and the Irish 
Peach, have been found to be quite blight proof, 
while others have been found to be subject to 
the blight to a very small extent. These sorts 
arc of course, for that reason, the best of all to 
cultivate, but other sorts can be cultivated with 
advantage if they arc grafted above the ground 
on blight-proof stocks. When this is done, al- 
though the branches are still liable to be 
blighted, the roots are never touched, and it is 
not difficult to clean the branches. Some of 
our best nurserymen now send out all their ap- 
ples on Winter Majetin or Northern Spy stock. 

I may state, also, that chemical analysis has 
shown that the bark of blight-proof sorts is 
richer in lime than that of other sorts. 

With regard to the means employed here to 
prevent the wheat plant from being attacked 
by the red rust, the course which is considered 
the best to pursue is to sow very early, and 
when the young plants are well above the 
ground, to turn in a flock of sheep to eat them 
down. The growth that takes place afterwards 
is much stronger, and the crop is seldom, if ever, 
attacked by the rust. 

New Process Flour. 

The inventor of the new process of making 
flour ought, I think, to be considered one of the 
greatest benefactors of his race that ever lived. 
The principal advantages that are claimed for 
the new process of milling are, I believe: 

1. That it makes a more nutritious (richer in 
gluten) flour. 

.. That from the same quantity of wheat it 

extracts more flour than the old process could 
give us. 

To these I will add what ought to be con- 
sidered a third principal recommendation: 

3. That since it makes the best Hour from 
such flinty grain as rust-proof sorts of wheat 
would produce, it has enabled us to cultivate 
these sorts. In consequence of this, our way is 
now clear to seek for varieties of wheat that are 
as rust-proof as possible. My first letter sug- 
gests a course which, I believe, might be fol- 
lowed with advantageforthis end. In conclusion, 
I will point out that a "rust-proof" wheat inas- 
much asits peculiar value would arise from its hav- 
ing straw flinty enough to resist the attacks of the 
rust fungus, would only be rust-proof as long as it 
was grown in a soil that could supply it with 
plenty of silica ; for this reason it would continue 
to be desirable to cultvate for wheat only such 
soils as long experience has shown to be suit- 
able, and such soils are never deficient in silica. 
In soils that contain too little soluble silica, it 
would cease to be rust-proof. 

It may be that it is not the possession of 
flinty straw alone that renders plants rust-proof, 
but that some subtle peculiarity of texture of 
the straw needs to be associated with fiintiness; 
but I am satisfied that the possession of flinty 
straw is quite essential to ability to resist at- 
tacks of rust. Wii.mam Fakrkr. 

Cuppacumbalong, New South Wales. 
The Data Received. 

Our correspondent sends with the above, as 
he states, several interesting articles which ap- 
peared in the Ans/m/asinn. They are to some 
extent controversial, and to print them would 
take more space than we can spare at this time. 
We shall, therefore, take from these articles only 
such parts as tend to make more plain the 
writer's claim concerning the development of 
varieties of wheat which will prove less vulner- 
able to attacks of rust than those now generally 
cultivated. The views will no doubt attract 
the attention of our wheat experimenters, and 
suggest to them interesting tests for the coming 
season, the results of which we shall be eager 
to hear. We quote from Mr. Farrer's writings 
in the AtistraUuitm as follows: 

I would like, with your permission, to place 
before your readers a few facts in connection 
with the wheat plant, and particularly to point 
out that man possesses great power over it, 
mainly by means of the careful selection of seed, 
to stamp it with certain constitutional peculiar- 
ities, in order to adapt it to meet his require- 
ments under special conditions. 

I would also wish to give some reasons for the 
confidence which I have already expressed in 
the possibility of discovering a variety of wheat 
Which will thrive and be fairly rust-proof under 
the conditions of the Queensland climate. 

I will first of all bring forward a point which 
alone ought to stamp this confidence of mine as 
being reasonable. It is universally acknowledg- 
ed amongst wheat growers that some varieties 
of wheat — notably sorts with hard or flinty 
straw — are less liable to red rust than others. 
This, I submit, is of itself an a priori reason for 
having confidence in the possibility of finding a 
variety which is still less liable to rust — one, in 
fact, that is so much less liable to rust as to be 
practically rust-proof. 

Philosophy of Parasitic Growth 

In regard to fungoid parasites and their diffu- 
sion, Professor Tyndall's researches have given 
us strong grounds for the belief that the germs 
of various fungoid parasites float about in the 
air, and are ever ready to fix on a host which 
presents conditions which will enable them to 
thrive and increase on it. From this it will be 
seen that the fact that fungoid parasites do not 
possess the power of voluntary locomotion, does 
not necessarily render hosts less liable to be 
attacked by them. It is, however, as I have al- 
ready said, in the conditions of the hosts that 
are attacked by the red rust and the American- 
blight (woolly aphis) parasites that the analogy 
would appear to lie. 

Before an organism - animal or vegetable — 
will be attacked by a parasite it must present 
conditions that are favorable to the subsistence 
of that parasite on it. This is an acknowledged 
law. Such condition very often, and perhaps 
generally, arise out of a weak, diseased, or dis- 
ordered state of the host: but they may arise 
from a constitutional peculiarity of the host, 
which causes it, under certain circumstances, 
to present conditions favorable to the existense 
of a particular parasite on it, even though it be 
in other respects in full vigor and health. 

Varieties "of apples that are liable to the 
American blight, and varieties of wheat that 
are liable to red-rust, both possess, I believe 
constitutional peculiarities of that character. 

The difference of constitution between sorts 
of wheat that are easily blighted, and sorts 
that are less liable to rust, appears to lie in the 
character of the straw. Experience has taught 
us that the wheats which are the most liable to 
red rust are soft-strawed — are sorts that con- 
tain little silica or flint in the straw ; and that 
with the increase of silica in the straw the lia- 
bility to rust diminishes. 

It appears, also, that the possession of flinty 
or non-flinty straw does not depend much on 
the composition of the soil on which the plant 
is grown, but that particular sorts of wheat pos- 
sess the property of extracting more silica than 
others from the soil— just as some breeds of cat- 
tle and pigs possess the constitutional peculiari- 
ty of getting from their food, during their 
growth, more lime for their bones than others 

How to Obtain such Varieties. 
The seedlings of almost all cultivated plants 

are apt to vary (or "sport") occasionally. The 
variations which any particular kind of plant 
is apt to indulge in are generally known to ob- 
servant cultivators of that plant. 

If any variation (or sport) be encouraged by 
selection of seed, and by other means which 
are well known to the scientific cultivator, a 
tendency to vary still further in the same di- 
rection can be established. Thus, if a flower 
"sports" by the production of a single ad- 
ditional petal, the scientific gardener feels fairly 
certain that he has it in his power, by cultivating 
and encouraging this sport, to secure a double 

Among the variations the wheat plant oc- 
casionally indulges in is that of producing 
plants with the constitutional peculiarity of 
being able to resist the red-rust in a high de- 
gree. In crops of rusty wheat, a single plant 
may occasionally be found which is quite 
healthy. If this plant be examined, it will in 
all likelihood be found to have flinty straw, 
and, correlated to the flinty straw, grain of a 
harder character than the normal plants of 
that variety of wheat have. This constitu- 
tional peculiarity constitutes a variation (or 
"sport") of a most valuable character, and I 
would most strongly recommend farmers, when 
their crops are rusty, to be keenly on the look- 
out for these sports, to secure the heads after 
they are ripe, and either to cultivate the grain 
themselves, or to place it in some one's hands 
who will value and cultivate it carefully. If 
care be used in the cultivation, in culling out 
and rejecting, plants that do not inherit the 
rust-resisting properties of the parent plant, 
in seizing upon and devoting special attention 
to individual plants that may show rust- 
resisting characteristics in a higher degree, 
a tendency to produce plants with a consti- 
tution that is rust-resisting in a still higher 
degree will be established as "the germinal con- 

Why Wheat Rusts. 

It is well known that it is in warm damp 
weather that the wheat plant is likely to be at- 
tacked by the red rust. At such times the ves- 
sels of the straw, provided it is still tender, be- 
come highly charged with sap. In the case of 
flinty-strawed wheat, it would appear that the 
outside of straw is hard and strong enough to 
confine the sap, and to resist undue distention, 
while in the case of the soft-strawed wheats it 
would appear that either the cuticle of the 
straw, from being distended by the increase of 
sap, becomes too thin to prevent the rust para- 
site from getting at its food — the sap — or that 
the cuticle itself may even be ruptured. 

The measure of immunity from rust that some 
varieties of wheat enjoy appears to depend, at 
any rate, on the possession of a flinty cuticle to 
the straw. I would also expect the greatest 
freedom from rust to be enjoyed by those sorts 
of sugar cane that have the hardest bark or 

Again, with respect to the apple, we have 
strong, indirect evidence that it is the character 
of the bark which renders some varieties of ap- 
ples blight-proof — that hardness, thickness, 
toughness or some such like peculiarity of the 
texture of the bark prevents the woolly aphis 
from getting at the sap. 

It has been found, as I have said before, that 
the varieties of wheat which are the least liable 
to rust are the flinty-strawed sorts. It has also 
been found that flinty-strawed wheats generally 
bear flinty grain, and this grain our millers 
have hitherto been unable to make into good 

A's I am advocating the production by means 
of a well-directed system of selection of wheats 
that have straws still more flinty than any that 
have hitherto been produced — with straws flinty 
enough, in fact, to resist the red rust — we must 
expect varieties with straw so much more flinty 
to produce proportionally harder grain. 

Straw that is flinty is really flinty from the 
large development of silica or flint in its cuticle; 
but the flinty grain which flinty-strawed wheats 
usually produce is in general regarded as deriv- 
ing its hardness from the great thickness of its 
semi-transparent covering of gluten. This glu- 
ten, I must point out, is perhaps the most valu- 
able part of the wheat grain, and is much the 
same in chemical composition as the lean flesh 
of meat — it is the part of the wheat grain which 
furnishes nourishment to our muscles. The 
white inside of the grain consists mainly of 
starch, and is fat-forming food. A grain of 
wheat, therefore, that contains much gluten 
ought to be valuable on that account. 

New Value for Flinty Wheat. 

The objection, however, that millers have 
hitherto had against hard, glutinous wheat 
seems to be likely to disappear. Some few 
months ago 1 read ( I am sorry to say I cannot 
recollect where, for 1 was not specially interested 
in wheat at that time, but of the fact I feel 
quite certain) that the great improvements in 
milling that have lately been made in the 
western States of the United States in the 
State of Wisconsin, I think have enabled mill- 
ers to make; better flour out of hard than out 
of soft wheats, and that on that account the 
hard, flinty wheats have now the greater money 
value there. 

This statement of mine can easily be verified, 
but at present I cannot recollect my authority. 
If, however, improved machinery has caused 
hard, flinty wheats to be of greater value than 
soft wheats elsewhere, the millers of Australia 
will not fail to see that it wi". be to their inter- 
est to provide themselves with it. 

Since the above was written I have stumbled, 
amongst my papers, on Professor Ked/ie's (of 

the Michigan Agricultural College) report on 
"The Chemistry of Ripening Wheat." It is a 
most valuable paper and I will quote from it 
the part that giv es the reasons for the prefer- 
ence that is now given in America to flinty 
wheats over soft wheats for milling : 

"The true explanation of this exaltation of the 
fl'nty wheals and depreciation of the soft wheats is, 
that there has been a revolution in the methods ol 
milling, by the introduction of the patent process. 
Under the old method of milling; when the grinding 
was completed at one operation, the soft wheats 
were in demand; and early cutting, while the 'berry 
was in the dough,' was recommended. liut since 
the new process has been introduced, in which the 
grinding is accomplished in successive stages, and 
the highest prized and priced flour is now made 
from the middlings, which formerly were discarded 
as unfit for human food, a very different quality of 
wheat is desired. The soft wheats are no longer in 
demand, but the hard and flinty wheats, which will 
produce the largest amount possible of middlings 
for purifying, making the ' new process flour. ' The 
farmer is urged to discard his white winter Whea't, 
and to let his wheat stand till dead ripe, in order to 
secure the hard and flinty berry. '' 

Enough has been brought forward now, I 
think, to show that the fact that the rust-proof 
wheats we are proposing to obtain, are likely to 
have hard and flinty grain is not such a great 
drawback after all. 

Unhealthy Chickens. 

EDITORS Pkkss:— I see by the last Prions that 
"R" has trouble with his chickens. I should 
think the cause might be foul food or water, or 
both, with but little, if any change in diet, or 
the coop or roost not kept clean, and with poor 
ventilation. As to cure, I should use the sharp 
edge of an ax just back of the comb with vigor 
in all cases. One ounce of preventive is better 
than one pound of cure. 

Three fourths of the battle in poultry, keep- 
ing is in perfect cleanliness in and about the 
coop, with good, clean food and water. Fri sk 
water should be given them every day. Change 
food often, (live soft feed in the morning; 
grain at night. Avoid corn as much as possi- 
ble. Don't over feed. Use Imperial Kgg Food, 
which is a No. 1 tonic, and is good for poultry 
in many other ways, as well as acting on the 
liver in case of sickness. I would use this, as 
per directions on each package, for fowls that 
are sick, but should prefer to use it while they 
are well to prevent sickness. This egg food can 
be had at most country stores. Also use the 
Douglass mixture in the water for fowls to 
drink. The recipe can be found in any first 
class poultry book of the present day, with di- 
rections for use. One pound of egg food and 
enough Douglass mixture to last twenty-five 
fowls a month can be had for about seventy-five 

I have told that which I would do, and look 
after in my own coops of fowls, should I find 
the same trouble, which I don't ever expect 
with good care, and I have fowls I value at s.~> 

Watch your fowls and always try to prevent 
sickness rather than try to cure disease. 
Eternal vigilance is the price of a healthy poul- 
try yard. Poultry. 

Hermosa, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 

Raising of Poultry. 

EDITORS Pkkss: -Those who make a business 
of raising poultry understand that it means 
work and incessant care. Fowls should be fed 
regularly, and their feed varied, t. <. , to give 
different kinds of grain which will supply the 
elements which form bone, flesh, feathers and 
egg production. Air slacked lime, wet with 
water and dried in the sun, should be kept con- 
stantly on hand where the occupants of the 
poultry yard can have access to it at all times ; 
also burned bones pounded fine. Crushed oys- 
ter shells are a good addition. An abundance 
of pure water should be furnished every day. 

The massing of a large number of fowls to- 
gether of all sizes and conditions should be 
avoided. Small parks of a dozen hens and one 
rooster are best where one has the time and 
means to construct them, liens with small 
chickens should always be kept in small inclos- 
ures, away from other fowls, and feeding pens 
should be made with the slats so close that none 
but the little chickens can get through. 

Nothing is better for feeding young chicks 
the first few days than bread crumbs wet, after 
which give cracked corn and shorts or middlings, 
and the same as a morning feed for all the hens 
also, which keeps them in good condition and 
makes them lay well. 

As the moulting season is approaching, extra 
feeding is required to produce a new coat of 
feathers, and prepare the birds for future lay- 
ing. At this season great care and attention 
should be given to insure line condition and 
subsequent development of fowls. 

O. F. Shaw, M. D. 

Sebastopol, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

Lubricant for Hkavv Bearings.— The fol- 
lowing lubricant for heavy bearings will be found 
excellent : Dissolve the'best white lead in good 
machine oil. make it pretty thick, take all the 
hard and clotty substance away, then add the 
remainder, and yon will find this a good lubri 
cant, ■ "' f 11 

PA6IFI6 I^URAL;pRESS. [JoL5 2 l, 1883 

JVtF^OJMS Of JfcUSB/.ftPfrY 

Cemxponduice on Grange principles and worif and re- 
ports of transactions of subordinate Granges arc respctl- 
hilly solicited for this department 

An Inter-State Grange Picnic. 

If any of our Pacific coast Grangers happen to 
lie in the East next month they may he inter- 
ested In attending the tenth annual intcr-Statc 
picnic and exhibition, under the auspices of the 
Patrons of Husbandry of Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, West Virginia, New Jersey and Delaware, 
which will open at Williams' grove, Cumber- 
land county. I'a., on Monday, August 20, 
IS8J, and continue until Saturday, August 25th. 
Excursion rates at reduced fare will lie ar- 
ranged over all the principal roads in Penn- 
sylvania and adjoining States. Agricultural 
and scientific addresses by prominent farm- 
ers and statesmen will be delivered on Tues- 
day. Wednesday, Thursday and Friday. 
Friday, '24th, will be "Editors' l>ay," and 
many of the most prominent newspaper men 
in the country will be present on that day. 
Last year over 50,000 fanners, representing 
fourteen States, attended this gathering : and 
from present indications the number will be 
much greater this year. Over 200 manufact- 
urers of agricultural implements, and a large 
number of raisers of fine stock have already 
made application for space for exhibition. 
Members of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, 
and their families and friends, may be supplied 
w itli tents on the grounds by making early ap- 
plication. Circulars, giving full details of the 
arrangements, are issued by K. H. Thomas, 
Mcchanicsbiirgh, Pa. 

Grange News. 

KmtuKs PlUDBS: — The Sonoma county Pomona 
Change will meet in Santa Kosa next Wednes- 
day. A good attendance is promised. The 
subordinate Grange at Santa Kosa is yet in- 
creasing. A new class was started at the last 
meeting on the road, rough and uneven as it is, 
that all good Grangers have traveled. The 
meetings are well attended ; the officers are up 
in the work ; literary exercises art: held ; good 
music is furnished, and sociability abounds. 
This Grange "reports progress," and asks for 
further time. 

Banitet Valley Grange is growing, and is in a 
most healthy condition as a ( Jrange. I regret, 
in this connection, to say that Sister Nelson 
Carr, so well and so favorably known to all 
patrons, is very sick with typhoid fever. She 
IS reported to be much better at this writing, 
and her early restoration to health is wished by 
all. D, E. W. " 

Santa Kosa, Cal. 

Guanos Thought. — In the busy farming 

season. I .range work must not be wholly neg- 
lected. It is true, the crops and other farm 
interests require constant care, and this the 
pmdent farmer will give; but there are inter- 
ests of primary importance that do not appeal 
to physical effort so much as to the mind. The 
Orange looks to the outcome as well as to the 
methods of labor. Sowing and reaping lead to 
profit only as they are directed by intelligence, 
and however full the rewards, as measured in 
the crops, they are of small account to the 
farmer except as they may be wisely bestowed. 
Thought must come, in to direct. And the col- 
lective wisdom of the Orange, in this case, is 
better than unaided thought of the individual. 
Hence the value, even the necessity, of confer- 
ence, for whi di the Grange is an available 
means, the efficient agent. While it imposes 
no harsh conditions, it offers freely the lessons 
of experience, of observation, the products of 
thought applied to the great interests that be- 
come the easy prey of designing men when left 
to individual care. 

At Thk Kast. - Bro. Vital E. Hangs is en- 
joying a season among the old scenes. The 
Daily Telegraph, Kalamazoo, Michigan, says: 
We had a very pleasant call Monday r. m.. 
from Mr. Vital K. Hangs, an extensive farmer 
of Modesto, Stanislaus county, California, who 
is here on a visit to his parents, Mr. and Mrs. 
Henry Bcees, and his sisters, Mrs. Taylor and 
Mrs. Drake. He notes the great change here 
since he left this part of the country, to try 
his luck in the golden State, a change which he 
thinks is marvelous. Mr. Hangs was a dele- 
gate from his State to the anti-monopoly con- 
vention in ( 'hicago. Mr. B. will visit School- 
craft and other points formerly familiar to him 
before returning to California, which will be in 
a COUple of weeks. It is 20 years since he left 
here for California. 

Grange Items. 

Soitii S17TTBB GbANOK reports increasing 
numbers and good feeling generally among the 

Ptl MOUTH < iRANOE June meeting w as a good 
one, twenty-three earnest members being pres- 

Wiikati.vM' GRANGE is flourishing. The 
fanners of the neighborhood arc enjoying a har- 
vest of good crops. 
Danville Grange will have/a reunion on 
{.-Saturday of this week, duly 21st. \AU Patrons 
. l't'imett' f tamlinfe ' art cortlial, y invittjjL 

The Anti-Monopoly Convention. 

Agreeable to anonncement the Anti-monopoly 
( ..mention was held in Chicago duly 4th. The 
II . ./. n, Rural says: "The meeting was largely 
composed of those who are heart and soul in the 
anti-monopoly cause. Their object was to ad- 
vance the cause of the people, and w hile it may 
be true that the convention was not wholly 
composed of such men, they were overwhelming- 
ly in the majority." 

After two days' session, the following declar- 
ation of principles and platform was adopted: 

To the People of the ( 'iiited Stales . — The people 
are sovereign, their servants usurping power arc op- 
pressing them. Let the people sec bow tins is being 
done. "Monopolies, created by unjust laws, crush 
the uoikingmen. the toilers in the mines, the work- 
shops, on the farms, in every avocation of life. leg- 
islative bodjes are manipulated in their interest, 
counts are corrupted by favors and money, executive 
officers bend bumble submission to the dictates of 
these monopoly magnates: thus the people are robbed 
of their just earnings. 

Political parties declare themselves friends of the 
people, but obey the mandates of railway, banking, 
tariff and land monopolies. C ongress has abdicated 
the power conferred on it by the constitution to reg- 
ulate inter-State commerce in favor of soulless rail- 
way corporations. 

It has given up its constitutional right to control 
the currency to heartless money lenders. It permits 
transportation lines to levy and collect a tax on the 
products of the country more than equal to the en- 
tire expenditures of the national and State govern- 
ments. It legislates for the interests of the few 
against the rights of the many. The people are 
powerless because they are not united. 

We ask you to form yourselves in phalanx for the 
right. We entreat you to break the chains which 
bind you as captive to the chariot wheels of monopoly 
— chains which become more galling with each revo- 

We ask you to arouse yourselves and force your 
servants to honesty and economy, and we present to 
you the platform of the National Anti-monopoly 
party, which we believe, if successful, will break your 
chains, restore your freedom, and give good govern- 
ment to the nation. 

Platform— All corporations, including those 
formed for the transportation of persons and prod- 
ucts arc creatures of the Stales and general govern- 
ment, subject to their control, and it is the duty of 
the government to regulate transportation, prescrib- 
ing both maximum and minimum charges, prevent- 
ing pooling and other like combinations and dis- 
criminations between tow ns and individuals, and the 
consolidation of competing lines, thus protecting the 
corporations in their legal rights and the people from 
extortionate charges. 

To secure these things we demand that the next 
Congress, by one of its committees, shall thoroughly 
investigate the cost of railways and trans|>ortation 
so that it may act intelligently on those subjects and 
enact such law s as the protection of the people de- 

A postal telegraph system is demanded by every 
interest in the country, to be operated by the Postal 

L'ndcr liberal and equitable construction of law, 
States and corporations have forfeited 105,000,000 
acres of land, a territory as large as the five great 
States of New Vork, Pennsylvania, Ohio. Indiana 
and Illinois, now supporting a population of over 
18.000,000 of people, and this land now legally and 
equitably belongs to the people of the Cnited States; 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That it is the duty of Congress to de- 
clare forfeited all lands not equitably earned by a 
construction of the designated roads w ithin the time 
prescribed by law for completion, and restore the 
same to the public domain for the benefit of actual 
settlers, and all public lands shall be reserved for the 
use of actual settlers. 

We view with alarm the acquisition of lands in the 
I'nited States by non-resident foreigners, and we 
favor such changes in the laws as will prevent the 
ow nership of any part of our soil by any except resi- 

We oppose the issue and control of the currency 
by banks of issue which now enjoy the s|>ccial priv- 
ilege of charging interest upon their own promises 
to pay, and we demand a restoration to the people's 
government of its full sovereignty over all money, 
both metallic and paper, to be a full legal tender. 

We favor the coinage of gold and silver upon equal 
terms, and demand that the volume of money be 
carefully restricted by law. We demand that the 
national banking system be abolished and the 
national banks paid off as speedily as poss ible in the 
lawful money of the I'nited States. We demand 
the establishment of a graduated income tax. Postal 
savings banks shall be established, that the people 
may have a safe depository. Gambling in the neces- 
saries of life, and combinations which enable monop- 
lists to control the prices against the natural laws of 
trade must be abolished. 

The patent laws should be so amended as to pro- 
tect inventors, give the people the benefits to be de 
rived, and prevent the foundation of monopolies 
which rob the inventor and the people. 

All public officials, as far as practicable, including 
the President and Vice-President, shall be elected by 
a direct vote of the )>eople. 

( ongrcss has no authority to tax the people ex- 
cept for the purpose of raising the necessary revenue, 
and in framing tariff laws that object should be kept 
constantly in view. 

We denounce the present tariff as b.-ing wholly ill 
the interest of monopolies, and demand that it lie 
speedily and radically reformed and free t.ade es- 
tablished as soon as the transportation and money 
monopolies shall Ijc so regulated as to secure rea- 
sonable rates for freights and interest on money. 

We, constituting this independent political party, 
pledge ourselves not to enter into any combination 
or affiliation with the Republican or Democratic par- 

A resolution was then adopted to nominate a 
permanent national President, N ice President, 
Secretary, Assistant Secretary, and Treasurer, 
and also a Vice President for each State, with 
power to nominate assistants. Mr. John P. 
Henry, a druggist of Brooklyn, who had acted 
as permanent Chairman for the conference, was 
I elected President unanimously, as were the 

other officers. Mr. B. K. Shivery, of South 
Bend, Ind., was elected Secretary; Mr. N. B. 
Killmer, of Brooklyn, as Assistant Secretary, 
and Edwin Lee Brown, of Chicago, as Treas- 

The Vice Presidents for the different States 

were: Oeneral K. F. Wingate, Missouri; John 
Henry Keeiic. dr., Maryland: M. Kankin, In- 
diana: A. II. Coffene, Illinois; L. T. Foster, 
Ohio; M. D. Clark, Iowa; I >. W. Ray, Penn- 
sylvania; ( '. II. Williams, Michigan: E. N. 
Hill, District of Columbia; B. S. Heath, Da- 
kota; .1. Ormsby, Wisconsin; A. .1. I'tley, 
Kansas: I). L. Graves, Kentucky, and John T. 
Doyle, California. 

The other States were not prepared to nom 
inate delegates. The question of substituting 
the word "organization" for "party" in the 
platform came up and wascarricd unanimously, 
leaving the platform exactly as above given, 
with this one exception. 



Kkai. Estate Kimok. — Pleasanton Sine: 
Rumors are afloat that Abijah Baker, of Pleas- 
anton, wants to dispose of all his land in this 
vicinity, but whether in large or small quan- 
tities we have not learned. It is earnestly 
hoped that he will sell that on this side of the 
creek in small lots, or sell the whole to some 
enterprising person who will cut it up and dis- 
pose of it in small lots at a handsome profit. 
There is no better fruit land in the county, 
and it once in the market will sell very readily. 

Livkkmokk Cltors. Herald, July 12: Wheat 
heading is now fairly under way, and the big 
stacks arc rising on every hand. Very little 
wheat has as yet been thrashed, but sufficient 
has been done to determine the fact that the 
damage by shrinkage will average fully forty 
per cent throughout this section. < hi some 
fields the injury is even greater than this, while 
on others it is comparatively slight. The light 
gravelly lands have been more fortunate than 
the adobe; barley is far less shrunken than 
wheat. No estimate of the total yield, with 
any degree of certainty, can be made till the re- 
ceipt of further reports from the thrashers. 

Sm.k Cri.Tt'KK. Alameda />orti r, July 14. 
Mrs. P. H. Hilton, of Oenterville, is conducting 
a very interesting experiment in silk culture. 
It was rather late in the season, and it was 
necessary to pick carefully to secure tender 
leaves for the young brood. The worms were 
hatched on the 5th, 6th, and 7th of June, to 
the number of over 4,500. About July 12th. 
they were full grown, nearly three inches long, 
and began in earnest to make their cocoons. 

Mkkino s.u.k. — Haywards Journal: The 
sales of Spanish merino sheep upon Laurel 
ranch, near Haywards. the past two weeks, in- 
clude the famous ram, Crown Prince, four years 
old, for £200. His annual fleece for three 
years has been 41 pounds. Blood will tell. 

Ckops. — Thrashing virtually commenced the 
first of the week. There are four machines in 
and about Mt. Eden, two belonging to the 
Obermuller Bros.. Hess and David Smalley's. 
They all have plenty of work. Machine own- 
ers report that the grain is somewhat shrunken 
and not as heavy as last year. The Prowse 
tiros, have been thrashing in Castro valley this 
week and on their own farm, from Saturday to 
Tuesday, turned out over 2,000 sacks of oats. 
They have also been hauling their grain to the 
depot, and shipping it below. L. H. Brown 
informs us that he paid a visit to Dougherty's 
station arid vicinity and into tin- San Kamon 
valley. He reports the grain crop light, but 
an immense amount of bay on band. 

San Joaquin. 

A Combined Hakvkstkk Tested. On Sat- 
urday last Mr. Shippee's combined harvester 
and thrasher was tested at the Agricultural 
Park, about 100 fanners being present to wit- 
ness its work. It was worked w ith two men, 
a driver and a sack sewer, and in heavy and 
light grain, running from 20 to 50 bushels to 
the acre. The machine w orked perfectly w ith 
six horses, turning out as high as 20 sacks of 
grain an hour, in good milling condition, with- 
out a foul seed in it. The test having been en- 
tirely satisfactory, the company will turn out 
as many machines this year as possible and 
erect a factory with a capacity to turn out from 
200 to .'100 machines for next year's harvest. 
Two machines w ill immediately be sent to Mr. 
Shippee's farm in Butte county and three put 
into the held in this county. He will also 
send one to Chicago and St. Louis to be ex- 
hibited there during the present harvest. 
Partners are highly elated over the success of 
the harvester as it is so cheap — costing about 
si, 000 that any fanner of 100 acres of laud can 
afford to purchase one for his own use. By so 
doing he can, by the use of six horses and two 
men. harvest his own crop independent of 
headers and thrashers with their double ex- 
pense. The machine is easily handled and 
weighs but 4,000 pounds. — Stockton Independ- 

We expect soon to give a full illustrated de- 
scription of this machine. ■ -Bon, Press, 

Thk Pair.— Chico hStterprine^ Julyl; The 
executive committee and officers of our ap- 
proaching District fair arc making ample prepa- 
rations for the accommodation of exhibitors. 
An immense stretch of shed room has been 
I added for stock to be on exhibition at the stock 

ground and race track. Exhibition of cattle, 
hogs, poultry and stock of all kinds will be 
well accommndatcil. The Bidwell pavilion has 
been engaged for the purpose for which it was 
orginally intended. Within its ample area 
there is room for every class of produce, ma- 
chinery, line work, fruits and flowers to lie ex- 
hibited to advantage. The committee will soon 
lie ready to allot space, and we doubt not, all 
the space will lie in demand. 


Dropping of* or Grapes.— Prof. o. Eisen 
in Fresno RepuMicait: In vineyards where 

young and old vines are mixed it is often found 
that the younger vines drop many of their ber- 
ries while those of the older vines arc all right. 
Here the cause is something else than mildew, 
and must be sought for in the nature and age 
of the vines. The older vines have already 
pushed their roots deep into the soil, into a 
moister stratum, and are accordingly more able 
to keep up a constant supply of moisture for 
the benefit of the young berries. The younger 
vines again, the roots of which have not yet pene- 
trated very far, are naturally affected by sudden 
rise of temperature, any sudden desiccating 
winds, which would tend to retard the flow of 
sap or to necessitate a free flow of the same, 
which the roots of the vine cannot supply. 
Even a sudden lowering of the temperature, 
especially during the night, chilling the vines 
and stopping the necessary flow of sap, will 
have the same effect. Another cause of the 
dropping off of the grapes is an untimely irriga 
tion of the vines. If they have been kept rather 
dry for some time and then are suddenly ir- 
rigated, the effect is sometimes that both the 
blossoms and young berries fall off, the vines 
taking a new start to grow. To prevent this 
the vines should always be kept sufficiently 
moist and never be allowed to become dry. If, 
however, such cannot be avoided, it is far bet- 
ter to delay the irrigation a week or two until 
the lierries have reached a larger size. Also, 
the red mite is causing the dropping off. It 
spins a line web all through the grape bunches, 
and the effect is generally disastrous. 

The Excursion.- Last Friday's excursion, 
according to the report of the train conductors, 
brought 205 visitors to Fresno, and for the 
most part was made up of parties who came 
with a view to looking at the country ami buy 
ing real estate. At the auction saic of Haul, 
of California lands on Saturday, in the neigh 
borhood of 1. 200 acres were sold at an average 
price of about SH5 per acre. A large amount 
of land was also sold at private sales. Most of 
the visitors remained in town several days, and, 
although the weather was quite warm, but little 
complaint of the heat was heard, and expres- 
sions of surprise and pleasure at the growth 
and prospects of this section were heard 011 
every hand. Altogether, the excursion was a 
decided benefit to Fresno. 


Wsxu Drying Dr.- — CaHfo mia n, July 14: 
It seems to be a general complaint in the mount- 
ain parts of this county, as well as in other 
parts of the State, that many springs and wells 
are drying up. Sheepmen in this county, in 
some instances, have been forced already to re- 
move their flocks from good ranges because of 
the failure of sources of water supply that in 
previous years had never even diminished. As 
the season advances the evil, it is apprehended, 
will grow w orse. This unpleasant phenomenon 
is probably due to the succession of years which 
have averaged dry, not only here, but over a 
large portion of the State. Such an effect was 
inevitable in process of time.— One of the present points of at 
traction about Hakerstield is the hop and cotton 
farm of .1. H Haggin. about six miles south of 
town. The cultivation of cotton here has lieen 
attended with marked success for years and 
passed out of the domain of exjierinipnt: but 
the cultivation of hops is an experiment. The 
quantity put in this year is thirty-five acres, 
and experts say they have never seen a finer or 
more promising show ing. The design is, if the 
experiment proves even far less successful than 
it now promises, to extend tin plantation until 
it covers (iOO or 1,000 acres. 


Crops.— Cor. Butte Record: The grain crop 
of Honey Lake and Long valleys in this county 
will not be as good as was anticipated earlier in 
the season, on account of the too early dry 
winds and hot weather. The farmers are now 
all busy haying, and the crop will lie an aver- 
age one throughout the county, excepting in 
Long valley. Crops of all kinds in Fig valley, 
the northern portion of the county, are better 
than before. Feed for stock on the ranges 
is good. The migratory herds of different kinds 
of stock pjtsturing in Lassen this season are as 
numerous as ever. Nearly 200,000 head of sheep, 
principally from Tehama and Butte counties, 
are ranging on the grazing lands of the western 
portion of the county. 

Los Angeles. 
THE Coi'NTY. — 7\wUM, July ."id: The last 
assessment roll of Los Angeles county, just 
completed in the Assessor's office, contains an 
array of lignres which make by no means dry 
reading to that large body of citizens who arc 
interested in keeping track of our material 
progress. The exhibit shows the total assessed 
value of all the property in the county, includ 
ing railroad property assessed by the State 
Board of Equalization, to be, in round nuinliers, 
S25, 500,000. The personal projicrty valuation 
is 84,541, 2.'H>, and the items that make up the 
aggregate are given in detail. Some of the 

July 21, 1883.] 


leading ones are: Merchandise, $097,347; ma- 
chinery, $131,331; money, $186,977; cattle, (in- 
cluding cows and calves) $380,290; horses and 
colts, $488,968; mules and jacks, $43,195; 
sheep, lambs and goats, $345,374 ; hogs, $36,- 
569; wool, $1,370; wines, 254,425 gallons, $48,- 
469; brandies, 28,848 gallons, $28,958; farming 
implements, $46,720; grain, 77,664 centals, $77,- 
452 ; hay, $16,283 ; libraries, $19,988; lumber, 
$99,184; poultry, 7,236 dozen, $21 ,443; credits, 
$300,961; water craft, $30,740; buggies, $84,- 
314 ; wagons, $200,020; water pipe, $100,000. 
The aggregate of the assessment roll is many 
times greater than it was even a single decade 
ago. The increase in a single year has been 
four and a half millions of dollars. Almost 
every industry shows growth, and very many 
new industries exist to-day that had no exist- 
ence five years ago. 

Manzaxita Land for Pasture. — Cloverdale 
Sentinel, July 12: .Judge Thomas, whose range 
lies at the head of Redwood valley, Mendocino 
county, some time since purchased the place 
for $4,500, expecting it would pasture 600 sheep. 
He went to work and cleared off a portion of 
the manzanita brush and other undergrowth, and 
fine grass about a foot high came on. He will 
now keep 1 ,200 head on the place, and has re- 
fused an offer "t $8, 500 for his bargain, It is 
an undeniable fact that manzanita-covered land 
if cleared will furnish the best of pasturage. 


Black Leg. — Greenville Bulletin: This scourge 
is raging in Last Chance and Clover valleys. 
Up to last Thursday, E. A. Torrey had lost 
eleven head, John L. ('row sixteen, and others 
in like proportion. It is observed that the dis- 
ease is less prevalent among the cattle that stay 
on the higher elevations than among those on 
the lower grounds. A three- year-old is about 
the oldest animal yet attacked. No effort is 
made by the stock men to save any that are at- 

San Luis Obispo. 

Oats. — Republic : San Luis Obispo is one of 
the banner oat producing counties of the State, 
and the Los Osos is one of the most favored lo- 
calities for its production. Two varieties have 
been highly commended as suitable to the moist 
atmosphere and windy character of that valley 
— the Surprise and the Gibson. The latter, 
however, is far outstripping its competitor, as 
the Surprise is too prone to glory in its height, 
itinl lines net, pay sufficient attention to the 
size and quality of its kernel. For this reason 
the Gibson, a much less pretentious variety, is 
fast superseding it. The oats raised in this 
valley always command the top price, and Mr. 
Hen Pierce, of the Osos, realized this fact when 
last year he sowed nearly his entire farm in 
this valuable cereal. Two dollars and thirty 
cents is now the price, a price which will enable 
this gentleman to clear from $75 to $80 per acre. 

Santa Barbara. 
Bditi nis PRESS: — The apricot crop in this coun- 
ty is almost a complete failure, there not being 
more than one-eighth part of a crop, with the 
exception of the Moorpark variety, of which 
there is a fair crop. The Santa Barbara can- 
nery prices have been but one cent per pound, 
until within a few days, since which they are 
Offering one cent and a half. They have only- 
received one load of apricots, and that a small 
one. The farmers refuse to haul their fruit 
there, rather letting it waste on the ground 
than sell at such a price. One cent does 
not pay the expense of picking and car- 
rying to the cannery this year. The propric 
tors of that institution have'erected a fine drier, 
with an intended capacity of two or three tons. 
They claim it is not a patent drier, but it is 
gotten up something on the plan of the Acme 
drier. It is certainly a fine drier. It came 
very nearly being burned up when they first 
fired up. They have now tried to remedy this 
fault and think they have fixed it. They are 
now offering one and one-half cents for peaches, 
two cents for canning Bartletts, and one cent 
for other pears. The large fruit drier be- 
longing to O. N. Cadwell was burned last 
week; loss over $300.00; no insurance. Mr. 
Cadwell proposes to have another drier as 
quickly as possible — an Acme. The fruit crop 
and other crops are looking well, and generally 
promise a fair yield. — L. B. Caswell, Carpin- 
teria, .1 uly 15th, 

County Statistics. — Press, July 14: Assessor 
Prank Smith turned over his assessment books 
to the County Board of Equalization last Men 
day, and complaints heard. From the report 
of grand totals we take the following items that 
will, doubtless, interest a large number of read- 
ers: Total value of all descriptions of real es- 
tate, $4,337,122. Total value of personal prop- 
erty, $1,435,992 ; making a grand total of the 
value of all property in the county of $5,773,- 
114. Total acreage, 982,163; average assess- 
ment per acre, $2.84. Amount of solvent credits 
on statement, $82,083. Assessed value of trust 
deeds and mortgages on real estate, $468,575. 
Number of trust deeds and mortgages, 284. 
Number of beehives, 3,440 ; number of cattle, 
15,989. Amount of money on hand, $25,577. 
This purports to show the actual amount in 
circulation outside of the banks. In 1882 there 
were 51,800 acres of land inclosed; 95,350 acres 
cultivated ; 58,720 acres in wheat ; 1,267,580 
bushels of wheat ; 29,460 acres in barley ; 67 
acres in oats ; 740 acres in English mustard ; 
1,680 acres of corn; 65,430 bushels of corn; 378 
acres in potatoes; 2,270 acres in hay; 310 acres 
flax; 193,846 pounds of butter; 694,800 pounds 
of wool; 482,000 pounds of honey; 2,800gallons 

of wine. In 1 883 there were of bearing trees 
the following: 1,984 lemon trees, 670 orange, 
4,200 olive, 10,875 apple, 1,260 pear, 618 fig, 
1,740 plum, 4,160 peach, 4(i0 quince, 716 grape 
vines. The total valuation of property in the 
county last year was $5,094,143. so that it will 
be seen that the assessment was raised this year 
over $600,000. 

Santa Clara. 

Cherry Shipments. — Herald: From June 
1st to July 3, 1883, the agency of Wells, Fargo 
& Co. in San Jose alone shipped cherries as fol- 
lows: To other points in California, 56,239 
pounds; to Arizona, 7,329; to Louisiana, mostly 
to New Orleans, 3,316; to Guaymas, 373; to 
Nevada, 4,410; to Colorado, 22,363; to Chicago, 
3,667: to Utah, 7,190. Total, 105,388 pounds. 

Fri it Sale.— Los (Jatos News: The Los 
(iatos Fruit Packing Company have just 
effected the sale of all the fruits put up by their 
cannery during the present year, to Messrs. 
Rogers, Ellis & Co., of Liverpool, England. 
This sale was made for cash, and at prices that 
are very satisfactory to the company. The Los 
Oatos Fruit Packing Company have reason to 
be proud of their record thus far, and they are 
determined to improve the record rather than 
lower it. 

Cherry Growing.— San Jose Herald: W. < '. 
Oeiger, in the Willows, is the owner of an eight- 
acre cherry orchard, which is probably the 
oldest cherry orchard of its size in the county, 
the trees being fifteen years old. The orchard 
includes several varieties, but Black Tartarian 
predominates. When the trees were young, 
Mr. Oeiger commenced by cutting back each 
year's growth to about eight inches, which style 
of pruning has been kept up until the present 
time, and the result of it is, that the trees com- 
mence to branch near the ground, and at a 
height of four feet there are a score or more of 
branches, where usually a half dozen, or per- 
haps less, are to be found. By this yearly cut- 
ting back, fruit spurs are forced out, and the 
trees bear from the ground up, and the branches 
in the center are as thickly covered with spurs 
as those near the outside of the tree. The 
weight of fruit is scattered all through the tree, 
and there are no long, slender branches which 
need propping up. This orchard has borne 
heavily for several years, four hundred and 
sixty-six pounds of cherries having been picked 
from one extra large tree last season. This 
style of treating an orchard requires a great 
amount of labor, but we doubt if any orchard 
treateil differently can compare with it in pro- 


The District Fair. — Petaluma Argus: The 
time appointed for holding the next annual fair of 
the Sonoma and Marin District Agricultural As 
sociation is drawing close to hand. We should 
all remember that it will commence on the 27th 
of next month, and that we can all do some- 
thing to help it along. It is fair to presume 
that the officers of the Society will be as ener- 
getic as they were in the past, in all prelimina- 
ry steps necessary to render the fair a credit to 
this most favored district of the State. For 
the rest it remains for the people to perform 
well their part. Hence it is that all who feel 
an interest in the continued welfare of this so- 
ciety — the object and aim of which is to foster 
and promote the industrial interests of this dis- 
trict— -should at once bestir themselves in the 
matter and be prepared to contribute somewhat 
toward rendering the fair as complete a success 
as it was last year. The stock display will un- 
doubtedly be the best in the State, and we have 
no misgivings or anxiety as to that exhibit, but 
it is in reference to the products of the soil that 
we are the most solicitous lest it will not be as 
creditable as it could be made. Our agricultur- 
al friends have this matter in their own hands, 
and we hope and believe that they will see to it 
that their allotted space in the Grand Pavilion 
is well filled with farm products. 

Value of Pure Bred Sheep, — Cloverdale 
Sentinel: Jesse Vassar sheared one ewe, run- 
ning with lamb, in his fold, whose fleece weighed 
twelve pounds clear. She had been sheared in 
the fall at that. This ewe was sired by Oold- 
mine, a blooded merino, imported by Frank 
McElarney, and the fleece proves the profit of 
breeding fine stock. We hear that George Cox 
has sheared two ewes, both running with lambs, 
the combined fleeces bringing down the scales to 
the tune of twenty pounds. Blooded stock 
pays best in the long run, in the sheep as well 
as in other branches of the stock raising indus- 
try. A few years since this fact was recognized 
by a majority of ranchers in Sonoma, Mendo- 
cino and Lake counties — with whose affairs we 
are best acquainted — but it is gratifying to note 
the gradual awakening to the advantage of at- 
taining the highest possible degree of excel- 
lence in the grade of our wools. It costs no 
more to raise a fine sheep than it does to raise 
a scrub, and the wool from blooded stock is 
finer, easier handled, commands better figures, 
and meets with a better market than the clips 
from scrubs. Spanish or French merinos lead 
the van, and a cross between the two is desira- 


Sutter Canning and Packing Company, — 
Sutter county Farmer: Certificates of corpo- 
ration above named were filed with the Secretary 
of State, on the 6th ultimo, and a duplicate of 
the same, duly attested, is now in the hands of 
the company. Lands have been purchased as 
a site for the building from O. A. Wilbur, just 
across the slough, west of town. Plans and 
specifications have been drawn up for the build- 
ing, and the contract let to W. H. liarker, who 

has commenced operations. We understand 
that the contract specifies that the building 
shall be completed in forty days. The building 
is to be a very spacious structure, suitable to 
carry on the business extensively, though we 
have not learned its exact dimensions. The 
company has adopted the Wheeler process, and 
machinery will be ordered as soon as the build- 
ing is ready for it. 

Harvest. — Most of the heading is done, and 
by the end of another week the steady stroke 
of the sickle will have almost if not quite fin- 
ished its work in this vicinity for the present 
season, though we learn that in the neighbor- 
hood of Live Oak some will be engaged in their 
harvest for two weeks to come. Most of the 
thrashers have started, and so far as we can 
learn are doing fair work. We are reliably in- 
formed that the yield is up to the expectations 
of the farmers, and that perhaps the injury to 
grain in shrinkage, caused by the late north 
winds, is not above twenty to twenty-five per 
cent on an average. The winter sown grain 
seems to have been damaged worse than the 
summer fallow. From those who have thrashed 
we learn that the yield from the former ranges 
from twelve to eighteen bushels per acre, and 
from the latter from twenty to thirty bushels. 
However, it might have been worse, and the 
farmers of Sutter county should not complain, 
as they will have bread enough and to spare. 

County Statistics. — Democrat, July 12: R. 
M. Huston, the Assessor of Yolo county, has 
prepared a table, from which we have compiled 
the following statistics : Total value of property 
real and personal, $13,513,267. The total acre- 
age of the county assessed is 636,810 acres. 
Of this there are 2,567 lots of less than 10 
acres each; between 10 and 40 acres, 123; from 
40 to 00 acres, 193; from 60 to 100 acres, 364; 
from 100 to 160 acres, 353; from 100 to 240 
acres, 863; from 240 to 320 acres, 187; from 320 
to 400 acres, 271; from 400 acres to 640 and 
over, 335. The average price per acre is $13. 
There are 325,000 acres of land enclosed, and 
250,000 of this is under cultivation; 132,000 acres 
were devoted to wheat in 1882, w hich raised a 
crop of 2,640,000 bushels; 15,000 tons of hay 
were raised, 360,000 pounds of hops, 30,000 
pounds of butter were made, and the wool clip 
amounted to 231,600 pounds. In the way of 
liquors manufactured in the county there were 
120,000 gallons of wine, 7,000 gallons of brandy, 
and 73,000 gallons of beer. Three steam power 
grist mills were in operation, but the amount 
of flour made is not stated. Fruit trees and 
vines make a very good showing, as follows : 
Lemon, 40 trees; orange, 294: olive, 92; apple, 
3,718; pear, 22,293; fig, 2,963; plum 4,044; 
peach, S,436; quince, 500; cherries, 842; necta- 
rines, 605; apricot, 11,117; prune, 961; mul- 
berry, 133; almond, 9,439; walnut, 5,106. There 
were 2,024 acres ef grape vines; Hi, 000 acres of 
land were inigated by 50 miles of ditch. The 
number of trust deeds and mortgages on real 
estate was 873, the value of which was $1,746,- 
000. The amount of solvent credits was $332,- 
255, and the amount of debts deducted from 
them was $151,220. 


Reported Heavy Sale. — Elko Indepe'ndt ht . 
It is stated here by parties just down from 
Wells that Jasper Harrell has sold his entire 
stock interests and ranch — embracing a large 
tract of land on the northeastern border of this 
country and in the adjacent Territory of Idaho 
— to Messrs. Sparks & Tinnin, the well known 
stock men of Thousand Spring valley, for the 
sum of S900,000. The above mentioned firm, 
about two years ago, bought the ranch and 
stock of W. S. Downing, in the valley named, 
and a few months later the stock and range of 
Harrell & Armstrong, near and north of Tacoma 
station, on the line of the Central Pacific, close 
to the eastern line of the State. Sparks & Tin- 
nin are Texas men and were for years heavily 
engaged in the Territories, but on visiting this 
section about two years ago, appeared satisfied 
.with the outlook and transferred their opera- 
tions to this county. The first two purchases 
placed these gentlemen in the rank of prominent 
stock men in this part of the State, and if the 
reported acquirement of the vast Harrell pos- 
sessions be correct, they are by far the heaviest 
stock men in the State — for Mr. Harrell's figure 
for his interest alone has not for years been 
placed by him below a million dollars. 

The Rural in Sonoma County. 

The RURAL Press has closed its twenty-fifth 
volume. It is a good paper, and deserving of 
the continued support it has received in past 
years. — Petaluma A rgus. 

The RURAL PRESS takes precedence above all 
other papers at our farmers' homes. — Healdt- 
burg Fla< i. 

The Rural Press is a splendid publication. 
Long may it wave. — Cloverdale Sentinel. 

The Rural Pkkss is generally a favorite 
among the farmers and interior people o f the 
State, and it merits the large patronage i re- 
ceives. — Sun/a Bosa Republican. 

Santa Rosa Notes. 

Editors Press : — The long, hot days of June 
have hurriedly prepared the harvest in this sec- 
tion of the State. At this writing our farmers 
are in the midst of the harvest. The busy 
header crew may be seen and heard in every 
direction. While heading is popular, some of 
our careful grain growers are using, with fail- 
success, the self-binder, or in some instances 
the self-rake reaper. These farmers claim that 
they can save enough more wheat to pay the 
extra expense of cutting and handling the crop 
with the reaper. 

So far as the harvest has proceeded, the 
yield, both of quality and quantity, has not 
been up to expectations. The shortage is 
doubtless due to the extreme hot weather of 

The fruit crop is very much damaged. Black- 
berries are not much more than half crop: apples 
will be very scarce; apricots, none at all, save 
in favored sections; peaches, fair yield; plums, 
very short crop; pears [will be much crippled, 
both in quantity and quality; nectarines, a fail- 
ure. One fruit grower informed your corre- 
spondent that he had suffered a loss of at least 
50,000 boxes of apples. Doubtless his allow- 
ance is too large, but still it will be very heavy. 
The fruit driers are all at work, and seem to he 
doing fairly well. 

Lumbermen are all making plenty of lumber, 
and are gathering a full share of money for it. 
It is startling to know what a demand there is 
for Sonoma county redw ood. Millmenall agree 
that they cannot supplj the demand for lumber, 
shingles, etc. 

The farmers in this vicinity are all attention 
for the coining county fair, which will open at 
Santa Rosa, August 20, 1883, and continue dur- 
ing the week. We know the time selected is 
not the most opportune — first, because it is too 
early in the season, and, second, because of the 
Triennial Conclave to be held in San Francisco. 
But the only apology required for a daring deed, 
is success, and we propose to make the coming 
fair just that. There can he no doubt that the 
stock display will be the finest ever given at 
any county fair in this State. This of itself 
will guarantee success: but, in addition thereto, 
there will be a magnificent mechanical display, 
a fine fruit display, an admirable agricultural 
display, an artistic art exhibition, and a metro- 
politan miscellaneous showing. A splendid 
band of music will be in attendance every day, 
and, all in all, Santa Kosa offers many induce- 
ments for a week of pleasure and profit -unless 
you bet on the wrong horse. 

Land is changing hands daily, at good prices; 
buyers are more plentiful than sellers; pros- 
perity sits at every man's door, and health and 
happiness are among his home companions. 

Santa Rosa, July 16, 1883. D. E. W. 

Pacific Coast Jersey Cattle Club. 

The following is a report of the meeting 
which resulted in the formation of the new 
Jersey Cattle Club. 

John \Y. Coleman, in whose rooms, Stock 
Exchange building, San Francisco, flic meet 
ing was held, was elected President: Robert 
Beck, Treasurer and Secretary. Messrs. A. 
Mialliard, J. McM. Shatter, R. G. Sneath, .1. 
W. Coleman and Robert Beck were elected as 
an executive committee. A constitution and 
by-laws were adopted, of which wit present a 
brief synopsis. 

The preamble to tiie constitution recites the 
fact that the undersigned owners .and breeders 
of Jersey cattle agree in short to recognize the 
importance of the herd book, which shall be 
full authority in all questions of pedigree. The 
purity of the stock must be jealously guarded. 
On these points an association was formed for 
the publication of a herd book, and the adop- 
tion of laws governing the organization. 

These may be briefly stated as follows : The 
name adopted was " The Pacific Coast Jersey 
Cattle Club." 

Only the original signers of the constitution, 
and such others as may be elected can become 

Article I provides for the election of officers, 
and prescribes their duties. 

Article IV provides for holding an annual 

Article V relates to application for member- 

Article VI prohibits any debt being contracted 
by the Association. 

Article VII contains full instructions regard- 
ing the keeping of the herd book. 

Article VIII relates to entries in the herd 
book. Provides penalties for those who should 
falsify any record of pedigree, or be guilty of 
any conduct unbecoming a member of the Club. 

Early Attention is called to the notice in 

another column of the excursion to Fresno, 
July 27th, at the low price of $7 for the round 
trip The tickets are good for nine days. 

LIGHTNING struck seven houses in Dover, N. 
EL, during the recent storm, 

A History of California. — A. Roman, of 
120 Sutter street, S. F., has just published a 
revised and enlarged edition of "A Popular 
History of California" from the earliest period 
of its discovery to the present time, by 
Lucia Norman. It is amost excellent little 
work (216 pages), and not simply s a dry 
statement of facts, names and dates, but 
is written in an animated and elegant style. It 
is comprehensive and compact — a marvel of 
conciseness — from the preface to the end. The 
only illustration in the book is an excellent copy 
of Nahl's famous painting, "The Sutter Mill,'' 
which has now become an historical picture, so 
much prized by all early Californians. The book 
is for sale at all book stores, and mailed to any 
address, postage paid, upon the receipt of price 
by publisher. 


We Can Make Home Happy. 

Though we may not change ihe cottage 
For a mansion tall and grand, 

Or exchange a little grass plat 
For a boundless stretch of land — 

N et there's something brighter, nearer, 
Than the wealth we'd thus command. 

Though we have no means to purchase 
Costly pictures, rich and rare ; 

Though we have no silken hangings 
For the walls so colli and bare — 

We can hang them o'er w ith garlands, 
For flowers bloom everywhere. 

We can always make home cheerful 
If the right course we begin ; 

We can make its inmates happy 
And their truest blessings win. 

It will make the small room brighter 
It we let the sunshine in. 

When we gather round the fireside 
When the evening hours are long, 

We can blend our hearts and voices 
In a happy, social song ; 

We can guide some erring brother, 
I-ead him from the path of wrong. 

We may fill our homes with music 
And with sunshine brimming o'er. 

If against all dark intruders 
We will firmly shut the door — 

Vet, should Evil's shadows enter, 
We must love each other more. 

There are treasures for the lowly, 
Which the grandest fail to find ; 

There's a chain of sweet affection 
Binding friends of kindred mind; 

We may reap the choicest blessings 
From the jxjorest lot assigned. 

New Englanders and the Far West. 

[Written for the ftaui Pnaai bj Kumar P. Oolukb.] 

" Westward the Star of Empire takes its way." 

The "far West" has been the cynosure of 
New England's children since (in 1635) the Brat 
adventurous pioneers left the borders of civili- 
zation in and around Boston and started for the 
far West, which then had found its home on 
the banks of the Connecticut river. What hopes 
and fears agitated the minds of those hearty 
men as they commenced their weary journey 
through a wilderness alive with savage beasts 
and more savage men! We may smile at the 
thought, that a distance now traversed in two 
and a half hours, and so brief that a whisper is 
telephoned, could have been such an arduous 
undertaking. Yet at that date it was attended 
with far more peril, and required a longer time 
than a journey now to the l'acific. 

Here in the Connecticut valley the far West 
Tested for several generations, and outgrew its 
name. j. Hut not till near the close of the eigh- 
teenth century, propelled by New Kngland en- 
terprise, did it fairly commence its gigantic 
strides toward the setting sun. In the fertile 
valley of the Genessee, and along the chain of 
silvery lakes in western Xew York, the far 
West lingered for nearly a score of years, till 
the forests had melted aw ay with their denizens 
— the red man, the deer and the wolf —and given 
place to populous villages, cultivated fields, and 
.ill the appliances of Xew Kngland civilization. 
Then the far West shouldered its knapsack and 
its axe, and, journeying on, watched the sturdy 
pioneers build their cabins in the Cuyahoga val- 
ley, and saw incipient cities start up along the 
shore of Lake Krie. Then the far West started 
on again, stride after stride. It inarched over 
the flower bedecked prairies, pursuing its ever- 
receding name— a name to conjure with— a name 
that inspires the New England youth w ith vis- 
ions marvelous of wealth and fame and honor, 
all enwrapped in the glorious possibilities of that 
magic word— the far West. 

So, New England a sons have followed on 
lus widening track, scattering along as they 
went Xew England's institutions, her schools, 
her enterprise, her thrift and her thoughts, 
that magnify and broaden on the vast prairie 
expanse, or tower among the mountain hights 
of the Kockies or the Sierras, and nourish on 
the l'acific slope. They even took the names 
of their native towns and sowed them along 
their march. Vet, all along, from the Atlan 
tic shore to the l'acific coast, the descendants 
of the Pilgrim Fathers turn w ith longing, lov 
ing recollections to New England, its changeful 
climate, its narrow vales and granite hills. All 
have a charm that nature, elsewhere, in its 
fairest forms, cannot impart— it is the charm of 

Vigorous as has heen the growth of New 
England's children, transplanted into broader 
fields, yet the parent, too, has kept even step 
in progress. Boston is still the Athens of 
America, to which the student in science or 
philosophy, art or music, repairs from every 
quarter of our great country. Nowhere are 
new ideas cutertained with more hospitality; 
nowhere is there more liberality of thought or 
tolerance of opinion than in Boston. Nowhere 
is there more philanthropy and fraternal feeling 

extended to all races than in Massachusetts. 
But she never had the Mongolian by the ship 
load poured upon her shores; and with all her 
hospitality she regards her own self-preserva- 
tion and resists the wholesale importation of 
paupers by the governments of the old world 
But wealthy New Englanders have a weak 
ness, in common with most other people, that 
inclines them to adopt the tastes, habits and 
manners of those they deem higher in the social 
scale, however senseless or inconvenient 
short, to be fashionable, and, therefore, they 
must visit Europe. They endure all the dan- 
ger, sickness and discomfort of a sea voyage to 
look upon the old monuments of a decaying 
civilization, forgetful of the newer ami better 
in their own country. They glance at some of 
the old castles in England, look down upon the 
filthy Thames, rush across the channel to the 
gay French capital, take a trip up the Rhine, 
go into ecstaeies over its romantic beauty, unite 
unmindful that a hundred rivers in their own 
country equal or surpass it in natural loveli 
ness. They take a sail through the streets of 
Venice, climb some of the mountains in Switzer 
land, look into the perforated Mt. Cenis, as one 
of the most wonderful achievements of the skill 
and labor of man, but their own Hoosac tunnel 
at home, just as mighty a work, is to them only 
a great bore, and they have never taken the 
trouble to look at it. They sojourn a while in 
Italy, and rove over its sunny clime and "vine 
elad hills,"' nor cast a thought upon the per 
rennial verdure and cloudless skies of Louisiana, 
or the vineyard-covered hills, the orange groves, 
the balmy air of California. To " go throitgl " 
some famous picture gallery, they run in at one 
end and out at the other, and then, before they 
come home, not to appear entirely ignorant of 
things they have glimpsed in Europe in a dingy 
room at their hotel, they pore over some pul 
lished "Notes of European Travel." What 
have they acquired or learned by their journey ? 
They have gained the pleasure of being able in 
society to remark that such ami such occur- 
rences happened " when 1 was abroad;" or, "I 
was delighted" with something "that I saw at 
Paris," or Koine, or Florence. It is all right to 
visit Europe to study in its older and more ad- 
vanced schools of art and science, or to look 
upon the earlier works of man, to glean there- 
from whatever of kncwledge that may be worth 
preserving; but it looks like mere snobbishness 
and a pitiful lack of patriotism and national ap- 
preciation to ignore our own wonderful country, 
so vast in its proportions, so varied in climate 
and productions, so uiisiirpassingly grand in 
natural scenery. 

For one, who, instead of looking back 
through the moldy past for the Golden Age, 
sees it in the Future of our own country, what 
more pleasing tour can there be in this torrid 
weather, or more inspiring to the patriot, than 
i trip through our inland seas, now studded 
with thousands of gliding sails, ami refresh the 
heated brow by the cool breezes that sweep 
over Lake Huron, or linger on the picturesque 
island of Mackinaw, or lave in the ice-cold 
waters of the almost unfathomable Lake 
Superior. Or, in the budding springtime, 
Irawn by the iron steed, skim over the 
toundless prairies to those vast mountain 
chains w hose lofty peaks seem pillars built to 
prop the skies; and then to plunge through can- 
yons so deep, so immense, so grand, you hold 
your breath with awe at the mighty precipices 
that rise on either side; anon, you glide out aud 
ush down into some fertile valley, and so on 
till you sweep down to the great metropolis of 
the l'acific shore. Then if the traveler seek to 
look upon some of the wonders of this marvel- 
ous land, he will visit the valley of the Yosem- 
ite, where he will find, beyond the highest 
llights of the imagination, all that is grandly 
omantic or sublimely magnificent in nature, 
and beside which anything to be found in Eu- 
rope pales into utter insignificance. 

All along, from ocean to ocean, are springing 
up cities as by magic, which, even now in their in- 
fancy, are rivaling in wealth and splendor the 
historic cities of the old world. What proud 
emotions thrill the heart when we see all this, 
md think this vast country is our own! Here 
shall yet be evolved a more perfect form of gov- 
ernment, which shall be ill fact as in name, a 
epnblic. Here shall yet grow up a higher 
civilization, than of which the world has only 
dreamed ; and here, at last, shall be realized the 
golden age. 

An Exhibit of Women's Work. 

Editors I'rkss : — At the annual fair of the 
New England Manufacturers' and Mechanics 
Institute, to lie held in Boston, from September 
."ith to November .'Id, there will lie a separate 
department exclusively for women's work; any 
thing that the thought, skill or labor of women 
has produced. It is supervised by repi esenta 
tive women of New England, ind it is to h 
hoped that women from every ptirt of our great 
country will send specimens of their work to 
this exhibition, which, in its variety and 
tent, will seem almost a later edition of the 
great Centennial of 1 87li. 

Women in this last half of the nineteenth 
century arc nobly taking the place nature de- 
signed them to occupy, and are working, side 
by side, with their brothers in every depart 
ment of thought and action. Now, there are 
nearly three hundred kinds of industry open to 
women, where, fifty years ago, there were less 
than a dozen. This is, indeed, the woman's 
era. We hope the intelligent, industrious 
women of California will give their New Eng 
land sisters an opportunity to see, at this fair, 
some of the productions of the skill and indus 
try that we know they exercise. Specimen 
work is solicited of artists, dressmakers, inillin 
ers, hairworkers, tailors, engravers, authors, com 
positors, printers, lacemakers, horticulturists 
taxidermists, makers of artificial flowers, straw 
and basketwork ; also, silk in all stages of its 
production, and specimens of plants, insects and 
minerals. Inventors are specially invited. 
There will be no fee for entry, or charge for 
space; but applications should be made hefor 
the 1st of August to insure the reception of 
articles, as after that date there might not lie 
the requisite space unengaged. Several express 
companies have consented to carry goods at 
half rates, that is, they will return them free. 
For information in full, or application for space, 
address Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, President, No. 
."> Park street, Boston, or Mrs. H. L. T. Wol- 
cott, Chairman Business Committee, at No. ."> 
Park street, Boston. 

Possibly this notice of the N. E. M. and M s 
exhibition will be too late for California Women 
to avail themselves of its advantages. You can 
judge of that. F.mii.y P. CoXMNS, 

Hartford, Conn. 

It would have been better to have hail the 
invitation published earlier, but if our womei 
will write at once making their entries we pre 
sume they will be accepted, and small articles 
can be sent by mail or express and arrive in 
time. There is plenty of women's work out 
here which would adorn the exhibition ami be 
a credit to the exhibitors. Kns. 

A Bit of Mother's Dress.— A little fellow 

from one of our charitable institutions was be- 
nt; taken to a New Jersey farm by an agent, 
the owners of the farm having had the bov 
bound to them for a term of years, when the 
agent noticed that the boy kept placing his 
hand inside of his jacket on the left side, and 
occasionally would look within with a tender 
look. At last he said, "What have you got in 
there, my little friend?" "Oh, nothing sir," 
he replied, "only a bit of my mother's dress, 
which I've sewed on my coat. It was the dress 
she had on when she died, and now it kind of 
comforts me when I touch it." 

A Hosts Thermometer. — "I don't believe 
you have the water of the right temperature. 
You must get a thermometer," said an Austin 
mother to the new colored nurse. 

"What am dat?" 

"It is an instrument by which you can tell 
f the water is too hot or too cold." 

"I kin tell dat ar without any instrument. 
3f de chile turns blue, den de water am too 
cold, and ef hit turns red, ilen I knows dat de 
water am too hot." 

Little Foothill Farms. 

If the ditches could be depended upon for 
jerpetual irrigation, the foothills would blossom 
"ike a garden with thrifty, comfortable and 
healthy homes. 

Not long since we dined with a foothill 

After we were seated at the bountiful table, 
the old man remarked with modest pride: 

"Well, sir, I know some of those big ranch- 
ers in the valley, with acres on acres of grain, 
wonder how on earth we poor fellows can live 
up here on the rocks. 'Wild hog and flap 
jacks,' they say. Hut you see we don't starve 
mister, and it don't cost us a cent for quinine. 
All these victuals were raised right on this little 
ranch, except the flour, sugar, coffee and the 
seasoning, salt, pepper and the like." 

We could scarcely believe it possible that a 
table so luxurious, could be supplied from a 
little mountain ranch. The billowing is the bill 
of fare; 

Soup— Green Peas, Boiled Ham, Roast Chicken, 

Poached Eggs, Smearkase. Fresh Butter. Vegeta- 
bles — New Potatoes, Oreen Corn, String Beans, 
ickled Beets, Mashed Turnips, Boiled Onions, 
Summer Squash, Sliced Cucumbers, Tomatoes. 
Apple I'ie, Gooseberry Pudding, Raspberries and 
(ream, Apricots. 

The above is a true bill. Wild hog and flap 
jacks, indeed ! — Chiro Knt< r/trim . 

A Pk.mthal Km press. — The printing art— 
that is, the type-setting part of it- has an at- 
traction to most people who gain an insight 
from observation into its mysteries. Some of 
the most distinguished men this country has 
produced, were practical printers, and many 
ladies of w ealth have become type-setters solely 
because of the fascination surrounding the oc- 
cupation. Of late years, women compositors, 
who pursue the occupation for a living, are 
numerous in all parts of the United States. To 
an intelligent mind this branch of the trade is 
a school, rich in knowledge, from which it can 
gather treasures not always to be found in 
books. Indeed, there have lieen eminent men, 
graduates from the composing room, who never 
had the advantage of a single term of schooling. 
When we consider these facts we are prepared 
to hear that the dashing Empress of Austria, 
who is proficient in horsemanship a .id field sports, 
is having a printing office erected in her palace, 
and intends to learn the printing business. The 
Empress is given to verse writing, and w ill, so 
soon as she has made sufficient advancement iu 
her new vocation, set up her own poems in type 
and personally superintend their issuance from 
the press. The announcement has its novelty, 
but to the initiated is not at all surprising, only 
so far as it relates that the eccentricities of fe 
male royalty should lead it to the adoption of a 
mechanical pursuit. 

The New Agricultural Editor. 

At two o'clock I'. M. the first visitor showed 
up at the door of the office, and Uyke cordially 
invited him inside. The fanner entered hesi- 
tatingly, and remarked that he had expected to 
meet the proprietor, with w hom he had an ap- 
pointment to discuss ensilage. 

"I am in charge of the journal"' said l>yke. 
"Oh, you are. Well, you seem to have a 
pretty clean office here." 

"Yes," replied Uyke. "But about this en- 
silage. Ensilage is a pretty good breed, 
isn't it ?" 

"Breed !" exclaimed the farmer, "why — " 
"I mean it's a sure crop, something that you 
can rely — " 

"Crop !" "Why, it isn't a crop at all.' 
"Yes, yes, I know it isn't a crop," said Dyke, 
perspiring until his collar began to melt away 
down the back of his neck; "but you can do 
better and cleaner work with a good sharp ensil- 
age on stubby ground than — " 

"Take it for a sulky plow, do you?" 
"No, no," said Dyke. "You don't seem to 
understand me. Now, if a farmer builds an 
ensilage on low ground—" 

"Build an ensilage ! You seem to have got 
the thing mixed up with some kind of a gran- 

"Pshaw, mi," continued Dyke. "I must 
make myself plainer. You see this ensilage 
properly mixed with one part guano and three 
parts hypophosphate of antimony, with the 
addition of a little bran and tanbark, and the 
whole flavored with chloride of lime, makes a 
top dressing for strawberry beds which — " 
"Why, ensilage isn't no manure." 
"No, certainly not," said Dyke. "I know it 
is not often used in that way. You don't catch 
my drift. When I said top dressing, 1 meant 
turkey dressing, stuffing, you know , for Thanks- 

"< ireat heavens, man ! Ensilage isn't a human 


"No, not a human food, exactly," said poor 
Dyke, grinning like an almshouse idiot; "it isn't 
a food at all in the true sense of the word. My 
plan has always been to lasso the hog with a 
trace chain, and after pinning his ears back 
with a clothes-pin, put the ensilage into his 
nose w ith a pair of tweezers." • 

"My good lands ! You don't use ensilage to 
ring hogs." 

The farmer slow ly arose, and w ith some evi- 
dence of rheumatic twinges iu his legs. 

"Young man," he said solemnly, "you are a 
long ways from home, ain't you?" 

"Yes," replied Uyke, dropping his eyes be 
neath the stern glances of the fanner. "In my 
ancestral halls iu England, sad-eyed retainers 
wearily watch and wait for my return." 

"Co home, young man, go home to your fen 
dal castle, and while on your way across the 
rolling deep muse on the fact that ensilage is 
simply canned food for live stock, put up ex- 
pressly for family use in a silo, which is nothing 
less than an air-tight pit where cornstalks, 
gra.-s. millet, clover, alfalfa, and other green 
truck is preserved for winter use." — Tmu 
Sift in ;/■■<. 

Starting a Young Man. 

It is related of a wealthy Philadelphia!!, who 
has been dead these many years, that a young 
man came to him our day and asked for help to 
start iu business. 

"Do you drink?" asked the millionaire. 
" Occasionally." 

" Stop it ! Stop it for a year, and then come 
and see me." 

The young man broke ofl" the habit at once, 
and at the end of a year he again presented 

" Do you smoke ?" asked the great man. 
" Yes, now and then." 

" Stop it ! Stop it for a year, and then come 
and see me." 

The young man went away, and cut loose 
from the habit, ami aftei Worrying through 
another twelve months once more faced the 
great pfailan tli ropist. 
" Do you chew •. " 
" Yes." 

" Stop it ! Stop it for a year, and then come 
ind see ine. " 

But the young man never called again. When 
BOnte one asked why he didn't make one more 
effort, he replied: 

Didn't I know what he was driving at? He 
w ould have told me that as I had stopped chew - 
ing, drinking and smoking, I must have saved 
enough money to start myself, and he'd been 
about right." 

WHAT Wk Ll\ k I'm;. -"What is life?" some 
one asked Montford. His answer is one of the 
most charming things ever written ; "The pres- 
ent life is sleeping and waking; it is 'good 
night' on going to bed, and 'good morning' on 
getting up; it is to wonder what the rain will 
bring forth ; it is rain on the window when one 
sits by the fire ; it is to walk in the garden and 
see the flowers and hear the birds sing ; it is to 
hear news from east, west, north and south ; 
it is to read old books and new books; it is to 
see pictures and hear music ; it is to have Sun- 
days; it is to have breakfast, dinner and tea; it 
is to belong to a town and have neighbors, and 
to become one in a circle of acquaintances; it is 
to have friends and love; it is to have sight of 
dear old faces, and it is to know themselves 
thought of many times a day, in many places, 
by many children and grandchildren, aud many 

July 21, 1883.] 


Investigating Spiritism. 

A dispatch from Philadelphia contains the 
following information: The late Henry Sey- 
bcrt, who gave a new bell for Independence 
Mall, left a large number of bequests, amount- 
ing to #4, ">00,000 for the public and charitable 
use, among which was one of $50,000 to endow 
a chair of moral and intellectual philosophy in 
the University of Pennsylvania, with the ex- 
pressed wish that the University would thor- 
oughly investigate modern spiritualism, in 
which he was a firm believer. The University 
accepted the bequest, and has now began steps 
to carry out the wisli of the estator. A Phila- 
delphia special says: A commission lias been 
appointed, of which the Chairman is Dr. Wil- 
liam Pepper, Provost of the University and a 
gentleman of acknowledged scientific attain- 
ments of a high order. Dr. Pepper will look 
into the physological and medical phases of the 
problem, and will devote li is attention to the 
subject of spiritualism from these standpoints. 
Professors Liedy and Koening will contest the 
physical aspects so far as they relate to natural 
philosophy, while Mr. Fullerton and Rev. Pro- 
fessor Thompson will view the subject from a 
purely intellectual and metaphysical standpoint. 
There is now on hand available for the prosecu- 
tion of an investigation $15,000. No formal 
meeting of the Commission has yet been held, 
although there exist among its members a gen- 
eral understanding of the work and the neces- 
sities of the investigation. 

A Remarkable Saurian.— The Brazilian 
Minister at La Paz, Bolivia, has transmitted to 
his government at Rio Janeiro, photographs and 
drawings of a most extraordinary saurian, lately 
killed near La Paz, but only after receiving 
thirty-six rifle balls. The dried body of the 
monster has also been preserved. The body is 
twelve meters long from snout to point of the 
tail, which latter is flattened. Besides the an- 
terior head, it has four meters behind, two small 
but .completely formed heads ('!) rising from the 
back. All three have much resemblance to the 
head of a dog. The legs are short and end in 
formidable claws. The legs, belly and lower 
part of the throat appear defended by a kind of 
scale armor, and all the back is protected by a 
still thicker and double cuirass, starting from 
behind the ears of the anterior head and contin- 
uing to the tail. The neck is long, and the belly 
large and almost dragging on the ground. Pro- 
fessor Gilveti, who examined the beast, thinks 
it is not a monster, but a member of a rare or 
almost lost species, as the Indians in some parts 
of Bolivia use small earthen vases of identical 
Shape, and probably copied from nature. Mr, 
William K. A. Axon, in a note giving the above 
to the Journal of Science, says : "If this ac 
count should prove to be accurate, it wouU 
form a counterpart to the etching of the mam 
moth, which forms so interesting a memorial of 
prehistoric art." 


Puzzle Box. 

Decapitati ons. 

. Helipad an article of clothing and leave 
of monkey. 

2. Behead an animal and leave a personal 

3. Behead a ball and leave very warm. 

4. Behead an exhibition and leave in what man- 

5. Behead a sailing vessel and leave a part of tin: 
bodv. Aunt Sarah. 



Letter Change?. 

. Change the central of a small winged animal 
and get an instrument for boring. 

:. Change the central of a domestic animal and 
get a couch. 

3. Change the central of a steeple and get lean. 

A. B. 

Word Square. 

1. A native of northern Africa. 

2. One of the Western States. 

3. To smear with oil. 

4. To fix in the memory by frequent repetitions. 


r. 1 'urtail prodigious and leave to embrace closely. 

2. Curtail a nymph and get a brief period of time. 

3. Curtail closely confined and get an instrument 
for writing. 

4. Curtail a place selected for a building and get 
to occupy a seat. Bri its. 

the toad was caught, and in company with 
half a dozen snails was given a position in the 

"Tell you what, Tom, one of your mother's 
gold fish would set it off."* 

"Yes, when she conies home I'll ask her for 
one, and you can come over to-morrow and we'll 
put it in." 

It was growing dark, and .Joe said he must 
go home. Tommy went into the house, ate his 
supper, and soon after went to bed to dream of 
a mammoth " 'quarium," with hundreds of gold 
fishes and thousands of turtles, toads and tad- 

In the morning, as soon as he was dressed, 
ie ran to look at his treasures. Just as he 
reached his aquarium, the toad, who seemed to 
have been waiting till Tommy appeared, with a 
triumphant croak, hopped from the edge of the 
can and disappeared in the tall grass. On 
looking in, Tommy found not a drop of water 
in the can. It had a tiny hole in it and, dur- 
j the night, the water had all leaked out. 
The pollywogs had perished on the rocks, the 
snails crawled safely out, the turtle remaining 
sole occupant of the aquarium, and he did not 
seem to be exactly comfortable. 

Tommy felt like crying, but hearing foot- 
steps, he looked up. There stood Joe, and 
both boys broke into a laugh. Then, Tommy 
said, "Let's take him back to the creek Joe." 
Alamo, Contra Costa Co. H. 


Reverse to exist and get wickedness. 
Reverse a portion and get a snare. 
Reverse to injure and get a male animal. 
Reverse the present time and get gained. 

Answers to Last Puzzles. 

Letter Changes. — i. Car, mar. 2. Page, 

3. Rat, hat. 4. Mink, pink. 5. Maid, paid. 

Charade. — 1. For tun(e) ate ly(lie). 

Word Square.— m o i> E 

E R R S 

Cross Word ENIGMA. — North Carolina. 


An Accomplished Miss. — Miss Rosalind 11. 
Young is a resident of Pitcairn Island. She is 
a descendant of one of the mutineers of the 
British ship Bounty, the crew of which founded 
a colony on Pitcairn Island in 17!K), consisting 
of nine British sailors, six native Tahitian men, 
and twelve women, which has since grown into 
a moderately populous village, with comforta 
ble cottages, a church, and a school-house. 
The residents all read, write, and speak the Kng- 
lish language. Miss Young, however, is a 
prodigy of scholarship in the colony. Some of 
our readers will remember that two years ago 
she wrote an article, descriptive of the island, 
for Scribm r's Magazine. A retired sea captain, 
who visited the island not long ago, draws this 
picture of Miss Young: " Her father is pastor 
of the island church and teacher of the school, 
and she is organist and assistant teacher. She 
is about twenty-six years old, and weighs 200 
pounds, never had a shoe on her foot, and, if 
necessary, could swim off to a ship four miles 
from the island and back again to shore, and 
then go into the little church and play the or- 
gan nearly as well as any young lady in the 

Plantation Philosophy. — I)c troubles we 
hah in de beginnin' oh life, in old age is looked 
back to as life's pleasures. 

Poverty will give whar riches will refuse. 
Dis is one reason why de po' is po', an' why de 
rich is rich. 

De wise man speckerlates on de mysteries ob 
death, when da ain't eben foun' out de mys- 
teries ob life. 

De downfall ob a hypocrite is eben enjoyed 
by all hypocrites demsclves— ef da doan b'iong 
ter de same church. 

De inns' harmful influences ob dis life is con- 
cealed under de brightest kivcr. De black 
snake ain't nigh so putty as de copperhead, but 
he ain't half so pi/.en. 

A New Food. — According to the Chemiker 
%>-itnnij, M. Muller lias evaporated skimmed 
milk in a vacuum, so as to obtain a permanent 
product, which can be preserved for many 
months in a dry atmosphere, and which has val- 
uable alimentary properties. He thinks that 
it may be of great use in pastry, and in various 
kinds of baking, and the best sugar of milk can 
be made from it. The skimmed milk which is 
collected in dairies and cheese factories, is usu- 
ally given to animals or wasted in sewage; it 
contains, however, large quantities of salts, and 
particles of butter and caseine, which can be util- 
ized by Midler's method. —Ret: Scientif. 

Tommy's Aquarium. 

[Written for the Rural Press by PL0R4 WAV.] 
All the morning Tommy had been at the 
brook. He had worked busily, and was watch 
ing the water rise higher and higher above the 
dam, until it should be ready for him to launch 
his new boat. His mind was so taken up with 
his work that he did not see the big mud turtle 
which by some mishap had been driven from 
his home, and now came plodding along the 
bank until he crawled right over Tommy's bare 
feet, "(high ! " said Tommy, as he jumped 
aside. "What a big fellow. Wish 1 could 
take him home with me. Think I can, too.' 
And Tommy stooped down and picked him up 
being careful not to get his fingers too near his 
mouth, as he had a queer way of snapping at 

The poor turtle had many a fall before 
Tommy put him down in the back yard; and 
then, to the little boy's great disgust, he re- 
fused to move; would not even put out his head 
and look around, but lay curled up in his shell. 
At last Tommy put him in an old can, that he 
might not get away, and left him. 

In the afternoon his friend, Joe Edwards, came 
to see him. On going out into the yard to play, 
Joe saw the tiirtle: 

" Hello, Tom ! where did you get him? Let's 
take him out and see him run." 

" I found him down by the creek. But I'd 
like to see you make him run! 1 tried it for 
about half an hour this morning." 

" Pooh ! that's easy enough. Run into the 
kitchen and get a coal from the stove." 

Tommy obeyed, having an idea that his tur- 
tle-ship disliked fire, and would run at the sight 
of it. He seized the fire-shovel, and, as he scooped 
some coals from the grate, he scattered coals 
and ashes over the tioor which Biddy had just 
mopped. With any angry cry she was after 
him with her broom, but Tommy escaped with 
his coals, and in another moment Joe had 
placed one on the turtle's back, and sure enough 
he did travel as fast as his short legs would 
carry him; but this was cruel sport, and the 
boys were soon sorry they had done it. They 
were about to put him into the can, when 
Tommy said: 

" Oh, Joe, let's make a 'quarium like papa's." 

" Just the thing," said Joe, but added: "We 
haven't any glass tank like his." 

" But the old can is big enough; won't that 
do for a starter ? And then when papa sees 
what a fine e lection we have, maybe he will 
buy us one." 

So the boys gathered rocks and placed them 
in the bottom of the can, filled it with water, 
and then it was ready for the turtle. But 
when he was in, Joe and Tommy were at a loss 
to know what to do next, for they had not 
thought before that they had nothing but a tur- 
tle for their aquarium. 

Presently Joe shouted, "pollywogs," and 
started for the creek, followed by Tommy, 
whose cap served the purpose of carrying the 
pollywogs to their new home. "There's a toad 
out by the fountain; that'll help to fill up, and 
papa says snails like damp places, so I guess 
they'll like our 'quarium," said Tommy. So 

of a hundred they arc worse than useless. 
Cleanliness and cold water arc the solo trust- 
worthy specifics; but when once the hair roots 
are destroyed, not all the oil of Macassar, the 
bear's grease of Siberia, nor the eantharides of 
Spain will woo back the vanished locks. 

Poisonous FLOWERS. — Kvery summer, when 
the beautiful oleander is in bloom, some cases 
of persons being poisoned by this flower have 
been recorded. Last year a young lover at 
Oroville was nearly fatally poisoned, by chew- 
ing the leaves of an oleander boquet, given him 
by his sweetheart, and a young gentleman and 
lady, at Marysville, came near climbing the 
"golden stairs," by chewing the twig of an ole- 
ander bush. This flower is usually of a rich, 
pale red, but is sometimes white, and is a 
lovely, sweet scented bloom; but the wood and 
all parts have a poisonous action, resembling 
that of digitalis, and is best treated by a judi- 
cious use of stimulants. The first instance of 
poisoning this year, has just reached a Record 
reporter, who was informed by a person con- 
versant w ith the facts. One evening last week, 
a young lady named Sadie Meeker, residing 
with her parents, near Vina, carelessly chewed 
an oleander bud. In a short time afterward she 
was taken deathly sick, and probably would 
have died had not medical assistance been im- 
mediately brought from Tehama. Her mouth 
and face were distorted out of recognition, and 
the pains suffered by the girl were most intense. 
Happy to relate, though, she is now recovering, 
but her once pretty mouth now looks like a piece 
of raw liver. — Ghico Record. 

The Grape Cure and Other Remedies. 

Editors Press : — Seeing no answer to the 
questions in the " Fireside Chats AboutHealth,'' 
about the grape cure in Germany, I venture to 
give my recollections of the description of th 
cure many years ago, in the New York Tribum 
Physicians in the southern, mountainous parts 
of Germany, found that patients using grapes 
freely gained surprisingly, and> after trial, estal 
fished a number of grape cures for all diseases 
of debility, marasmus and consumption of the 
blood. The patients began eating a few, as 
they could bear them, with a simple, nutritious 
diet, and increasing the quantity till they could 
eat two or three pounds daily, living almost 
exclusively on them, and eating them at table 
while reading, talking or walking about the 
pleasant grounds. Entire freedom from care 
was enjoined, with regular bathing. In dis- 
eases of a dropsical tendency, the vapor bath 
was used every twenty-four hours. Some of 
the varieties used were the Uva Bianca, or 
common white grape of Istria, a large and deli- 
cious table grape ; the Olovina, and black and 
white Muscat. When fresh grapes were out of 
season, dried ones, or raisins, took their place, 
in smaller quantities. 

The tannin in them was thought healthful, 
and skins and seed were eaten. I think on 
the same principle, that a ; horse is fed hay to 
distend the stomach in a healthy manner. The 
tartaric and tannic acid and grape sugar were 
considered alterative and curative. For a tor- 
pid liver and debilitated bowels they are un- 
doubtedly good, if not eaten so cold as to chill 
a weak stomach. 

I am glad to know of eating a few strawberry 
leaves to cure diarrhoea. I know that a tea 
made of the small branches and leaves of the 
grape was good for any disease, requiring a cool- 
ing and binding medicine, and that the ex- 
pressed juice of the vine is good for urinary af- 
fections, and to bind on inflamed eyes. I have 
read that a heaping teaspoonful of the ashes of 
burned grape vine in a wine-glass full of Ma- 
deira or Catawba wine three or four times a 
day with the aid of the vapor bath will cure 
seated dropsy. 

A tea of blackberry root is a well known 
cure for dysentery. Mrs. W. I). AsHLBY. 
Stockton, Cal. 

X)ojviESTie QeojNojviY. 


[Written for Rural 1'kkss by Aha E. Taylor.] 
M ullins. —With a spoon work two tablespoon- 
fuls of butter until soft, add one quarter pound 
of cornstarch, three quarters of a pound 
of flour, and two heaping teaspooufuls of good 
baking powder well mixed in the flour ; nii\ 
with milk into a slack dough, adding one tea- 
spoonful of salt in the milk. Bake in gem pans 
in a hot oven. 

Ornamental Custard. Make a rich custard 
with one pint of milk, the yolks of six eggs, two 
heaping spoonfuls of cornstarch ; sweeten and 
flavor to taste ; put in a glass dish to cool: 
beat stiff the whites of six eggs, add one half 
cup of sugar, pile carelessly on top of the cus- 
tard, .sprinkle with colored sugar. 
Chinese Camp, Tuolumne Co. 

Boiled Flour Grukl. — Boiled flour gruel 
is very good in cases of sickness, in which the 
strength is much reduced. To prepare the 
flour, put into a basin as much as it will hold, 
pressed tightly down. Then tie a cloth over it, 
and allow it to boil hard for six hours. Then 
take off the cloth, and let the flour stand in the 
basin till next day, when remove the crust 
which will have formed, and put the remainder 
away in a covered jar. For use, mix four table- 
spoonfuls of the flour smoothly into a paste, 
then pour on it half a pint of boiling milk or 
water, and boil for ten minutes, constantly 
stirring to avoid lumps. P.randy, sherry, lemon 
juice or cream may be added, according to taste. 
Gruel may also be made from baked flour, but 
it is not so easy of digestion. 


In an article recently contributed to the 
Qexastidhtii — a paper, as its name imports, de- 
voted to sanitary subjects — Professor Reclani, 
a German Oeleh^ter, makes some timely and use- 
ful observations on the subject of baldness. Af- 
ter describing, in a vein of pleasantry, the vast 
array of bare polls which may be seen any even- 
ing in the pit of a theater, or the body of a lec- 
ture room, he discusses the causes of baldness. 
He does not think, as is sometimes said, that 
loss of hair is the result either of impaired 
health or of much study. The strongest men 
are often bareheaded, and German professors, 
who are nothing if not studious, are dis- 
tinguished above all men by the profusion of 
their locks. On the other hand, soldiers and 
postilions, who wear heavy helmets and leather 
caps, and wear them a good deal, are frequently 
as bald as billiard balls. From these facts Herr 
Reclani draws the conclusion that baldness 
comes chiefly of the artificial determination of 
blood to the head, and to the heat and perspi 
ration thence arising. The result is a relaxed 
condition of the scalp and loss of hair. If the 
skin of the head be kept in a healthy state, 
contends the Professor, the hair will not fall oil'. 
To keep it healthy the head covering should be 
light and porous, the head kept clean by wash- 
ings with water, and the hair cut short. The 
nostrums vended as hair restorers, and on which 
a fabulous amount of money is wasted by the 
ignorant for the benefit of quacks, he denounced 
as worse than useless. In ninety-nine cases out 

Save the Bread Ckumhs. — The waste of hits 
of bread in some families is unpardonable. 
Kvery fragment of clean bread, if no bigger than 
a pea, should be saved and used. If attention 
be given to this, the quantity of crumbs that 
would otherwise be wasted, will astonish one 
who tries it. Do not allow the crumbs to mold; 
place them in a plate in the stove oven with the 
door open, until they are quite dry. Then roll 
the crumbs until they are as fine as meal, and 
keep in a carefully closed vessel; a fruit can is 
excellent. Crumbs prepared in this way are 
useful to bread chops or cutlets, oysters for 
broiling, egg-plant for frying ; they make the 
most perfect of bread puddings, and are un- 
equaled for stuffing. 

Nuns' Toast. — Cut four or five bard-boiled 
eggs into slices. Put a piece of butter half the 
size of an egg into a saucepan, and when it be- 
gins to bubble add a finely chopped onion. Let 
the onion cook a little without taking color; 
then stir in a teaspoonful of flour. Add a cup- 
ful of milk, and stir until it becomes smooth; 
then put in the slices of eggs and let them get 
hot. Pour it over neatly trimmed slices of hot 
buttered toast. The sauce must be seasoned to 
taste with pepper and salt. 

Cornstarch. — Cornstarch is a thing whii h 
may be treated in an infinite variety of way:-. 
One of the nicest is to make it into blanc mange, 
and to stir in fruit before pouring it into tl c 
mold. Any sort of fruit will do for this pur- 
pose, and several kinds may be used at once, il 
liked. Chocolate added in the proportion of 
one to two of cornstarch makes a very nice 
pudding, especially if it be served with a milk 
and egg sauce flavored with vanilla. 

Ham Toast. — (irate up finely some dry hair, 
and mix it with the heaten up yolk of an egg 
and a little cream, and let it just simmer. Have 
ready some nicely toasted slices of bread, but- 
ter them, and lay them on a flat dish that has 
been well heated. Cover each slice with some 
of the mixture, and servo very hot. 



[July 21, 1883 

A. T. DEWEY. W - B - KVVER - 

Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Ojffice, 252 Market St;, A'. E. cor. FrontSt.,S. F. 
S3F Take the elevator, Xo. IS Front St. *M 

Address editorials and business letters to the firm; 
individuals are liable to be absent. 

Our Subscription Ratea. 

Our Subscription Rates are three dollars a year, 
in advance. If continued subscriptions are not prepaid! n 
advance, for any reason, fifty cents extra will be 
".harged for each year or fraction of a year, tff No new 
names placed on the list without cash in advance. 

Advertising Rates. 1 week. 1 month. 3mos. 12 mos 

Per line (agate) U -80 $2.20 $5.00 

Half inch (1 square) . . $1 . 60 ** ■ 00 

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1-arge advertisements at favorable rates. Special or read- 
ing notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing m ex- 
traordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, at 
special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 

Our latext forma go to press Wednesday evening. 
Kntered at S. V. Post Office as Second-Class Mail Matter 



The Fruit Season. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



Saturday, July 21, 1883. 

EDITORIALS.- Hungarian Crass; Aphia-Prool Apple 
Stocks, 39. The Week; 'Hit Smut Season; Harvest 
Hun. N; A Run Through Sonoma County, 46. British 
Columhia; Apricot .lam or Marmalade; What it Costs 
to Get Onr Wheat to Market: California books on 
Entomology; A Chance to Show California Cotton, 47. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. •German Mill.t or Hungarian 
eras--. 39. Buildinga of the Provincial Government at 
Victoria, B. c, 47. 

CORRESPONDENCE.- Ventura Notes, 40 

HORTICULTURE. - The Sorghum Sugar industry; 
The Cliern in Southern California, 40 

THE FIELD- Suggestions on Host Proof Wheats, 41. 

POULTRY YARO.-l nhealthy chickens; Raising of 
Poultry, 41. 

Grange Picnic; Grange News; Grange Thought: At the 
Kant; Grange Items, 42. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES— Prom the various 
counties California and Oregon, 42-3. 

NEWS IN BRIEF -<>n page 43 and other pages. 

THE HOME CIRCLE. We Can Make Home Happj 
(Poetry); New Englanden and the Par West; An K.\- 
hibit of Women's Work; Little Poothill Panns; A Practi- 
cal Empress; a Bit of Mothers Kress; A Home Ther- 
mometer: The New Agricultural Editor; Starting a 
Young Man; What we Uie Por, 44. Investigating 
Spiritism; A Remarkable Saurian; An Accomplished 
Miss; Plantation Philosophy; A New pood, 45 

inv's Aquarium, 45. 

GOOD HEALTH. -The Grape Cure anil Hthi i Reme- 
dies; Baldness; Poisonous Flowers, 45. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. - Recipes; Poller Flour 
Gruel; Save the Bread Crumbs; Nuns' Toast; Coru- 
starcb; Ham Toast, 45- 


Agricultural [mplementa liaker& Hamilton, 8. F. 
H:i\ Presses* -Jacob Price, San Leandro, Cal. 
Wire Fence — Hnntinirton, Hopkins & Co., S. F. 
Ahel Stearns* Kartell ox A. Kohinson, S. F. 
Wheeler's Cannen T. A. Mudgc, S. F. 
California State Fair— Sacramento, Cal. 
Kxcursion to Fresno— Cory & Braly, S. F. 
Little's Sheep l»iv>— Falkner, Bell Jt Co., S. F. 
Potato Integer Monarch Mfir. Co., Chicago, UN, 
Home Miss L A. Field, Oakland, Cal. 
Seigler'a Springs F. .1. McCnllough, Lake Co., Cal. 

The Week. 

The influence of the national holiday has 
speil away, and everyone, except the chronic 
vacation-takers, has settled down to work, trade 
or practice, as his vocation demands. The 
relish for trade, coupled by an improved feeling 
abroad, has enlivened the grain market, and a 
disposition to invest on the chance of future im- 
provement is rjuite general. This is fostered by 
the continuation of reports from the fields that 
the crop has been lessened and lightened by the 
peculiar season, and that grain should be worth 
something after all. It is well that this idea 
should gain a hold at last. The writers and 
talkers who persist in harvesting an extra- 
ordinary amount of grain, whether the heads 
contain it or not, always do the growers much 
harm by depressing prices, although they may 
innocently think they are glorifying the agri- 
cultural interest of the State by their large 
stories. There is plenty to be proud of and to 
glorify without exaggeration, which belittles 
farmers' returns. 

< General newsisquiet. The railroad Commission 
•-till basks in the sunshine of itsmighty deeds, and 
lias escaped atrounciugby the party which called 
it into existence. It is getting fame abroad if 
it lacks it at home, for the Willamette Farmer 
says : "It is very likely that in due time the 
Commission in California will work well." A 
little consolation is a great tiling sometimes. 
By the way, we are not sure but the Commis- 
sion "works well" already — works well for it- 
self, but how ill for the people who expect any- 
thing from it, 

The crop of orchard fruits this year is prov- 
ing to be of a very uncertain and unsatisfactory 
character as a rule. Not only in the upper 
foothills, where the fruit was swept away at a 
blast, but also in the lower regions there has 
been a partial failure of some varieties here and 
others there, until the grape crop seems to be 
the only one which can be trusted for full 

The market for fruit, take the State over, 
seems to be somewhat in a cranky state, and 
growers complain that preserving establish- 
ments will not give them fair values for their 
product. This, coupled with the short crop, 
will lead to considerable disappointment among 
growers. Our Santa Barbara county corre- 
spondent in this issue states that the Carpin- 
teria growers cannot obtain much more than the 
picking and carriage to Santa Barbara cost. 
Evaporation, however, will help them out, for 
there is no doubt whatever of the value of a 
well evaporated apricot. 

It may be as well on the whole that the can- 
ners should have a light year to give them time 
to reflect on their careless, if not evil deeds. 
The surplus of apricots they had to carry over, 
and the indignation expressed at the wretched 
way in which some of the canners put up 
wretched fruit will give all themes for consid- 
eration, and lead them all to do better in the 

Meantime the canning interest, as a whole, 
will show some progress this year. What will 
be gained in the country pack, will partly com- 
pensate for tlie city's shortage. The new in- 
terior establishments started here and there, 
are in a position to send out much better fruit 
than can be put up by the city concerns, for 
they are located nearer to the orchards and can 
thus secure fruit which has not undergone ship- 
ment, and in some cases they will save fruit 
which never would have been shipped. 
While we have nothing but praise for the enter- 
prise which has built tip the city canneries, we 
have also a very kindly feeling for the interior 
canneries, which are giving the fruit growers 
home markets and employing hundreds of 
women and young people, to whom the money 
earned will bring many comforts. 

The somewhat unsatisfactory year will give 
an opportunity to clear off the shelves and pie- 
pare for another year of heavy work in 1884. 
The partial break in supplies will, of course, be 
something of a drawback in the trade, for the 
trade delights in unfailing supplies when an 
article has won a demand. But, possibly, if we 
make haste slowly in this matter, it will be all 
the better in the long run. 

Harvest Hands. 

The scarcity of good hands for harvest is felt 
quite keenly on some parts of the coast, and 
what makes it all the more vexatious the supply 
of tramps in the country and loafers in the 
towns still seems large. The Keno Journal 

Our farmers are very much annoyed at their 
inability to secure suitable help to assist in liar 
vesting the season's crop, and are now impress- 
ing Indians into service paying them (1.50 per 
day. It is strange, but true, that the present 
situation has caused many of our prominent 
farmers to declare that they now think it a 
mistake to have put a stop to Chinese immigra- 
tion, and had they another vote it would be 
"No" instead of "Yes." I'ete Dalton said 
yesterday that he and twenty others were 
willing to hire white help the entire year 
round, but somehow or other couldn't get it, 
men and women preferring to loaf in the cities 
and towns rather than go into the country and 
work. These sentiments are entertained by 
others. Better wages are paid here than in any 
other State, and the farmers are hugely dis- 

This is the old cause of complaint and it does 
seem insurmountable unless a different disposi- 
tion can be injected into the idlers. I'erhaps 
we shall gradually obtain an infusion of the 
better laboring class from the Kast or from 
abroad. It is to be hoped that we shall, for a 
large percentage of those now in sight here are 
altout as worthless and untrustworthy as men 
can well be. 

A. T. JJkwky, of this office, has recently re- 
turned, with his family, to Oakland, after a 
much enjoyed recreation trip of four weeks in 
Sonoma, Lake and Napa counties. Kriends met 
by them will please accept grateful thanks for 
many kind favors extended. 

A Run Through Sonoma County. 

I Editorial I 'orres]ionili j nce. I 
The writer employed a couple of leisure days 
following the Fourth in a flying trip through 
Sonoma county, along the line of the S. F. & 
N. P. R. R. A ijuick run was made to the 
northern terminus of the road, at 

A charming little town of 800 inhabitants, with 
a wide, handsome street, its lower numbers be- 
ing affixed to spacious stores, good hotels and 
well equipped livery stables, while above are a 
succession of neat residences with lovely and 
well kept gardens. Cloverdale is a center of 
tourist travel and of business, as it is the ship- 
ping point for much of the produce of Lake and 
Mendocinocounties. We found the place full of life 
and bustle. Besides being the center for trade and 
travel from without, it has growing producing 
interests of its own, and its charming situation, 
coupled with the active spirit and methods of 
its citizens, will bring the town into much 
greater prominence in the future than it now 
enjoys. We were fortunate in receiving the 
friendly escort of Colonel J. B. Armstrong in a 
delightful ride up the Ukiah road through the 
romantic canyon of the Russian river, and en- 
joyed the hospitality of his comfortable home, 
which is under the joint ijueenship of his 
two accomplished daughters. We longed 
for more time than we could command to 
visit the farms and gardens of the neigh 
borhood, but a flying trip grants few privileges 
We called for a moment at the delightful 
place of Mrs. Bowman and enjoyed a glimpse 
at its well cultivated orchard and thrifty orna 
mental plants. We desired to get a few points 
of the experience of a lady who proved herself 
such an adept at horticulture, thinking they 
would aid our lady readers in out-door ventures, 
but our call was at an inopportune moment. 
We found the editor of the Pacifit Sentinel at 
his post, and full of zeal in the excellent work 
he is doing for the advance of local agricultural 

We chanced upon Leslie A. Jordan, the well 
known editor of the Flag, just at a moment 
when he was unusually busy — if any one 
can tell when there is such a moment 
But this did not prevent him from throwiuj 
aside his work, confiding his postoftice to the 
competent hands of his wife, and showing us 
more of the town and vicinity in an hour than 
we could have found in a day without him. H 
is. what every man who accomplished anything 
is, an enthusiast, and under his prophetic guid- 
ance we saw the pitta carpeted with a velvety 
lawn, the residence streets lined with F.astlake 
cottages, the rich, outlying lands covered with 
orchards and vineyards, and the succulent pas 
tures peopled with well bred stock of all de 
scriptions. And nothing less than this shall we 
soon see for the progress of Healdsburg and 
vicinity during the last few years has been 
most notable. It is a thriving, bustling 
town enjoying its share of the general pros- 
perity of the lovely and productive country 
tributary to it. It is beautifully surrounded 
the deep green of the alfalfa fields below; the 
low hillsides above studded with evergreen 
oaks, and beyond, the higher elevations also 
dotted with forest growths. Wealth and 
natural beauty seem to be its direct inheritance. 
We made a short pilgrimage to the fruit farm 
of W. N. Cladden, whom our readers know as 
a progressive and intelligent horticulturist, but 
he was away after a Champion fruit drier, and 
we missed him. This drier seems to be taking 
well. Messrs. Pridham, father and son, whom 
we met for a short chat on the street in Healds- 
burg, told us they had just set up one on their 
place in the I >ry creek region. We had only 
time for a glance at Healdsburg, for the train 
soon came along for 

Santa Rosa. 
We cannot well tell how much we enjoyed a 
few hours at Santa Rosa. It has some advan- 
tages over other Sonoma towns, in the length of 
its progressive period, and therefore presents a 
more finished appearance. But it does not 
seem at all content with past well-doing, but is 
growing and progressing at a most gratifying 
rate. Its business streets have blocks which 
justly entitle the city title which it claims. Its 
succession of neat dwellings and beautiful gar- 
dens, with here and there a handsome suburban 
villa, with its park-like grounds, show plainly 
why so many people with tired heads and 

heavy purses seek the town for a place of resi. 
fence. We doubt whether the State can show 
a more charming site for a home — always ex- 
cepting Berkeley, in which we ourselves have a 
home pride, which is always pardonable. We 
were fortunate in securing a seat behind the 
neat horse of K. W. Davis, for a short 
ride through Santa Rosa. We found 
Mr. lJavis eloquent over the progress and 
prosperity of the town and its outlying farming 
districts which we had not time to visit. We 
saw the fair grounds, which are being refitted 
with a generous outlay by a new society of en- 
terprising men, and the new pavilion, a most 
excellent structure, now in course of erection. 
The coming fair will no doubt be a full success 
as our Santa Rosa correspondent descrilies in 
another column of this issue. We stopped a 
few moments at the splendid winery of 
Isaac DeTurk, which was described in the 
BUBAL, last year, and which is making 
a market for the grapes in that 
part of the county, which the grow- 
ers appreciate. We enjoyed also a walk 
through the well appointed nursery of Luther 
Burbank, just at the edge of the town, where 
we found a most excellent assortment of well- 
grown fruit trees, a host of interesting things in 
the ornamental line, and the best built and 
equipped hothouse we have seen on any nursery 
establishment in this State. W e found much 
pleasure also in a visit at the home of R. A. 
Thompson. County Clerk, and skillful as a rose 
grower as he is devoted to the public interests 
of the county. We are indebted to his esti- 
mable family for a most kind reception and to 
him for a host of information on the resources 
of the county which no man knows better than 
he. We found the editor of the Ihmoeral, 
Mr. Linthicum, ensconced in a new otlice, 
which makes r our editorial rooms look dingier 
than ever. We also had a brief but pleasant 
call with Mr. O'Meara, the editor of the H< - 
p%Micm, and secretary of the new fair asso- 
ciation. He is doing an excellent work in his 
broad Sold, and is wide awake, earnest and 

Cotate Ranch 
To redeem an old promise, we tarried for a 
time at Cotate ranch, the magnificent property 
of the l'age estate, now managed by Wilfred 
Page, who is a vigorous and progressive farmer. 
The new residence erected since our last visit is 
a model of a country house, large, airy and de- 
lightful. We rode through magnificent lields of 
oats and w heat on the flats, which w ere being 
harvested with a Wood's twine binder. The 
oats were so tall that, even with the machine 
set at its highest cut, the heads clung to the 
mahine so as to turn th« bundle around, and 
yet it cut, tied and pitched them off in good 
style. Such a crop would surprise an Kastern 
farmer. Mr. l'age has a Danish centrifugal 
creamer set up, and is waiting for the proper 
adjustment of horse power to test its work. 
The tine dairy and pure bred stock for which 
the Cotate herds are famous are in good or- 
der and doing their appointed work well. It is 
a gratifying Bight to us to see a young man like 
Mr. l'age devoting his energies to agriculture, 
and with means at hand to put new ideas to 
practical tests. We expect his success will jus 
tify his enlistment in agriculture rather than in 
vocations, which seem more tempting to young 


We w ere only in Petaluma an hour before the 
departure of the train, but it was long enough 
to see that the town was lull of life and ac- 
tivity, and that many improvements had been 
made since our visit of a year ago. The new 
cannery is in active operation, saving much 
fruit and giving acceptable employment to many 
of the town's people. We stopped for a mo- 
ment at the incubator factory of I. L. Dias, and 
found Mr. Byee installed in a fine large estab- 
lishment, where, during the busy season, they 
have had as many as thirteen men at work at 
these popular chicken-makers. They have an 
excellent show-room, in which all styles of the 
machine can be well examined. At the 
Petaluma postottice we imposed ourselves 
upon the busy postmaster, Mr. Weston, 
formerly of the Argut. Sonoma county has 
at least two postmasters from the editorial 
ranks, and editors make such good officers that 
we expect to be invited to take charge of the 
San Francisco establishment next year. The 
Westons are no loiterers. With his son and 
daughter in the post office, and Mrs. Weston 
giving much of her time to art and to honorable 
work in local charities- -they all earn the right 
to live and to live well. 

Our trip did not, of course, give us oppor- 
tunity to see much of the agriculture of Sonoma 
county, as we had no time to get far from the 
towns. Another journey, with better chances 
for observation of agricultural matters, is one 
of the things we hold in anticipation. W. 

Joly 21, 188S.J 


British Columbia. 

To show that our whole coast is progressing 
and manifesting the outward signs of prosperity 
and stability, we give on this page a view of the 
government buildings recently erected at Vic- 
toria, B.C. Oursister commonwealth atthe north 
is just now enjoying gratifying development, and 
is anticipating still greater things upon the 
completion of the Canadian Pacific railway. 
The buildings shown in the engraving, which 
are five in number, are built of red brick, of Swiss 
style of architecture and situated on a gently 
rising slope on the south side of James bay, 
a charming enclosure with well-kept lawns and 
embowered with beautiful shrubbery and ever- 
green trees. The large building in the center 
contains the rooms of the Lieut. Governor, 
Treasury, Provincial Secretary's office and Ex- 
ecutive Council Chamber. The printing office is 
on the right, the land office on the left, and 
standing immediately behind, as viewed from 
the bay, are the court-house and hall of the 
Legislative Assembly. 

These buildings possess unusual interest as 
showing how rapidly institutions are built up 
on this coast. Only about a quarter of a cen- 
tury ago the Government was represented by 
the old Hudson's Bay Company's fort. With 
the exception of the annual visits of one of the 
company's trading ships from England, little 
sailing crafts and 
Indian canoes with 
the solitary little 
wharf at which they 
moored fairly indi- 
cate the commerce of 
the province in those 
pioneer days. The 
sight of those prim 
itive structures with 
the bastions and high, 
surrounding palisades 
or ramparts is now oc- 
cupied by business 
blocks. No trace of 
the venerable pile ex- 
ists to-day. The last 
to succumb to the in- 
evitable was the 
building used as a 
store house by the 
company, which, after 
serving for a time as 
a public hall and the 
atre. was recently 
torn down to make 
room for a magnifi- 
cent four- story edi- 
fice, for the accom- 
modation of The Colo- 
nial and its extensive printing business. 

What it Costs to Get Our Wheit to 

The San Francisco Journal of Commerci 
has made an interesting compilation of ocean 
freight rates prevailing during the wheat year, 
which closed June 30th. The deductions 
therefrom show that it costs a great deal of 
money to get our wheat to our customers 
abroad, even in a year when low rates prevail. 
It is shown that the wheat fleet of 1882-83 fell 
much behind that of 1881-82, in the number of 

California Books on Entomology. 

AVe take pleasure in announcing the speedy 
publication of two practical and valuable works 
on entomology, by Matthew Cooke, of Sacra- 
mento, late Chief Executive Horticultural Offi- 
cer. One will be entitled " Injurious Insects of 
the Orchard, Vineyard, Field, Garden, House- 
hold. Store-house, Domestic Animals, etc., and 
Remedies for Their Extermination.'' It will be 
an exhaustive treatise on insect pests, with the 
results of some years of experimental research 

vessels, the quantity carried, and the amount i and practical experience in economic entomol- 
paid. The course of the market in freights was ! The volume will contain about 350 OC- 

° . I tavo pages, and will be illustrated with nearly 

almost steadily downward. The quantity of j 700 woo(l cuts> and also with a large nunlber 

wheat shipped was about two-thirds of that of j of plates of classified illustrations, etc. Hound 
tne previous harvest year. The average rate of | in cloth an<1 boards, $4. Mr. Cooke has also 

I prepared a book entitled "Insects: Injurious 
land Beneficial; Their Natural History and 

freight was much lower — £2 4s Sd, as against 
£3 (is 10 4-5d last year, and the grand total 
about one-half of that of the great shipping 
year. The grand total of freights paid for 
wheat was £1,434,290 13s 2d, or in dollars, 
96,979,975.50. For flour there was paid in 
American coin $030,372.45^. making a total for 
wheat and Hour of about S7, (510,348, or over 
seven and a half million dollars. But the wheat 
freightsof 1882-83 alone were $16,069,789.86 4 5. 

Classification." This work will contain about 
150 octavo pages, fully illustrated. An edition 
will be published containing a key to this book, 
for the use of teachers, etc. This work is for 
use in schools, and at the same time is admira- 
bly adapted for the home circle and the library. 
Bound in cloth and boards, §1.75. These vol- 
umes will be sent to press by August 1st, with 
data to that date. The edition will depend 
upon the number of subscribers obtained prior 
to that date, since the cost of publication and 

At the rates paid the previous year, the freights preparation has been heavy. So many copies 
of the past year would have reached nearly as sha11 be ordered to determine the volume of 
, lit i ii , the edition, will be ready for distribution early 

three and a half million dollars more, so that . • „ September next, and those interested should 
this amount was saved to California agriculture mike orders for the works promptly and liber- 


Apricot Jam or Marmalade. 

We had some discussion in the RURAL last 
winter about the possibility of selling apricot 
jam in the English markets. It seems that the 
canners are making considerable quantities this 
year, out of their over ripe fruit. The Colton 
Semi-Tropic says: "The company is now put- 
ting up a large order from London, England, 
for apricot pulp. This order alone will take 
18,000 7-pound cans of fruit to fill." The River, 
side Press says: "The Riverside cannery has 
been putting up some very fine apricot marma- 
lade, in three different grades. Samples tested 
at the bank, a few days since, were very satis- 
factory" to those present. It seems as though 
large quantities of sucli marmalade could be 
placed on the market successfully, if the can- 
nery can insure the quality to be equal to sam- 
ples shown. The marmalade is manufactured 
from fruit that is too ripe to can to advantage. " 

The Length of the Orange Season. — That 
the orange does not have to be marketed in a 
mass like some of the deciduous fruits is gener- 
ally known perhaps, but the length of the sea- 
son is not so well understood. The Santa Ana 
(Los Angeles county )Standard says: " It seems 
that orange shipments are to continue all sum- 
mer. It is now more than six months since the 
first shipment of the season was made, and they 
are still going to market in good condition. " 

The Rubber Plant in Mexico — Mexico is 
making a study of the culture of the rubber 
plant. The hardiness of the plant is said to be 
such that its culture is exceedingly simple and 
inexpensive, where the climate and soil are suit- 
able. In much of the Mexican coast region the 
only expense is the weeding required, when 
the plants are young, to give them a chance to 
grow and strengthen. 

and commerce. The rates at which the largest 
number of ships were engaged were as follows: 


t:i (is (id. 

£■> 5s 0(1 . 
£2 2s 6(1 . 
£2 0s Od . . 
U 158 od 

Twenty-one vessels were loaded at rates kept 
piivateoron owners' account. The highest 
figure paid was t'4 0s Od, the lowest, £1 I Is 3d. 

The First Melons.— The first watermelons 
and cantaloupes of the season were received 
yesterday by Vuscovich & Chiuda. The fruit 
was raised on Chiuda & Co.'s ranch near Fresno 
and was in excellent condition. The watermel- 
ons sold readily from 75 cents to §1 apiece, 
and the cantaloupes from SI to$l 25. The mel- 
on crop is later this season than for several 
years back, and, it is stated, that once started 
the whole pick will come in with a rush. Last 
year the melon season extended over several 
months snd late into the fall. The general aver- 
age of prices was from 50 cents to SI per crate, 
each crate containing from 12 to 16 melons. 
This year the average price will probably range 
from .75 to si 50, or even higher if the crop is 
shorter than expected. 

Progressive Indians.— The Piutes at the 
Pyramid Lake reservation, New, are showing 
considerable progress. They have dug five miles 
of ditch for irrigating purposes this year, and 
will raise 1,000 bushels of wheat this sum- 
mer. A number of children are attending the 
boarding-school, begun last fall by direc- 
tion of the Government, and many of them can 
read, write and do some work in primary arith- 
metic. They are also taught to cook, sew, etc., 
and have made considerable progress in this di- 
rection. Mrs. McMasters has charge of the 
school, and Mrs. Mapes is matron. Religious 
service is conducted on Sunday by Mr. Aibby, 
the Baptist minister of Wadsworth. The ser- 
vices are well attended, and the Indians are 
generally respectful and attentive. 

ally that the publication may entail no loss. In 
presenting these works separately, the author's 
abject is to place the part containing entomo- 
logical instruction, classification, etc., within 
the reach of pupils of our schools, as it is a mat- 
ter of common agreement that on this subject 
our children must be well informed. Subscrib- 
ers for these books have a guaranty of their ex- 
cellence in the experience of the author in eco- 
nomic entomology, and his labors in past years to 
diffuse intelligence on the subject of destructive 
insects. He has given his best efforts in the 
endeavor to make those works the most valua- 
ble and popular of all of this kind of publica- 
tions. When both books are taken by one sub- 
scriber they will be furnished at $5.50. Corre- 
spondence concerning them should be addressed 
to Matthew Cooke, Sacramento, Cal. 

A Chance to Show California Cotton. 

California grown cotton has some excellent 
points. If we are not mistaken Prof. Hilgard, 
in his cotton report to the U. S. Census Office, 
gives our staple a high rank. The crop is com- 
paratively small, but the interest in it is in- 
creasing. It would serve to increase this inter- 
est, if California cotton should be judged along- 
side of that from the old cotton States, and 
perhaps some grower has samples which he can 
show. We notice that the Southern Exposition, 
which will open August 1st, at Louisville, Ky., 
and continue 100 days, will have a special cot- 
ton display, and offers very liberal premiums 
for competition. In case any of our readers 
may be interested, we give below the regula- 
tions and premiums: 

All entries to be made on or before October 
20, 1S83. All entries to be from cotton raised 
in 1883, and all bales, except Sea Island, to 
weigh not less than 450 pounds. Sea Island 
cotton shall be exhibited in the usual sized 
bales. Parties making entries must furnish 
their names and address, with those of the 
grower, also State and county in which the cot- 
ton was produced, the year in which grown, 
and the name of gin on which ginned, power 
used, whether steam, horse, water, or hand 
used in ginning. Should the judges have any 
doubts where the cotton was grown, satisfac- 
tory affidavits must 
be furnished as to the 
fact. A bale taking 
a premium in one 
class cannot compete 
in any other class. 
Cotton that has 
been subjected to 
treatment by ma 
chinery, other than 
that of ginning, is 
excluded from compe- 

The judges shall 
consist of two cotton 
and weaver), two cot- 
ton planters, two cot- 
ton buyers (broker 
and commission mer- 
chant), and one cot 
ton shipper — seven 
judges. In awarding 
the premiums, all 
bales or exhibits will 
be presented by num- 
bers furnished by the 
committee in charge 
to the committee or 
committees on awards. 
The following premiums in money are 
offered by ths Southern Exposition for dis- 
plays of cotton: 

Best bale long staple, excepting Sea Island -first.. . .$1,000 
Bt>t bale long staple, excepting Sea Wand second. 
Best bale long staple, excepting Sea Island third . . 

Best bale short staple -first 

Best hale short staple— second 

Best bale short staple - third 

Best exhibit Sea Island -first 

Best exhibit Sea Island— second 

Best five bales, Sea Island excepted - first 

Best five bales, Sea Island excepted - second 

Best twenty stalks cotton— first 

Best twenty stalks cotton —second 

Power of the Waves.— The tremendous 
power of the sea waves has been illustrated at 
Wick, on the extreme northeast coast of Scot- 
land, where a breakwater was being built. It 
may give an idea of what wave power really 
can do. It was found that stones of ten tons 
weight were as pebbles to the waves, which 
have been measured to be fifty-two feet from 
the crest to the bottom of the trough. The outer 
end of the breakwater, where the storm beats 
most violently, was built of three courses of 
100-ton stones, laid on the rubble foundation; 
next above these were three courses of large 
flat stones, and upon these a mass of concrete, 
built on the spot, of cement and rubble. The 
end of the breakwater w as thought to be as 
immovable as the natural rock, yet the resident 
engineer saw it yield to the force of the waves, 
and swing around into the troubled waters in- 
side the pier. It gave way, not in fragments, 
but in one mass, as if it were a monolith. The 
displaced mass is estimated to weigh about 
1 ,850 tons. 

"Hki.iiwi." — Professor 1'almeri announces 
the discovery in the lava of Vesuvius, the sub 
stance giving the spectrum line of "helium," 
an element hitherto recognized in the sun 
Efforts will probably be made to isolate it. 




For the best bale, other than Sea Island or long 
staple, from each State and Territory (there be- 
ing fourteen) 2.S00 

Correspondence on this subject should be ad- 
dressed to J. M. Wright, General Manager, 
Louisville, Ky. 

Progress of American Carriage Indus- 
try. — A thoroughly made American pleasure 
carriage could not be had in this country in 
1860. We were obliged to import the springs 
and other steel work and most of the textile 
trimmings ; but as we now make as good steel 
as we import, and produce our own silks, 
fringes and tassels, we build our own carriages. 
Under protective duties we build, in the single 
State of Ohio, more pleasure carriages annually 
than are produced in Great Britain and France 
combined, and the returns of the census show 
the existence, in 1880, of more than 43,000 es- 
tablishments for the manufacture of carriages 
and smithing, which employed, in that year, 
105,000 hands, to whom were paid as wages, 
more than $38,000,000. 

Speculation in Grain. —Henry D. Lloyd 
will describe in the next number of the North 
American Review the methods employed by 
speculators in grain, and will show how they op- 
erate to make bread dear. 



[July 21, 1883 



New Xiattin 


Pronounced the most 

Perfect, Durable and Comfortable 


Especially adapted for Hospitals, Seminaries, Hotels 
and Lodging Houses, and is incomparably Sep rior to 
*nt other Bed ; is light, easily handled and cannot get 
cut of order. 

MuafaCtOrT' **• Howard Street. 

Clear Lake and Calisloga 
Stage Line, 

Carrying U. S. Mail and Wells, Fargo & Co's 

San Francisco to Lakeport 

In 1 1 Hours. 

I':,. -.n.': r > leavi Sai> Francisco daily !>} Kerry line from 
Market Street wharf at 8 A. v., arriving at Calistoga at 
11:15 A. M. Coaches leave Calistoga at 12 si. daily (Sun 
days excepted). On Tuesdays Thursdays and Saturdays 
leave. Caunoga for Lakctport via Middle-town, Gienbrook : 
Kelsevville and Soda Bav, returning alternate da vs. Th • 
LAKEPI >KT. and the most picturesque and rouuiutic route 
on tlie Coast, r icm lit St. Helenu it affords the traveler 
a beautiful view of the far-famed Napa and Russian Kiver 
Valleys and mountains of the Coast Rang*; and from Cobb 
Mountain, the treat Clear Lake region ill front, and the 
Pacific in the distance. This line connects with stages for 
BAY. *)n Mondavs. Wediiesdavs anil Fridavs stages leave 
Calistoga at I! a. for MI DDLETOWN, OUENOC, LOWEK 
LAKE and SULPHUR BANK, returning alternate day 
This line connects at Lower Lake with stages for Seiglc 
Howard, Adams and the celebrated BARTLETT BPRINl . 
These lines are STOCKED Willi SIX-HORSE CONGORD 
COACHES, and handled by the most careful and etperi 
enced drivers. 

Tickets for sale in Lakeport. at W. \V. Greene's Hotel, 
John Clark, Agent; Kelsevville, at Wells, Fargo &Co. ' 
office, A. A. Slocuin, Agent; at C. P. R. K. office, Mark 
Street wharf, also at No. 2 New Montgomery Street, San 
Francisco, Sam. Miller, Agent. Bound trip tickets from 
Lakeport to San Francisco and return, *12. Single trip 
tickets, s0.:,ll. 

Passengers for SODA BAY via Calistoga, purchase the 
Lake|iort ticket for S6.50. Fare to Lakeport, Kelsevville 
and Soda Bay all the same. 

W. K. FISHER, Proprietor 

Cal i »i ojj «. CaJ, 



Telegraph Institute anil Normal School, 

The Practical BuinMI Traiuing Selmol <»f raliforum f»»r 
the young ami mi<l (lie -aged of b«ith sexes. ExpenSM are less 
than one-half the usual rates. Excellent hoard in private 
families fn>m #8 t» tflO j»er munth. Courarn -f Stutlu Full 
business < 'nurse, full Normal ( 'nurse, lie view ( 'onrse. Special 
Coumn, Teachers' Ccnirse. Preparatory Course, Telegraphy 
The '"< 'fillege Journal " will },t- sent, postjiaid, to any atlilrem 
V. K. MiAKkl!, Principal Stockton, CaJ P 


1534 Mission St , San Francisco. 





Ki IB - 

Anniversaries and Soldiers' Gatherings. 


CHORCSE3 arruni.e.1 for MALE VOICE*. 

Piano or Organ Accompaniments. 
PBICK: 50 cts. paper; 01) cts. boards; 75 cts. cloth. 


Are lighted after this, there will he a new enthusiasm, 
^ince the love for the old mui-s lias revived, and this 
capital selection is just w hat is wanted for Grand Army 
singers Music simple, and all with Piano or Organ ac- 
eoiupaniment, and all the great favorites are here. 


Has 9<; pages, is in large octavo form, and contains nearly 
a hundred songs and hymns. It contains all the BODge 
recent Tv given at the most successful Grand Army Con- 
cert, in Mechanics* Grand Hall, Boston; and soldiers and 
all others will find this a fine collection for concerts and 
social singing. 

Abundant provision is made for Mkmukiai, and Funeral 

Mailed, Post-Free, for Retail Price. 

C. II. DITSON & CO., - - 867 Broadway, New York. 






With fall graduating course, :.nd departments 
of Modern languages, Music and 
Art, will commence on 

Thursday August 3, 1883. 

jtr For Catalogue* with full particulars, or 
for admission, address 





The College i* a Quarter of a mile distant from it* OH M 
dej>ot on the N. I*. K. It. It is wholly in the countn . t!>« 
nearest town being four miles off. Tlie building* 0081 
about *So,ono, and are large and commodious. The loca- 
tion i* high, the ground porous, the drainage perfect, the 
liuuite fine. Great care is taken of the health of boys, 
md no death has taken place at the institution in the 14 
i ear* of its history, nor has there been any serious sick- 
icss beyond such attacks as end on Saturday morning. 
\bumlancc of butter and milk are produced on tin Col- 
lege farm, while the orchard and vineyard yield many 
ions more fruit than can be used. Next term OpftOfl 
\ugu*t 0, JSS3. .H'HN GAMBLE, li. A., Priiici|ial. 

Day School for Yonng Men & Boys 

Prepares for College and I'niversitv. For Information 
address REV E. B SPAULDINU, Rector. 


The next term ol this well-known Institution will 

commence on 
Wednesday August 1, 18S3 

ForCirculars giving particulars, address 

REV. C. T. 

Mills Seniinarv P. O. 


Alameda Co.. 

Hopkins Academy, 


Rev. H. E. Jewett, Principal 


Begins Tuesday, August 7, 1883. 


St. Catherine's Academy, 


Sisters of St. Dominic, 


Terms— Board, Tuition and Washing, $-250 per Annum. 

Tlie Academic Year consists of on« term, 

Commenclntf August 1st, and closing about 
tlie middle of Jane. 

Parents may rest satisfied that every attention consist- 
ent with the spirit of a Arm hut mild government, will be 
paid to the comfort of the young ladies placed at this 
Institution. Letters of Inquiry may be addressed to the 


D22 Post St., fun Francisco. 

toy and Boarding School for Young Ladie; and Children. 


The next Term will Cosrmence July 18, 1S83. 

Mme. B. ZEITSKA, A. M.. 



Twenty-Fifth Session Bcirins 

Wednesday August 1. 18<»3 

Semi for Catalogue. 

A. E. LASHER, A. M„ Principal 

Summer Resorts. 

/Etna Hot Mineral Springs 


Situated 16 miles east of St. Helena, In Pope Valley, 
Napa County. 
These waters closely resemble the Ems of Germany in 
analysis and salutary effect 

Board and Baths, $10 per Week. 
The .Etna Springs Stage will leave St. Helena dall} 
(Sundajs excepted), at 1 p. ».. connecting with the Si tL 
train from San Francisce, ana arrive at the Springs at 6 :3© 
r. m. Apply for rooms and pamphlets to 

Lldfll Post Office, Napa County, Cal. 

Highland Springs 


Lake County, - 



Having purchased the entire interest in this pleasure 
resort (which is unsurpassed in scenery, climate and 
varietv of mineral waters in America or Europe — the 
waters guaranteed to relieve all diseases amenable to 
treatment by mineral waters!, erected new cottages, ami 
secured the services of Mrs. K. B. Worth, of San Fran- 
cisco, as matron, we hojie to give satisfaction to our 
patrons. Telephone connects with Telegraph office at 
Ke'seyville. Post Office and Wells, Fargo A; Co.'s Express 
Office at the Hotel. Fish and wild game in abundance. 
Teams and saddle horses to let at reasonable rates. Good 
hotel and cottage accommodations. Beard per day, |2; 
per we. k, $10 to $14, including baths. 

Boitb. — Take boat at Market Street wharf, San Fran- 
cisco, at 7:5 A. M. , via Sin Ra'ael to Clovcrdale, thence by 
Stage direct to Springs in afternoon of same day; or take 
boat at Market Street wharf on Tuesdays, Thursdays 
and Saturdays at 8 A. m. , via Oakland, Napa, to Calistoea, 
thense by stage to Kelse>ville, where pmale conveyance 
is in readiness for Springs hue day. Fare, single ticket, 
$6.25; lound trip, $11.50. 



Berkeley, Cal. 


For Catalogues or other information, address S 
HARMON, Berkeley, Cal., or E. J. Wukson, 414 Clay 
Street, San Francisco. 

Friend & 



Established 1 868. 


At Wholesale and Retail, and 
Manufactured (o Order at tlie .Mills of ill 

o, Pooks, Windows, Blinds. Siiakks, Simxolks, Bolts 



Muller's Optical Depot, 

185 Montgomery St. n«ar Bash 

The most complicated cases of delect 
lve vision thoroughly dlatmoeed, free ol 
charge. Orders by mail or expres* 
promptly attended to. 

Compound Astigmatic Lenses Mounted to 
Order. Two Hourt Notice. 

Dewey & Co. m ^.. Patent Agfs. 



P. 0. Box!490, 

San Jose, Cal 

First class. Centrally located. Well equipped. Full 
corps of Teachers. All branches belonging to the modern 
Business College taught. 





1020 Oak Street, - - Oakland, Cal 

/r*"Ncxt Term will begin JL'LY 25, 188S. 

MISS 8. B. BISBEE, Principal. 



1310 Second Street, near 


Comer Twelfth and J Streets, 




Leffel's Iron Wind 

Manufactured by 

E. C. 
& CO., 

Springflelfl. Ohio. 

Slate where you eaw the Advertisement 
*#"Send for Catalogue and Prices. 


NkkI'HA.M's IJkd Clovkr 
Blossoms, and extracts pre- 
pared from the blossoms cure 
Cancer, Salt Rheum and all 
diseases arising from an impure 
state of the blood. It will also 
clear the complexion of all 
pimples, eruptions, etc. Is a 
sure cure for Constipation, 
Piles ami manv other diseases. 
Is both laxative and tonic. For full la'rticnlars, address 
W. C. NEEHHAM, Box 422, San Jose, Cal. Residence 
267 Third !>trect. 

Adukkss all corrcsponed ice to the name of the paper 
f'i-m, as either of the publishers or editors connected wii 
theoffi'e are quite likely to be absent at times. 


Sole Proprietor. 

Analysis of three out of 25 Springs at High- 
land Springs, Lake County, Cal. 

Names of Spring. . . . 

. SRi.T7.KR 

. Ditch.. 

. Mauic. 


..04.S- F. . 

. . 70.5" F. 

.S2 4-F 

gr. per 

gr per. 

gr. p^r 




Chloride of Sodium 

. 0.723 



Bicarbonate of Sola 

. 12.7IH! 

IS. 343 


Bkarbona'e of Potash 

. . 4WI 



Bicaibouate of I.ime 




Bicarbjuate of Magneda. . 







Bicarbonate 1 f ilanganesc. 





. 6 245 




. 1.6U5 



Organic Matter 



tr«. e 

Free Carbonic Acid 




Total i... 



it! .tiii 

Anal} zed by W. B. Bisinq, Profesior of Chemistn , 
L'uivertitv of California. Beiktley, June 2, 1SS2. 

Register Your 


Through Dewey & Co.'s Scien- 


tific Press Patent Agency, No. 
252 Market St., cor. Front, S. F. 

Agents Wanted. 

A Library In One Volume. New, authentic and ex- 
haustive. The largest, handsomest, most comprehend \e 
and best Illustrated Work on Live Stock ever Issued in 
this country. 

Endorsed by Veterinary' Surgeons and the Agricultural 
Press everywhere. The "Object Teaching" Stock Bock 
for every day use. 

Tho "American Fanners' Pictorial Cyclopedia of Live 
Stock," embracing Horses, Cattle, Swine, Sheep and 
Foultry, including Departments on Dogs and Bees; being 
also a Complete Stock Doctor, combining the effective 
method of Object Teaching with written instructions. 

For Terms and Circulars apply to J. DEWING it CO., 
420 Bush St. 8an Francisco Cal. 

P hotographoH 

183 El Dorado Street, 
Bet. Alain and Levee, STOCKTON, CAL. 

Al 1 Styles Pictures known to the art executed, of su- 
perior excellence, artistic in position and brilliant in 
finish. Special attention to children. 

This paper Is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson Si Co-, 509 
South lOth St., Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ces— 47 Rose St , New Yotk, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chicago Agent for the Pacific Coast— 
Toeenh H. Dorew. r>«0 Commercial St 8. F. 

July 21, 1883.] 


Lake County Resorts. 

Lake county has more numerous attractions 
for health and recreation than any other one 
county in the State. The prediction that it 
will some day prove the great northern sani- 
tarium of California is no idle boast, notwith- 
standing the present season, for obvious reasons, 
has been far from a lively one at most of the 
springs and watering places. Lake's mineral 
springs are numerous, remarkable and valuable, 
and will soon be more renowned in our own and 
other countries. During the past season decided 
improvements for the comfort and welfare of 
guests have been made at Highland, Anderson, 
Seigler and Pierson Springs, and we presume at 
many other resorts not visited by the writer. 
Soda Bay and Blue Lakes remain charming as 
ever. As a general thing improvements seem 
to have been made in the keeping of the health 
and pleasure resorts of the county, and the ac- 
commodations in reaching them. 

Give Them a Chance. 

If the thousands and tens of thousands of weak and 
weary sufferers throughout the land, who, in spite of care 
and skill, are steadily drifting downwards, could have the 
benefit of that subtle and singularly vitalizing agent 
which is called Coni))ound Oxygen, the help, and ease, 
and comfort it would bring to wasting bodies and de- 
pressed spirits would be blessings beyond price. If, 
reader, you have an invalid wife, or mother, or daughter, 
or sister, or anyone who is under your care and depend- 
ent upon you, and to whom life has become a burden 
through weakness and pain, consider seriously whether 
you arc not bound, in both love and duty, to give this 
sufferer a chance of recovery, or, at least, the blessing of 
ease from pain. You are offered the amplest means of in- 
formation in regard to this new Treatment. If you can 
examine testimony without, prejudice, and can weigh evi- 
dence with judgment and discrimination, you can hardly 
fail to see that in Compound Oxygen there is a healing 
power that is simply wonderful. Let, then, the sick and 
Buffering whom you can; for and love, and for whom \ oil 
have not been able to get relief, have a trial of this ne« 
remedy, It can do them no harm, and, seeing what it 
has done and is doing in ho many thousands of cases, all 
the probabilities arc in favor of its doing them good. 
Send to Das. Starkey & Palkn, 1109 and 1111 Girard St., 
Philadelphia, for their " Treatise on Compound oxyyen, 
its Nature, Action and Results," and learn all about the 
remarkable cures which are being made by this new 
agent. The Treatise will be scut five, 

All orders for the Compound Oxygen Home Treatment 
directed to H. E. Mathews, fioo Montgomery street, San 
Francisco, will be filled on the same terms as if sent 
directly to us in Philadelphia. 

Chakley Junks, an insane man, who was 
running loose in Pahranagat Valley, Nye county, 
Nev., was shot and killed by a squad of set- 
tlers a day or two ago. It is surmised that the 
case was one of murder. 

A Congli, Cold or Sore Throat should not be 
neglected. Brown's Bronciuai. Trocheh arc a simple 
remedy, and will give immediate relief. Price 2f> cts. 

Seigler Springs. 

These Springs are situated about seven miles from 
Lower I .ake, Lake county, and arc reached in twelve 
hours from San Francisco, via Calistoga, The 
Springs include soda, iron, magnesia, sulphur, 
arsenic, etc., and have been well tested for a variety 
of diseases, and their curative properties recom- 
mend them to the afflicted. Situated in a beau 
tiful and healthy location, the number of visitors 
to the place has been steadily increasing, and a fine 
large hotel has been erected this summer to meet the 
requirements of increasing patronage. A large 
Swimming bath is one of the attractions of the place 
and Mr. F. J. McC'ullough, the proprietor, spares no 
pains to accommodate those who pay the Springs a 
visit. The table is supplied with the best articles ob- 
tainable. Those contemplating visiting the springs, 
either for health or pleasure, will do well in giving 
Seigler Springs a visit. 

Complimentary samples of this paper are 
occasionally sent to parties connected with the 
interests specially represented in its columns. 
Persons so receiving copies are requested to 
examine its contents, terms of subscription, and 
give it their own patronage, and, as far as 
practicable, aid in circulating the journal, and 
making its value more widely known to others, 
and extending its influence in the cause it faith 
fully serves. Subscription rate, $3 a year in 
advance. Extra copies mailed for 10 cents, if 
ordered soon enough. Personal attention will 
be called to this (as well as other notices, at 
times, ) by turning a leaf. 

Our attention has been called to the remarkable curative 
properties of Burnham's Abictene. It is not a compound 
but a pure distillation from a peculiar kind of fir balsam 
It is really one of nature's remedies Used both internally 
and externally. As a specific for croup it stands without a 
rival, and does away with the nauseating effects of hive 
syrup and emetics. Cures colds, coughs, sore throat, rhet; 
matism, neuralgia, kidney troubles, etc. Used asa liniment 
or bruises, burns, stiff joints, sprains, poison oak, etc., it 
has no superior. For circulars and testimonials of its merit 
address Wni. M. Hickman, druggist, Stockton, Cal. For 
ale bv all druggists Price, 50 cents and 81 per bottle. 

Our Agents. 

Our Frirnds can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

G. W. McGrkw— Santa Clara county. 

M. P. Owkn— Santa Cruz county. 

J. W. A. Wright— Morced, Tulare and Kern counties 

■Iarku C. Hoao— California. 
,B. W. Crowkli,— Arizona Territory 

M. H. Joseph— F.ureka, Nev. 

1. M. Leihy— Los Angeles, San Bernardino and San 
Diego counties. 

A. C. Knox— Oregon and Washington Ter. 

J. J. Bartkul— Yolo county. 

Every Fruit-Grower His Own Canner 

Wheeler's Patent Cannery, 


Fruits, Jellies, 

Jams, Vegetables, 

Meats and Fish. 

As Well as to Large Canneries. 

It imparts Superior Flavor ! 
It is Economical of Labor and Fuel . 
Its Productions will Bear Stronger Tests 




Challenge Contradiction. 


No Processing Required to be Learned ! 

Management extremely simple; can be imparted by a 
few minutes' instruction. 


We select tbe names of a few froi 

the many using tlx 

C. < ' Perkins, Esleton, Sacramento county, Cal; Geo. L> 
Kellogg, Newcastle, Placer county, t 'al ; Newcastle Fruit 
growers' Association, Placer county; Cal:; John H. Keiiiny 
ton. San Francisco; L, Kurfee, Vacaville, Solano county, 
Cal,; John W, Stewart. San Francisco; <J M. Blake, Vaca- 
ville. Solano county, < 'al. ; Oak Shade Fruit Co., Davisville. 
Cal ; .1 W. North. Oleander; H. H. Bigelow, Oakland; .1 
W Mustick, Alameda; .1. A. Hunting, Centerrille, Alameda 
county; H ,J Kndisil, Riverside; C. K. Naylor, (teyserville; 
Geo, Brougham, Vaoaville; L. \V. Buck, Pleasant Valley. 
Solano county; W J Pleasants, Pleasant Valley, Solano 
county; <i W Thissell, Pleasant Valley, Solano county; N. 
Baker, Vaca Valley. Solano county; <:. W. Gibhs, .'acaville. 
Solano county; H. Scott. Vacaville; J. C. Hoag, 204 McAllis- 
ter St , San Francisco; G, W. Gates, Vacaville; T. C. Stewart, 
Buisun; Donohoe, Bcarsley & Oden, Fresno; W H. Jessup, 
llaywards, Alameda county; J. (». Love joy, Tulare City; 
John T Doyle, Itfenlo Park, San Mateo county; C. K. Heal. 
San Buenaventura; Taylor Bros., Byron; K. S, Camnhell. 
Vaea Valley; Bon. Win Johnston, Kichland. Sacramento 
county; B. Nathan, Stockton; D. K. Perkins k Cray. Ophil 
Packing Co., (hoville; Mrs. E. Lovejoy, Tulare county And 
many others living in various parts of the State. 

Sole Agents on this Coast for the 



Ever offered to the public JIunc always <>o hand Tin 
Cans, Soldering Irons, bolder, I'cach, Apple, and Pear 
IVdcrs, Tucking Cases for Class and, in fact, even tiling 
requisite for canning. 

T. A. MUDGE, Agent, 

414 Sacramento St., - San Francisco. 


The 30th Annual 


Will ba Held at Sacramento, Cal , 
in September, 1883. 

The new Exposition Building;, the largest and ni<»s 
commodious in tin' State, will -be ready for occupanc; 
September 1st. It embraces 120,800 square feet, of whicl 
4. r ),(ii«l is in the Main Hall, 12,000 feet in Horticultural 
Ball, 12,000 feet in Machinery Hall, 10,400 feet in the 
Industrial Hall, 10,400 feet in the Art Gallery, 12,800 reet 
in the Conservatories, and 17,000 feet in the Promenade 

This structure will he one of the most complete Exhibi- 
tion Buildings in the United States. It contains c\er\ 
available improvement for the convenience of Exhibitors. 

Ample space can he fiven for the exhibition of all kinds of 
machinery in Motion. Also to manufacturers to conduct 
the manufacture of articles while on exhibition. A loo- 
horse power engine will furnish motive power free of 
charge. No charge is made for space. Articles are tran. 
ported free to ana from the Exhibition by the Central 
Pacific Railroad Company. No better opportunity can b« 
offered to exhibit the various products of California. 


Embraces Liberal Awards for' all Kinds of 
Live Stock. Machinery, Implements, etc 
Textile Fabrics, Mechanical, Agricult- 
ural and Horticultural Prod- 
ucts, and Fine Arts. 

The Exhibition will open in the Pavilion September Sd 
and close September 15th. The Live Stock Exhibition 
will open September loth ami close September 16, issm. 

Am further information will be given upon applicatioi 
to the Secretary, from whom Premium Lists can be oh 

P. A. FIN1GAN, President. 

EDWIN F. SMITH, Secretary, 

P. 0. Drawer " A," Sa< k vmknto, Cal. 

The German Savings and Loan Society 

For the half N ear ending June :io, IKKi, the Hoard of 
Directors of the GERMAN SAY1NUS AN]) LOAN Sd 
CIKTY has declared a dividend on Term Deposits at th 
rate of four and thirty-two onc-hnndredths (4 82-100) pe 
cent per annum, and on Ordinary Deposits at the rate 
three anil six-tenths (!i 6-10) per cent per annum, free fron 
Federal Taxes, and payable on and after the 2d day of 
JvHy, 1888. Bv order, 

GEO. LETT?;, Secretary 


CAUTION! — The public are hereby respectfully cau 
tioned against certain inferior articles called "Electric 
Trusses, which are being hawked about the country bj 
TRUSS, which has been in use nearly eight years, is the 
only genuine Electro-Magnetic Truss in the world, and 
the only one that will properly retain a Rupture. Circu- 
lars free. Address, MAGNETIC ELASTIC TRl'SS AND 
BELT CC, 704 Sacramento St., San Francisco, Cal. 


113 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

Cards' Rotating Double Glass 
Ball Trap.— Price $10. 

W. W. GREENER'S Celebrated Breech Loading 
Double Guns. 

W. W. Greener's Trap Gun, 12, 14 or 16 Gauge, $85. 

Also Agents for the 

GLASS BALLS Manufactured by the California 
Glass Works. 

£2TA full stock of Colt's, Parker and Remington Guns, Sharp's, 
Ballard, Winchester, Kennedy, Marlin and Remington Sporting Rifles, 
Pistols of all kinds. Ammunition in quantities to suit. A liberal 
disoount to the tr-'dc. 


Commission Merchants. 

Grangers Business Association, 


No. 38 California St. SAN FRANCISCO 

Dried Fruit, Live Stock, Etc., solicited, and liberal ad- 
vances made on the same. 

Careful and prompt attention paid to orders for the 
purchasing of Grain and Wool Sacks, Wagons, Agricul- 
tural Implements, Provisions, Merchandise and Supplies 
of all kinds. 

Warehouses and Wharf, 

At "THE GRANGERS,'" Contra Costa Co 

Grain recbivbd on storage, tor shipment and fob 
salb on consignment. Insurance effected and liberal ad- 
vances made at lowest rates. Farmers may rely on 
their grain being closely and carefully weighed, and or 
having their other interests faithfully attended to. 




Late Mil It r & Oo. 



(Successors to MILLER & CO..) 
10 Da vlg St., near Market, San Francisco. 

Personal attention given to all sales, and to tilling any 
orders for 


And Other Ranch Suppllee. 





Grain, Flour, Wool, Etc. 

[Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange) 
211 and 213 Clay St., S. F. 
J9~Liberal advances made on Consignments. 


(Successors to J. W. GALE Jt CO.,) 

fruit ani General Commission Merchants, 

And Wholesale DealerB In California and Oregon Produce, 
Also, Oram, Wool, Hides, Beans, Potatoes, Cheese, Eggs, 
Butter and Honey. 

Rninlr Ctnpae • No. 402 Davis Street, and 
DrlLK OlUltJb. 120 Washington Sr., S. F 
Prompt Returns. Advance Lib, rally on Consignments 

J. E. Suoobe »t. H. W. WooowAy.D. Tf.uxtun Beai* 


Wool Commission Merchants 

And Agents for the sale of all kinds of Live Stock. Ad- 
vances made on Consignments. 

405 Montgomery St., SAN FRANCISCO 

Mock Yards. South San Francisco. 


No. 75 Warren Street. New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

RsFHRaNom— Tradesmen's National bank, N. Y. ; Ell 
winder & Barry, Rochestor, N. Y.;C. W. Reed Sacra- 
mauto, Cal.; A. Link & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 

Commission Merchants. 


Commission Merchants 

And Dealers in 

Green and Dried Fruits, 

Grain, Wool, Hides. Beans. Potatoes. 

404 & 406 DAVIS STREET, 

P. O. Box 1936 SAN FRANCISCO. 






Wholesale Grocers, 




front Street Block, bet. Clay 4 Washln gton. 8an Franclso 
tW Speotal attention given to country traders. 
P. O. Box 1940. 

Fourth Grand 


July 2Vtlx. 


V ■ • Good for Nine Days. • . 


Finest Vine, Fruit, and Alfalfa District 
in the State. 

4-r"TI('KKTS for sale at S:m Krancisro, dak land, Sam 
.lose, Sacramento, Stockton, etc. 


Real Estate Agents. 



Grain Warehouse, 


65,000 Tons Capacity, 



CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO,, - Proprietors. 

OFPICE-318 California St., Room 3. 

Fast Potato Digging! 

The Monarch Lightning Potato Digger 

s ih !•.«( y< al ly, i i \ i; 

(Mill (HI \\ lanii.T. (iuarunt I to 

j/DlgSlx Hundred Bush- 
els a Day ! 

30 Dap' 


Write Postal Card for Free Illustrated Cir- 
culars. Mention this paper. Address 

Monarch Manufacturing Co., IG3 Randolph St., Chicago, III. 

To Kill I'liks asdOthkk Axnovixo [N8KTB— "Buhach," 
California frown Insect Powder, is a never-failing- remedy. 
Sold by Druggists and Grocer9 everywhere. 



[July 21, 1883 

Lands for Sale and To Let 



Choice Lands of Alameda County. 

3300 ACRES. 

All level land, rich ami deep alluvial noil, of the selected 
iK.rtioiis of tlie Santa Kita Kancho, well known as the 

Samuel B. Martin Farm. •• " Puanasnw. 

in Alanwda County and a Reckon where crops 
n. m i- fail. The yield b verv gn»t anil suited to 

all kind- of farming and fruits. The rainfall is 

large and seicral streams run through the lands, which 
are alio bordered and oiuhroee a small iiortion of 
"THE WILLOWS." Railroad station one nun; valuaow 
improvenientt. This property will he sold as a whole at 
a low price, offering a line upiwriuiiity for Investment, 
welding a eertain large return. All of it is in great dc- 
iuaud by farmers for cash or crop rent, and for a temp of 
tl « It will huoffered in traits of not less than about 4lK» prices from S65 to per acre. A large |<ortion 
ran remain on mortgage if desired, at a low rate of inter- 
est; making beautiful homes and profitable firms. No 
other property as good, so near San Francisco, can l>c 
mirclmscil l»l less than ilouhle the price, and none in so 
large » body. The failing health of the owner is the only 
reason for seWag. Title Pram, Possession Oct. 1st 

Agent for Country Proi>erty, 
410 Montgomery St., S. P. 


The most delightfully situated colony i 
Southern California. 

Remarkably healthy, being i,000 feet above 
the sea level. 

Wholly devoted to fruit culture, and espc 
eially adapted to oranges and raisins. 

Advantages of church, school, store, depot, 
hotel, stage line, telegraph and telephone. 

Illustrated Circulars on Application. 





^?Ss 1 aille from leaders Railroad Station, PkuioCov; 

gtjjK, ited from Preeno Canal; ISO acres planted in 
^JLm. ohaTcest foreign grape rltiea l| yearn old Gordo 

Blanco, Charbdho, Burger, Zinfandel, Folic Blanche, 

Trousseau, Matero, Vcrdul and Muscatel. 

Also, Orchard of 1,000 Apricot Tries, 
And Sursery with 250,000 Prime Drape Cuttings. 

The property could not he in finer order, and when the 

vines ie into hearing, should pay for itself in two or 

three seasons, ir Price, sin.non. 

Agricultural, Grazing and Timber Land?, 

Improved Harms, Orchards and Vineyards for side in vari- 
ous counties throughout the State. 

£5f"*'irciilars on application. For full particulars, ap- 
plv to 

KiiBKUT WAI.KIXSIIAW, Heal Kstate Agent, 
433 California St., San Francisco, 




And Tract. 

Over 1200 acres choice Fruit and Vineyard 
Land; t b acres In bearing Vineyard, 20 
acres bearing Orange Orchard, 
20 acres Peaches, Apricots, 
Petis Walnuts, etc. 
Water Rights sutticUnt for entire tract. The tract joins 
Redlands on the east, Old San Bernardino on the wept 
and Lugonia on the north A large portion consists ol 
the "Ked Soil," pronounced the finest in the State for 
fruit culture. Climate equal to any in Southern Cali- 
fornia Kailroad depot (Broktidc) on 3. P. R. R. about 
a mile and a .planer from ranch house. Will he sold as 
a whol ' or in trac'.s to suit, on easy terms. 

For particulars apply to the owner, on the premises, 
or address him at Sail Bernardino PostofHce. 

The Mexican Colonization Company. 

acres of the tin. Bt farming lands 111 M. xic ., Slate of Chiapas. 
Distiict Soconiisco. now opened for settlers. No letter for 
coffee, su^ar can", corn, tobacco, indigo, rice grasp, auu 
hence stocu of all k hide, as will aa a great variety of fruit, 
vegetables, etc. The climate is healthy aud delightful A 
large colony will leave heie, under the moet favorable con- 
ditions, on the 15th of October, proximo. All arrange- 
ments are 00. jplute. For ft rther particulars apply to J. If. 
CLEMENTS, General Ageut, OOti Batter}' St., San Francisco 

Berry & Place Machine Company, 

PARKE St LACY Proprietors. ' 
No 8 California Street, - San Francisco, Oal 

importers and Dealers in every Variety of 


Stationary, Portable and Hoisting Engines and Boilers 


Shingle Mills, Emery Grinders and Emery Wheels, Gardner Governors, Leather 
and Rubber Belting and Packing, together with a general line 
of Mining and Mill Supplies. 

SW rata!oguen and Price Lists furnished on application. Mtt 

Highest Honors ever Taken in America Awarded to the 


Awarded the First preml 

film Oil Traction at Mar\ 
lUld State Fair after teat 
trial of :t hours at Balti- 
more, n, t. £», |.s*|. 1><-Ia 
ware Statu Fair, I B8& 
Pennsylvania State Fair, 
1S82. Also higb**t award 
at tin- Great International 
Cotton K\|>osition, at At 
lanta, *!a. , after a field 
test, lor Superior Merit 
her. 1SSI. Silver Medal 
at Charleston <*-) Fair, 
Deo. 1982, Cold Medal at 
Penns) Ivan Is state Fair, 


Thk Pkkklkmh era*) tl 
only Trnetion Knr.n 
anion,; Ave riimpetitors 
that made the trip BOOCOSB 
fully in the BSMttt-l Vnten 
nisi nsjfartVi. hslin in Baiti 
more, October 11, I860.) 

First Premium on PlM 
i.kkh at Hiehmnml, Va. , 
in R81 and LS0& 

On Every Field where Practical Tests and Actual Worth were Made the Standard of 
Merit. The *' Peerless" tanner Still Bears on its Folds the Motto 


Tin- PEERLESS won the $500 Gold Premium after a full trial and expert test at the Mi Industrial Exposition, 
Llndnnati, Ohio, ItifL The World challenged to produce its aqnal in practicability, construction, style ana Irtish, 
For further pnrticulurs, address 

THE GEISKR M'F'G CO.. Waynesboro. Pa. 

Grain in Warehouse & Buildings. 


Phoenix Assurance Company 


CASH ASSETS, - • $5,364,504.50. 


Western Assurance Company 


CASH ASSETS, - - $1,411,086.29. 

$100,000 U. S. Bonds Deposited in Sacramento. 

BUTLER & HALDAN, General Agents for the Pacific Coast, 

413 California Street. San Francisco. 


The b«st ard 
moat compUt* 'b rio 
< err invented to 
hold f eafca while be- 
iuk tilled, to be at- 
,sch d to Separa 
tor*. Fanning Mills, 
Setd Chancre, Par- 
ley Ml Ih, Feed 
MiH* OjIO She lerd 
»iid Flouring Mids; 
also for (li anal ies 
aud Warehouses, 
saving much time 
ami labor wherever 
facks are Lo he 
fitted. Hn>o* thr 
*tick itiHtauthi irhtH 

I claim the follow- 
ing points ah being 
butiuiior 1 1 all 
ctbe s ever in- 
veLted : I The 
fraite or hoder 
inc.veH eusiW on a 
)>ivot, eo that tbfl 
sack when ball in 1 
or full cad he 
shaken up and 
down as much as 
you please to settl j 

kram, witbout detaching the fuck. 2. When it is desired to remove the MOk, a simple backward movement iustintly 
leta tl.ea all the books and uitows the holder back uuder the chute. 3. On* XDOfemeDt of the hands uttuchr* the rack 
Uae in iveiuent of the hands dttacht* the sack 5. It is more easily Opentod than any other. *i. There are uo apringB 
HiHt.ruciiuu. 7. It ntver getH out <-f order. 8. It saves all the gnlo. Tbrtshcrs and otnerb who have for yeam 
b'uie*l ^ilitir tempera by the old-faahioued method of trying to bold sack* open by m. ans of Fticks. will hail this ii.vention 
MgtHU mintrtl in rrcrp count if. Semi (or Detcripiive UbutUfcT and 1'ilcu Listi* Address W. IS. 
or OLO UVLL \ CO., 3i .Market St . H* u Kraneineo, C»L 

Lands for Sale and To Let. 


Land and Town Co. 

ofTors for Sule, in Tracts Vo Suit, 

50.000 ACK'BS 

Of the Choicest Fruit Lands In Southern Caiiforria. 
Also desirable lota in 


The PaciSc Coast Terminus of the Southwestern Trans- 
:oiiti»cntal Railway System. Lota and Ltnds sold ou 
S IS YEARS CREDIT. Special induccnieuls to Ci.lonisU. 

Long Credit! Low Prices! Easy Terms! 

For Maps and full particulars nil on or address 

GHAS. L. HARRIS, Superintendent 

National City, Cal. 

Goo ^9f P s Every Season 
Without Irrigation. 

Free by mail, specimen number of "Thr Culi/ornian Rrul 
Kitatf Kxchtuior nnd Mart," full of reliable information on 
climate, productions, etc.. of 


Addrexs "EXCHANGE AND MART," Sauta Cruz. Cal. 



No Cmnmiminn CharyrH 


234 Montgomery btreet, 

Hale's Perfect Mole Trap! 


Ground Moles or Gophers 

In Lawns, Parks, Gardens and Cemeteries. 

Tiiim is uarrantiil to he the 
l.e>J and tiiu«t ivin|dete Mule 
"l'r»|i ever entetl, uiMr-is 

■*ii|H.Ti<»r to all others in the 
hdltiwin^ rc4i»uet»: 

< h* in^ t<> flu lmngt'lHPnti 
for holding tin- "printf, it is 
mAi i M t than an\ td.her 

Tin- Mnfftenctfea ol the 

t:;i|i ii nieh that it will Ofttcfa 
lUOlea w hen quite deep in the 


The pohltfl of the plot he- 
(ng DOHStatltl) in the ground, 
it can not cmtota **r injure lit- 
tu dtiokaw oc tat} domtMtSa 

Cannot he hlowii o\er hy 
the wind, or injured in uny 
nianner hv rain or ntonn. 

Cannot "^tatth 1 " or injure 
the operator hv sprin^in^ 

while hetnfc s«t: and betnic 
made entlreh ol tnetHl, can- 
not warp, twnt or t nut ut 

The ground not bafiat;dia- 

t Milii-d in an> \\a\, it can Ik* 
sel verj close feoamali plants 
<ir tloueis without injurinvr 

There IndtiK n<» pin or other 
otiatrtiction projectiiiiaj into 
the run, there is nothing to 
disturb or frighten the mole 
until oaughl 

tttng Kent with each trap/^i 
Price, $2 75 Each. 


WhoWMftlc Mid Retail Dealer iii Bead*, Horticultuml Tools, 

Qresnhousc Byringw, etc 
317 Washington St. San Francisco. 

I'nM ilirertioii!, f.i 



Joiner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 


Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

Jfjr Communications Promptly Attended to. ~9M 
OHUE ^» HONS fhiixawis tn Omti * n».un«T 


For hatcliing chicken*. Helf re&m'atini?, durable, practlca 
and ea ily understood Thin m not a Tt>it, hut u Practical 
Mtm/HfacturiMQ MfocAiac. Can hk ki n is anv Tkm ckra 
Tl' hk As Fancfera, Amateurs aDd "Uient aie leady to n>c 
a a "> 1 reliable. Helf-reuu atimr Iucuhitor. that can be pro 
cured che%p. we imw off r o-i»* that holds I '0 vagn. 
The II In I'l iee. W.'S. £Cbeud for Circular. 

J. P. CLARK. Sole A^nt for the Pacific Coast, 
60 H waru Bt., Sau Francisco. 

czszzxa ujli£|> 





From S*<10 up. Semi 
fur descriptive price list. 
Thoroughb.fd I'uullrjr 
*nd Kggfs. 
1011 Broadway. 

Oakland. Oal 


la its 

with er.thil I 


Awarded First Premiums 

At BMTI ajra otiikk Kaiks ovkk ai.i, Lkaiunu Maciii.i»| 

Perfectly Self Regulating! 

X#*$l-uitd upwards. 

F. P, Box eis. 

A^faTSend for Circulars. 
I. L. DIAS. 

July 21, 1883.] 


B^eede^s 7 Direct© 

Six lines or less in this Directory at 50c. a line per month. 


MRS. M. E. BRADLEY, San Jose, Cal. Breedei 
of recorded thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle and Berk- 
shire Hogs. A choice lot of young stock for sale. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal. Importers and Breeders, for past twelve years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

ROBERT BECK, San Francisco. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Jersey Cattle. Herd took six premiums of the 
eleven offered at State Fair, 1S81. 

GEORGE BEMENT, Redwood City, San Mateo Co., 
Cal. Breeder of Ayrshire Cattle. Several tine young 
Bulls, Yearlings and Calves for sale. 

WILLIAM NILES, I.os Angeles, Cal. Thorough- 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for circular. 

Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. O., Perm's Grove 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn ( 'attle, English Draft Horses, Spanish Me- 
rino Sheep anil Berkshire Swine. 


F. J. Barretto, Downey, Cal., importer and breeder of 
registered Jersey Cattle and their grades. The largest 
herd on the Pacific coast; upwards of 150 head of the 
ni09t desirable and fashionable strains of milk anil but- 
ter cattle. Alpbcas, Pansys, Ednas', and others, have 
taken many premiums whenever exhibited. Both sexes 
for sale at low prices. 

SYLVESTER SCOTT, Cloverdale, Sonoma Co., Cal. 
Breeder of recorded Thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle 
and Spanish Merino Sheep. Jacks and Jennets for sale 
at reasonable figures. 

P. J. SH AFTER, Oleina, Cal. Breeder of fine Jersey s 

YERBA BUENA HERD, Jerseys ami Guernseys 
(Registered in A. J. C. C, and A. (!. C. C). Won all 
the herd prizes tor 1882, since which three bulls, costing 
$3,000, hove been added. Now Scituates, Coomassies, 
Farmer's Glory, and Alphea strains predominate. 
Henry Pierce, San Francisco. 


FOR SALE -150 bead of fine Rams. George W. Han- 
cock, No. 62!) J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importcranil breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham cattle, lied Duroc 
and Berkshire Switie. High graded liams tor sale. 

E. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Sonoma Co., 
Ual. Importers and breeders of choice Thoroughbred 
Spanish Merino Sheep. City office, No. 418 California 
street, S. F. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Solano Co., Cal. Breeder 
and importer of Shropshire Sheep. Rams and Ewes for 
sale. Also cross-bred Merino and Shropshire. 


O J. ALBEE, Santa Clara, Cal., Poultrj Fancier. 
Irish B. B. K. Game, McDougall Pitt Game, B. Leghorns 
and l.angshans (Croad's strain). Box '229. 

J. N, LUND, Coi ner Webster and Booth Sis., Oakland. 
P. o. Box lie. Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry, Ply- 
mouth Hocks, Brown Leghorns, Light Brahinas, Lang- 
shans and B. B. K. Game Bantams. Eggs and fowls 
for sale. 

D. D. BRIGGS, Importer and breeder of Bret-class 
Fancy Poultrj . Langshans, W. F. Black Spanish, Black 
Haniburgs, White Dorkings, White Leghorns, Pekin 
Ducks. Send for circular. San Jose or Los Gatos, Cal. 

MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose.Cal. Purebred 
Fancy Poultry. White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth 
Kocks, Langshans and Houdans, Eggsand Fowls. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouse and Embder 
Geese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

MRS. M- E. NEWHALL, San Jose, Cal. Bronze 
Turkeys, Brown Leghorns, Langshans, Plymouth 
Rocks, Pekin Ducks. Fowls and Kggs in season. 

IMPROVED EGG FOOD, l lb., 40c.; 3 lbs., $1; 10 
fcs., 82.50; 25 lbs., $5. B. F. Wellington, 425 Washing 
ton st., S. F. Also agentfor Perfect Hatcher Co., of N. Y 


WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars free. 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire of stock imported by Gov. Stanford. 


J. D. E>JAS, Sunnyside, Napa, Cal. Breeder of Pun 
Italian t^ueuiiH. Comb Foundation, Extractors, etc. 

To Owners a nd Dea l ers in Live Stock. 

We respect fully solicit your consignments of LIVE STOCK, for sale on Commission, either dressed or on foot 
guaran teeing Collections and 

highest :rvr_A.:Ft:K:ET "V-a^ilxje. 

We have ample STOCK YARDS, on our own premises, and the largest Slaughtering Facilities on the Coast. 

Correspondence regarding Sale or Consignments of Live Stock, will receive our 
prompt attention Advances made as required. 

A. JACKSON, King's River, Cal. Fine Holy Land or 
Assyrcan Queens and Nucleus; great layers and w orkers 
Write for particulars. 

Beet Pulp for Cattle Feed. 

The Standard Sugar Refinery 

Can furaisl- sufficient Food to keop over 400 head of 
Cattle tbrou;nout the entire year. This Feed fs excel- 
lent for Dairy Cows, or for fattening Cattle for Beef. 

Liberal Terms will be made for a long term o( years. 

For information please write or apply in person to the 
Unilei signed. 

E. H. DYER, Gen. Supt,, 

Alvarado, Alameda Co., Cal. 

May 10, 1883. 



Proprietors Black Point Provision and Slaughter Houses. CB . wrl)! rn 

City Office, No. 125 and 127 California St., near Front, j francisco, ual. 


In all countries, and under all conditions, 


For Wool, and Wool and Mutton 
of the World. 

Combined, *;,.AK 

Laurel Ranch, 

B Only oitf: hour's ride from San Francisco 


makes the Breeding of these 
ij^ Sheep a Specialty. 



For Sale this Season. Prices same as former years. Address, 


Haywards, Alameda County, - California- 

Or E. W. FEET, Managing Agent, 1'. 0. Box, 1164. 


' An English Veterinary Surgeon and Chemist, 
lion- traveling in this country, says that mint 
nf the Hnrse and Cattle Powders sold here 
are worthless trash. He says that Sheridan s 
Condition Powders arc absolutely pure and 
Immensely valuable. Nothing on earth will make hens lav like Sheridan's Condition Powders. Dose. 1 teasp'n- 
ful to 1 pint food. Sold everywhere, or sent by mail for 8 letter-stamps. 1. a -iuu.ssoN H. Co., liosioN, Mas* 



Importers and Breeders of THOROUGHBRED 

Jersey, Durham and Holstein Cattle. 

Thoroughbred English Berkshire Pigs. 
Also Poland-China Pigs. 
Pacific Coast Poultry and Stock Book. 

New edition, over 100 pas;es. Vrcc, by mail, 50 cents. 
Address, inclosing stamp 


Los Angeles, Cal. 


Big Hedge Poultry Yards, 



20 lloudans, 25 Black Spanish, 

20 Langshms, 50 Buff Cochins, 

50 Rrown Leghorns, UiO Plymouth Rocks, 

50 White Leghorn , 25 Golden Polands. 

For further particulars address as above. 



Spanish Merino 


First Premium Flock for Four Years. Two hundred 
head for sale cheap for cash, or on terms to suit custo- 
mers. tS~ Orders promptly filled! 


Address, E. W. PEET, Manager, Haywards, Alameda 
Co.. Cal. Box 1164. 

Calvert's Carbolic 


$2 per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de 
stroying t. e vine pest, tad for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON 
S. F., Sole Agent for Pacific Co .st 


For Jersey Farm, San Bruno : 

200 Young Dairy Cows: 

8 Good Sized Young Mules. 

1,000 Tons of Good Hay. 

8S7 Howard St., San Francisco. 


Choice RAMS and EWES for Sale. Banch at Fulton, 
Sonoma county, Cal, and N P. R. R DIRECT TO THit 
RANCH, via uuernevi.le Branch at Fulton. Address 


Fulton, Sonoma Co , Cal., or 4 IS California Street, S. F. 


My Bcrkshires are Thoroughbred, and selected with 
great care from the best herds of imported stock in the- 
United States and Canada, and for individual merit cam 
not be excelled. My breeding stock arc recorded in tlu 
"American Berkshire Record," where none but pure tree 
Hogs are admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rates. Oor 
respi n lence solicited. 


18th and A Streeis, Sacramento City, Cal. 

For Sale at our Fiu-ui at Mo iiiiluin View, 

7rom our Thoroughbred Berkshire Hoar aud Sow, »hich we 
imported from England in 183 ' Pigs from Impoited Boar 
and Sow, $25 each; from Imported lioar and Thoroughbred 
Sow. §10 to $2U. Our Imported PigH a'e p« nice Pignas there 
are in the State. Address: I. J. TKUMAN. San Francisco 

Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows 

Catalogues and prices on application to 

Rfwl«n Station - - San Msteo Co 

,,c Edgb CarJ», elegsr.tly printed, 10 cent*. VAN 
PU3SUM * CO., 79 Saejau St.. New York, Y N. 


Unscrupulous persons, envious of the Fame and World- 
wide Reputation of 


Are, by fraudulently imitating the style of packages even 
to forging the very trademark of the Imperial, endeavor- 
ing to put upon the market 

Worthless Stuff of No Value to Fowls, 

Under a name so similar to the Imperial as to be easily 
mistaken for it at first sight. We take this means of 
caution'ng our uumerous customers against the fraud. 

The Imperial Egg Food is now used in every part of the 
United States, and its sale on this coast is simply won- 
derful, our order hook showing that every customer con- 
tinues to order, while every letter received is a testimo- 
nial for the Imperial. In purchasing, see that you get 
THE IMl ERIAL and none other, no matter how nearly 
similar in name and appearance. Send for Circulate and 

Retail Prices of Imperial Egg Food:— 1 Pound 
Package, 50 Cents; 2J Pound Package, $1.00; 6 Pound 
Box,l$2 00 ; 25 Pound Keg, $6.25. 
Sold by the trade generally, or address 
8 New Montgomery St , (Palace Hotel) S. F. 



Price Reduced 

$1.25 Per_ Gallon. 

Twenty gallons of fluid 
mixed with cold water wil l 
make 1,200 gallons of Dip. 

It is superior to all Dips and Dressings fur SCAB in 
Sheep; is i-ertain in Ki-fki ! ; is eusih mixed, and is ap- 
plied in a ( 'olii Statu; it improves the Characier of the 
Wool and promotes its Growth; is of great Hkamxo 
qualities in all cases of Sores and Bruises; is a protection 
against Blow-Fly in Bucks; is death to Mascots! Lice, 
Axis, and all Vermis'. Apple to 


San Francisco, Cal. 


Took five flrBt premiums 
out of eight pens exhibited 
at the State Fair, in 1881 
and 18S2. 

Choice hur.ksaud Ewes for 
sale. Orders promptly filled. 

PRANK BULLA RD. Woodland, Yolo Co., Cal. 


Blanding Ave , bet. 

Everett and Broadway, 

Importer and Breeder of 
Thorougtibred Fowls. Lang- 
shans (Croad Strain). Americau 
Sehrights, Plymouth Rocks, 
Brown and Whi te Leghorns, 
Eggs for hatching. 


CHAS. W. SMITH, Manager. 
Address: Brooklyn, AU- 
meda Co., Cal. 







Lick House, - - - San Francisco. 


And Graded 


Rams for Sale. 

Bred from the Hr.nt impor- 
tation of Spanish Merino 

Sheep tn California, in 1854. 

Thoroughbred ami High" 

reasonable. Resilience, one 
n th of McConnell's Station, Western Pacific Division 
I. R. I*. O. address, 


Elk Grove, Sacramento Co., Cal. 



Free from Poison. Prepared 

by the Italian Government 

Co. Cures thoroughly the _ 

remedy known. R*Uftble testi- 
mouials at our oth'-e. 

For particulars apply to 
CHAS. DUISEUBK 4 <G & CO Sole Agents, 314 Sacramento 
Street. Han Francisco 

To Fish Raisers 

I am new ready to sell Carp widen were imported l>y 
■nn from Germany in 1872. in lots 'o unit. Addross 
T m. POPPR1. Sonoin«.Cal 

IIICT DTPCI W Fn • l; 1 ' nil's 

JUG I nC.Ut.1 V CU . standards Extractoi 

Wax Extractors; Bingham's Smokers and Honey Knives; 
Cook's MMual of the Apiary. Price, $1.25. J. D. ENAS, 
Sunnyside (Napa P. ().), Cal. 



[July 21, 1883 

Note.— Our quotations are for Wednesday, not SatnrdaJ 
the dale which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, Tuly lg . l88 3- 

The week's trade has been enlivened by an improve- 
ment in Wheat, following an upward tendency in 
foreign advices. The following is the latest from 


LIVERPOOL, July 17— The spot market is higher, 
with a good demand, at 8s od^' os. C argoes are the 
turn dearer, at 44s 6d for just shipped, 44s for nearly 
due and 44s for off coast. 

Eastern Grain and Provision Markets. 

CHICAGO, July 17.— Flour, steady, unchanged; 
n -ular wheat, strong, higher; $i 03^61% July; 
4i*@5 August; No 2 Spring, 3ii(s'% \ red Winter, 
7@}4. Corn, generally unchanged; some sales 
rather higher; 52^ cash, July; 2**(a% August. 
Oats, firmer; cash; 3*, July; 28#j@o August. 
Rye, firmer, 56. Pork, moderately active, higher ; 
$14 55^1 60 cash, July ; 57 'A (a 60 AugusL Lard, ac- 
tive, firm, higher; $8 yo cash, July; 00^9254 Au- 
gust. Hulk meats, fair demand, higher ; shoulders, 
6H ; short ribs, 7K '• short clear, 8. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

NhW Yukk, July iv— Trading in domestic wools 
has been in much the usual careful form, 1101 many 
buyers feeling in any way inclined to assume the bur- 
den of carrying slocks, except through the force 01 
actual necessity. Even on this basis, however, 
wants are, in sorr:e cases, gradually increasing. A 
strain of hope pervades the situation, which is, at 
least, promising. The cable brings generally dull 
and tame accounts from England. East India wool 
will commence to come in on the 17th inst., with an 
offering of about 13000 bales. Sales include 3500 
pounds of spring California at 20 cents, 4000 pounds 
scoured at 60 cents and 18000 pounds spring on pri- 
vate terms. 

New York Hop Market. 

NEW York. July 15.— Crop reports from this 
State are of various tenor, but on the w hole indicate 
a cropequalto last year's. From abroad, intelligence 
is that England will have a full average crop and 
1 lermanv considerable to spare. As a natural conse- 
quence, sellers find the hop market a Jordan road to 
travel, as buyers seem generally well posted on the 
situation anil very indifferent for anything short of 
strictly choice stock. Thirty cents is lop price and 
off-grades go at 3(8 5 cents: under that, Pacific Coasl. 
fair to prime. 25(17 30 cents. 

Freights and Charters. 

The follow ing is a summary of the engaged and 
disengaged tonnage at this and adjacent ports, and 
on the way to this port yesterday morning: 

1883 1882 

Engaged tons in port :(2,l. r iO 3N,,8f> 

Disengaged *4.X*> »■»* 

On the way *30s,6OU aH.SS.'i 

Total • 4-2!,,:*Mi 349,165 

Increase 76,33!i 

Tons under engagement to load Wheat.. 21,02.1 IIS.SSS 

1 ncrease 1* tMP 

* Includes 2u,224 Ions for Wilmington. 

There were 16 vessels under engagement at this 
port to load Wheat, and none at neighboring |jorls. 
Then are 58 disengaged vessels at this port and none 
at neighboring |X>rls. The engaged and disengaged 
tonnage, as above, has a Wheat-carrying capacity 
for 175,000 short tons, against a capacity for 97,175 
tons on the corresponding date last year, being an 
increase of 77.825 tons. The bid and asking rates 
for Wheat cargoes were reported as follows: 

Bid Asked 

Iron— Liverpool direct 52s dd 

Iron— Cork for orders 10 United Kingdom. -BO* Od 

Iron— Cork or Continent 

Wood— Liverpool direct 47» 6d 50s Od 

Wood- Cork for orders to United Kingdom. 50s Od 52s 6d 
Wood— Cork or Continent .'.is 6<1 55s Od 

The Foreign Review. 

London, July 16. — The Murk Lane F.xprrss, 
in its review of the grain trade for the past week says: 
The*hcavy thunder storms and chilK nights were un- 
favorable for crops. Native wheats were generally 
lirmcr and dearer, Flour was dull except for line 
white; which was firmer, owing to scarcity. Maize 
was cheaper on Friday and mixed American brought 
25s 6d; extra ship cargoes off coast were very quiet. 
There were eighteen arrivals, five sales and twelve 
cargoes withdrawn, of which one was Californian. 
Sales of English wheat during the week were 33.476 
quarters at 42s 2d p>-r quarter, against 14,522 quar- 
ter-, at 48s 5d for the corresponding week of last >ear. 

HAUs Calcutta bags are selling fairly at 7%y^ic 
in large lots. The ( >akland factory will liegin to 
contribute to the supply next week. 

BARLEY Barley has advanced 2!*c since our 
last report, and the market is quiet and strong. New 
brewing is quotable ai $1; old would bring 10c or 
15c more if it were to be had. Future sales were: 
Julv 100, 97 Sc. December 100, buyer's option, 
06c; 100. 04 V. Buyer season 100, $1.0414. 
Buyer '83 — 200, 99c. Seller season 200, 92c Sel- 
ler '83 ioo. 93K e ! IO °- 93Wc; 100, 92 r t r; 200, 
92HC, 300, c,2%c; 100, 92>nc. July- 100, 94^c. 
Buyer season 100, $1.01; 200. $i.ooX- Buyer '83 

100, 97^-c: 100.07c; 100. g6!ic. Seller season 
100. 91c. Seller '83 300, ui" 8 c; 100,91^1-; 100. 
91 He! 400, 9i.'ic; 100, oi.'ic; 200, 91 Jic. 

BEANS There is no change whatever from last 
week's rates and the iraile is quiet. 

CORN Prices are stationary. There is very little 
California < orn to Ik- had. Nebraska is plenty and 
depressed; worth $1.47'* fc* ctl. 

DAIRY PRODUCE The trade is doing fairly 
and there is a chance of a stronger feeling, although 
prices are unchanged so far. Cheese is also getiing 
firmer, but w ithout advance as yet. 

EGOS Choice ranch eggs are scarce and 2c 
higher than last week. Lower grades are in large 
stock and dull. 

FEED - Hay is worth 501" more than last week for 
the best w heat. The following is the range accord- 
ing to quality: Wheat, S12@13.50; wild oat, $I2@ 
13; barley. $11(012; stable, $u@i2; cow, $9(011; 

alfalfa, $o@8 $ ton. Bran is firm and supplier 

FR ESI I M EAT Beef is ; , cheaper than a week 
ago, and live hogs are weaker and lower because of 
the general depression in pork products. 

FRLTT— Supplies are light fortius lime of the 
year and there is nol much change in prices except 
for Peaches which are lower. < )ranges are also lower 
the best being quotable at $2 fcf Imjx. Sicily Lemons 
have advanced $1 p box. Dried fruit shows quite a 
downward movement as may be seen by our price 
list. The new crop is approaching and a little weak- 
ness is engendered. 

HOPS — The nominal rate is now 2o(u 25c t*' lb. 
The New York market as telegraphed 011 Monday- 
is given in another column. 

OATS — The abundance of new < >ats now arriving 
has put down values about 20c ctl. 

ONIONS— Red Onions are again getting into low- 
latitudes anil silverskins are improving. 

POTATOES— Potatoes are lower this week and 
have a wide range according to quality. Poor to 
fair in boxes sold at 20@50c. while good to choice 
went at 75C@$i t? ctl. Poor to fair in sacks sold at 
25(0; 50c, and good to choice at 806190c. 

PROVISIONS— Prices of Bacon and Lard are 
being depressed b\ the arrival of supplies from the 
East where they were bought because of the break in 

POULTRY AND GAME — Tht rise in fowls last 
week brought in large supplies and they have broken 
down the market and the surplus has sold very 
slowly. Values are reduced again about $1 t»' dozen. 
Turkeys are unchanged. Rabbits, Hare; and Veni- 
son, are all higher. 

VEGETABLES Green Peas have sold better 
this week. Marrowfat Squash is falling rapidly, 
and Summer Squash has improved. Tomatoes are 
declining. String Beans are in large supply and 
have sold low. 

WHEAT Wheat has advanced 2(»c per ctl., 
and the market is strong and tending upward. 
There is little offered for sale. At the Produce Ex- 
change Call Board to-day there was a good specula- 
live inquiry, and close upon 3,000 tons No. 1 white 
changed hands as follows: Seller 1883 100 tons, 
$i.6o)i; 100, %I.Go%\ too, $I.6o*j; 100, $i.6o 7 -; 
700, $1.61; 300, $i.6i,' b ; 1.000, $1.61 X; 100, 
$i.6i>; too, $1.61 !. - July 100 ions, $1.61}.,: 
100. $i.6i-'»; 100, $1.61 H. At the Grain 
Exchange ihis afternoon the transactions aggre- 
gated 000 tons No. 1 white as follows: Seller '83 

300 tons, $1.59; 200, $i.595ii IO °. $'.59K t* 
ctl. The closing quotations were as follows : 
No. 1 White, August, bid $1.59 . September, bid 
$i.6iX; asked $1.61 V December, bid $1.61^; 
asked $1.03'-... Seller 1883, bid $1.59; asked $1.59'^ ; 
Buyer 1883, bid $1.6.5; asked $1.66%. 

WOOL— Prices are unchanged. The trade in 
choice Wools continues good. The Call says: 1 1 is 
understood that the ships Simhiole and DtiviJ 
Crockett will take almost full cargoes of Wool to 
New York, and that nearly all of it has lx-en already 
bought. Sales for the past week fool up about 
500,000 lbs lOaslern Oregon and 700,000 lbs Cali- 
fornia, all al quota lions. 

Domestic Produce. 


Wkos-ksi.vv. .1 ill v 18. I8S3. 


Kay... ctl 5 25 «> 5 50 

Butter 4 25 S 4 50 

Castor — <? 4 00 

Pea I 75 1" 3 25 

Red 4 00 i« 

Pink 4 00 i" 4 25 

\m*v White ... 3 00 «• 
Small White. .. 2 75 .« 3 25 

Lima 3 00 in 3 1! 

K'ld IYn»,lilk eye 2 50 
dp greeu — - v 
BSOOM runs 

Southern 3 i" 

Northern 4 in 


* isHfanda 4 i" 

(Soman Hfi 



Cal fresh roll. II,. 23 i<« 
do Fancy brads 25 t" 

tickle ran 25 (" 

Firkin, new 224"' 

bates 17 <« 

New York — <» 

Cheese. I'al . It... 9 i« 
do boxed ... 14»«' 


1 'al.. ranch, <1>»/... 29 <" 

<lo, st.»re. 25 vr 

lJuckn 26 vt 

1 ircKon — (a) 

Kastem. by ex . . 25 (« 

Pickh-d here.... la 

uttii ms 

Bran, tou 15 00 10 <« 12 

Pisaius 14 1" 15 

l'eauilts 7 i" S 

KTbecte 14 i« 15 

l>N li INS 

Red 40 «< M 

Silverskiu, new . 75 <« 85 



New, ctl 25 i« 1 00 

3 mi l-'.ai ly K.«w 87).i« I 00 

Petaluuia - <» 

Touude* (« 

31 HuinbuMt vi 

6 dn Kidney ... i« 
do Peacliblow. ■ 

4; Jersey Blue i» 

7 [Outfey < Vvc !« 

River, red i" 

I'hile - <« 

24 do Oregou... i« 

20 Peerless — (« 

2.J Salt Uike in 



Hens. In 8 00 i« if 00 

Roosters 8 00 vIO oo 

Broilers 3 50 (a 6 00 

Ducks, tame 5 00 (« 8 00 

tieese, pair 1 50 i" 2 on 

Wild Cray, do/ 1 75 l« 2 00 
White do... 75 (ci 1 00 

Turkeys, It 22 I 25 

do Dressed.. — tff 

tail ami Winn . 10 (a 20 
Snipe, Bnf . do/. 2 00 en 2 50 
lo Common.. 75 n 1 00 

H M Quail l so (« 

Coruineal 35 50 WM 00 Rabbits 1 50 (a 2 00 

Hay 6 00 in 13 50 Hare 2 50 ffl 3 00 

Uiddlluga 20 00 u«22 00 Venison.... 12.'.(("i 15 

Mil Cake .Meal.. ("35 00 PROVISIONS/ 

Straw, bale. .. 50 (" 05 Cal Bacon. 

FLOl R Heavy. It. 14i<« 

F.xtra. < 'ity Mills 5 371«' 5 50 Medium 16 <& 

io Co ntry Mills 5 oo'i" 5 25 Light . 
Su|iertine 3 75 i" I 00 Liril 




4 l" 

Beef. 1st Mllal . tl 




spring Lamb.M 
Pork, undressed. 


Veal lift 

QBAJbT, bio. 

Barley, feed, ctl. 95 til 
do Brewiug.. 1 00 (a 

i 'hevalier 1 30 w 

Buckwheat 3 00 fu 

Com. White.... 1 65 (a 

Yellow 1 50 id 

Small Round. 1 liO fi 

flats 1 50 B 



No. 1. 
Ha 1 

M 1 
13 ui 

15 (a 

Cnl Suiiikt-dBe. 

8 Shoulders 

7 Hams. Cal 

il do Kastem 

« Alfalfa ll.J(4t 14 

7j do Chile ui- 

10; Canary 5j(n 6 

91 Clover, red 14 VI 15 

White 45 in 50 

975 Cotton 


411 Hemp 

Italian Ryegrass 


Millet, Ceruiau 

do Common. 
Mustard, white 





I SJJta 1 80 

1 30 \n 1 35 Rap 

1 "i 1 iH» Ky Blue ( 

I 52*1" I 55 2d nilality 

millillK 1 till III I »;»;. Sweet V llrass. 

Di-y 17 (<r 

Wei salte.l .... 9J(« 

Husky. ETC, 

Beeswax, tl. 271m 

Honey in comb. 12 m 

Kxtiwte.l. light. 7 in 

do dark 5 <n 

Oregon 20 <n 

California 20 in 

Wash Ter 20 in 

Old Hops (n 

M TS Jobbinu. 

Walnuts, Cat, lb 9 <g 

do Chile.. 

Almunds. hdshl 8@ 

Soft shell J3 <n 

20 i« 
25 (u 
25 (•' 
10 (n 
7 (a 
2 (a, 
I in 
20 fi 
10 in 
75 in 
20 in 
15 (i. 


17! Red Top 

ll Hangaifaii... 



U Tiinothy . . 
li i frode, Hi 8 in 

Reriued lljm 

25 Wl M lL. KTl '. 

25 HPBINU 1883 

25 San .loa.iulu. . . . 


Northern, free., 
il Northern, burry. 
S < iregon Kastem. 
» do valley... 

30 in 
10 (n 
8 in 

13 in 
20 in 
22 in 
17 in 

Fruits and Vegetables. 


Wkhnksiuv. Jul) 18. 1883. 


Apples, box 75 «r 1 

Apricots, box... 80(11 1 
Bananas, bunch. 1 50 m 2 
Blackberries, cht 6 00 in 8 
Caliteli.ilpes, do/ 4 00 m 5 
Cherries, cht. ..13 no WIS 
Cherry Pluius.bx 75 «» 
Cocoauuts. 100.. 6 00 In 7 
Crabapples, bskt 75 
Cranberries, bbl 15 oo -«17 
Currants, cht. . . 5 110 In 7 

Figs, box 75 m 1 

IJooseberries, lb. 4 m 

Crapes, box M 

Limes, Mex 10 50 (Ml 

do Cal . 100 .. in 
Unions, Cal.. bx 2 00 in 3 
do Sicily, Isix 10 50 mil 
do Australian in 
I iranges. I 'al . bx 1 50 in 2 
do Tahiti M 18 oo <n20 
do Mexican. . . - 
do Pauaiua... in 

Peaches, Ik>x 50 in 

do Crawford.. 90 «' 1 

Pears, boi BO I 

Piueajiples. doK. I on "i (1 

Plums 50 in 1 

Prunes, bask 1 00 t" 

Raspberries, chtll 00 '"13 
Strawberries.cht 8 00 WW 
Watenu Tus, i|/ 4 00 in 5 

Apples, sliced. Ih 6\vl 
do eva)sirateil 
do i|uartertsl 





Figs, pressed. . , 

do loose 

5 in 


11 w 


7 m 


15 m 


Pears, sliced.... 

7 (" 


do whole .... 

5 i" 




do pitted .... 

11 in 


9 in 


Raisins, Cal bx 

1 50 m 

2 00 

do halves 


do iiuarters. . 

- nr 

do eighths... 

- lit 

Xante Currants. 

8 (« 


1 50 


00 ! As]iaragus, box. 1 00 i" 

I Artichokes, do/ 10 i" 

00 Beets, ctl 1 00 i" 

00 Cabbage. 1011 n.s. I 00 in 1 10 

I arroU. sk 37ji" 50 

00 CauliHower. do/ 1 50 

10 i 
t l" 

11 in 
14 '" 

28 i" 
9 (« 
7 «* 

00 Celery, do/ 
Cucuuitrers, Isa 
Kggplant. lb. 

90 Carlic. H. 

00 do poor 

2 r , Oreen Com do/. 

011 (ireeii Peas 

Wl Lettuce. llOC 

Mushrooms, box 
no okra. green. Hi 

no Parsnips. It 

i«i Peppers, ll. 

do Chile 

7). Rhubarb 1 50 

12 Bouaeb. Marrow 
6L fat, It. 

121 Buuaah, Suiuun-r 

- Ih.x 

311 String Beans . . . 
Ill Tomatoes, box . 
S Turnips, ctl 

50 in 

50 i" 1 50 
6 in 8 
:l «i 3 
1 <« 

10 in 18 
3 (" 3 
10 in 

20 in 
1 (" 
5 (" 

1 w 


1 75 

35 (" 75 

2 in 3 

75 in 1 00 

75 in 1 00 

TOT dlgeafefrra OlgaM weakened and worn out by usinf: 
cathartic medicines, restored by using Brown - 1 1 on 

News in Brief. 

THE cholera continues to spread in Kgypt, 
ami has reached London and Berlin. 

Two fool students fbnght a due] the other 
day at Wurt/lmrg, Germany, and one was 

Ml;s. NaNCY Ahaik dislocated her neck and 
fell dead while addressing a prayer meeting in 
the Cherokee nation. 

A Mormon bishop named KLnndmn, in under 
arrest at Ashley Park, U. 'I'., for attempting to 
kill t\v:i of Ins wives with giant powdcr 

THK big tunnel through the main ridge of the 
Hocky mountains for the Northern Pacific Kail 
road, near Helena, Montana, is not yet finished. 

AjLoNO the line of the Mexican Central rail 
mad there are twenty-one cities, with an ag- 
gregate population of S!M>,(KK), and none of 
them are State capitals. 

A Kg you IroiibUsI with such sy nipl.inis at 
belchiitf, |SJritlng of the load^ heart bum, e 
Iron Bitters will cure \ou. 



The Quail — The August Century will open 
with a paper by Prof. Alfred M. Mayer, of the 
Stevens Institute, an enthusiastic sportsman, 
on "Bob White, the (lame Bird ot America." 
Prof. Mayer calls him, as the bird calls himself, 
"Bob White,'' and as he is known every where, 
although in the North and Kast he is commonly 
called Quail, and in the South and West, Par 
tridge. The illustrations of this paper are said 
to be remarkable specimens of .lames ( '. Beard's 
skill as a delineator of birds. 

Im roi TAMT additions are being continually made in 
Woodward's Hardens. The grotto walled with aijuaria is 
constantly reccivi ig accessions of new fish and other marine 
life. The number of sea lions is increased, and ihere is a 
better chance to studv (heir actions The pavilion has new- 
varieties of performances The floral depart mem is replele, 
and the wild animals in good vigor. A day at Woodward's 
Gardens is a day well spent. 

FARMERS Wishing; tO employ Kngineers for Thrashing 
Machines, also men to dri\ e Header Wagons, also ban est 
men and men for all kinds of work, will do well to call 
on or write to.l. F. CRoSKTT A: Co. . Kniploy im-nt Agents, 
028 Sacramento St.. San Francisco, Cal. 

Ovr.R 180,000 Howe Scales Sold -- Hawley 
Bros.' Hardware Co., Ueueral Agents, San 

Anokki.'s Liver Pills cure rheumatism and headache 


The Best Spring Medicine and Peautifler of 
the Complexion in use. Cures Pimples, 
Boils, Blotches. Neuralgia, scrofula. Gout, 
Rheumatic and Mercurial Pains, and all 
Diseases arising from a disordered state of 
the Blood or Liver. 

si-iTSoU) by AM, i>Kn:<;isTs. >r 
tT. n. GATSS c*7 OO. 

417 Sansome St., S. P. 

The Home School for Young Ladies 


Hit Home Bohools which hm hitherto been under the 
noLMtegeaittKi 1 *>t MIh ii. n. Kit- i* l , now dkpeeeeedsj will in* 
re-opened on the SOth put. under tin pejponal tupetrnv 

ion and OAN of IflfW Lur\ A. Kiel*! ami IHw Ceroluie M. 
Fleldj her xistvrv The MisMt*-. Kii-M, who now a*- 

sunif contooli were formerly connected with Mum 
school lor four yearn ending Beptember, 1877, 
and have also had I Urge tfxjK'iit- DOfl UwUvr* 
of young ladies in ihe Kast. Thev asHiirt- its former 
frfondfl anil pntrOM and the public, that no effort 
or expense will he spared to maintain the high reputation 
which this school AM attained. The l»est teachers in all 
hranehekwill hi.- provided, and even care and attention 
bertOWed upon the ph> sical, meiitjil and moral welfare of 
those committed to their charge. Terms for boarders 
and da\ pupil" as heretofore. Further information ina\ 
he had h\ letter or |«-r*onal application at the school, 
1 ls*2fi TelevTaph a\euue, Oakland, Cal. 


health and avoid sickness. 
Instead of feeling tired and 
worn out, instead of aches 
and pains, wouldn't you 
rather feel fresh and strong ? 

You can continue feeling 
miserable and good for no- 
thing, and no one but your- 
self can find fault, but if you 
are tired of that kind of life, 
you can change it if you 

How ? By getting one 
bottle of Brown' Iron Bit- 
ters, and taking it regularly 
according to directions. 

Mansfield, Ohio, Not. 26, 1S81. 

Gentlemen : — I hare suffered with 
pain in my side and back, and ereac 
soreness on my breast, with shoot- 
ing pains all through my body, at- 
tended with great weakness, depres- 
sion of spirits, and loss of appe- 
tite. I have taken several different 
medicines, and was treated by prom- 
inent physicians for my liver, kid- 
neys, and spleen, but'I got no relief. 
1 thought 1 would try Brown's Iron 
Bitters ; I have now taken one bottle 
and a half and am about well— pain 
in side and back all gone — soreness 
all out of my breast, and I have a 
good appetite, and am gaining in 
strength and flesh. It can justly be 
called the king 0/ mtdkitus. 

John K. Allkndbr. 

Brown's Iron Bitters is 
composed of Iron in soluble 
form ; Cinchona the great 
tonic, together with other 
standard remedies, making 
a remarkable non-alcoholic 
tonic, which will cure Dys- 
pepsia, Indigestion, Malaria, 
Weakness, and relieve all 
Lung and Kidney diseases. 

How to Raise Good Crops. 

in .1. <•. 11. 

As wi; liavf a ijoihI market ami a growing de- 
mand lor all the products of tliis country, 
especially wheat, wine and fruit, there is no 
subject nf mure importance to the farmer than 
this. In all countries having hnttwo seasons 
wet and dry -the SODOees of raining good crops 
depends upon two principal factors, vi/.. : thor- 
ough cultivation and irrigation. Without water 
fur irrigation, the soil must )>e well tilled and 
thoroughly pulverized or the moisture in earth's 
laboratory will escape by evaporation. To 
utilize the reproductive forces of nature, stim- 
ulate growth in vegetation and invigorate an 
exhausted soil, the ingenuity of American genius 
has invented the Spring Tooth Harrow and Cul- 
tivator. The history connected with this im- 
plement is one of disappointment, trials, 
rebuffs, and at last success. As a crowning 
triumph, the Spring Tooth Harrow , Cultivator 
and Seeder has been made, combining three im- 
plements of husbandry which may Ik- used 
singly or conjointly. This new invention is 
mounted on wheels, and the toil and tiresome 
exertions of the fanner arc avoided; and while 
occupying his easy seat, with lever and ingen- 
ious devices he is directing forces that are 
economizing and giving a magic power to the 
stubhorn soil that will insure good crops. 
Messrs. liatchelor X Wylie, .'IT Market street, 
proprietors of the Spring Tooth Harrow, Culti- 
vator and Seeder for the Pacific coast, have met 
with the most Mattering success in their effortji 
to introduce this new implement. Farmers 
who were induced to try these Seeders in put- 
ting in their present crop have invariably in- 
dorsed them, and in a number of instances 
certified to their efficiency as the liest Seeder 
ever introduced on the Pacific coast. The grow- 
ing demand for these new implements indnced 
the proprietors, Messrs. Batchelor It Wylie, 
to double their orders, and they now have in 
large stock the Spring Tooth Harrow, Culti- 
vator and Seeder. F'ollowing their plan in 
introducing this Cultivator, they will allow 
thein to he taken and OfMd on trial, and returned 
if not satisfactory. 

July 21, 1883] 






Sail's Patent Straw-Burning: Attachment. 

The Am us' Knuimjw with Hall's Straw Burnkr, sold by BAKKK & HAMILTON 
in past years, have stooil all tests and given lietter satisfaction than any other style of en- 
gines ever sold on this coast. They run from year to year without that general and extensive 
overhauling every season which is a necessity with other styles; and they have never heen 
known to explode, which cannot be said of other engines. The reasons are simply these: 
The boiler is built on sound mechanical principles, such as are generally accepted at the 
present day; there are no large areas that cannot be properly stayed; there is plenty of 
room for the mud to settle without filling up to the extent of stopping the water away from 
the fire surfaces, thus preventing them from getting redhot; there is plenty of heating surface, 
so that steam in abundance can be generated without forcing the boiler and getting some parts 
of it overheated; the boiler will carry the water without foaming and passing more out of 
the smokestack than the pump ran supply: it is supplied with a pop safety valve, which pre 
vents the possibility of carrying more steam than it is set at, and the engine is powerful 
enough to do all the work required without maintaining a high pressure of steam. The 
engine is compact, strong, handy to get at, runs smooth and easy, without pounding, will 
start right off when given steam without coaxing, and never was known to turn itself the 
wrong way nor break a valve stem. It is balanced to run without clamps. The valve is of 
ample size to give the best results, and in its present state, will give the maximum power 
with the least possible quantity of water. The governor is the most sensitive made — 
which means that it w ill keep the engine nearer to a given number of devolutions than any 



They save la 
h common lumb 
adapted to the v 
bf any one. Tli 
over three years 

rgety from wear ami tear in every part of the wagon. They renin vt 
er wagon into a spring wagon, making it equally comfortable for fro 
•ants of Fruit ami Vegetable Growers. They are suited to all makes 
ey make the cheapest ami easiest riding spring wagon in the market 

all necessity for a spring seat They convert 
n one to twenty persons. They are admirably 
and sizes of farm wagons, and ran he attached 
These springs have heen in practical use for 

and are a pronounced success, No Ti-junslfr or Farmer can at'iorri lo Uv « iltioiil llicm. 

Fig: 3. 

Fig 2 represents a single Bolster Spring of our improved pattern, as we furnish them. Fig. 3 represents tin- manner in which 
the Springs should he attached to the Wagon Holsters. A cross hoard should he fitted to the Springs, so as to hold them in proper 
position, as described by Fig. 3 The Wagon Box or Bed is to rest on top of cross-hoards, hut is not to be fastened; by so doing 
the springs cat) be taken off or put on at pleasure. The board must be of sufficient thickness to prevent the Wagon lied from 
resting on the Bows of the Spring. Cleats put on Wai'on Bed on each side of rear Bolster Standards will keep it from sliding. 

PffJCKg r«K SET OF FOI R SFKIVttS U inch Spring, capacity 800 to 1000 lbs., weight 30 lbs., 89.50: 1 ; inch Spring, 
capacity 1500 to 2000 ]hs . weight 38 lbs , $11; 2 inch Spring, capacity 2000 to 2500 lbs . weight 43 lbs.. S12.50; 2\ inch Spring 2500 to 
H000 lbs . weight 48 lbs , sl3 50. The weight of driver, wagon tied, seat and brake must be included, when the weight which springs 
are to carry is calculated. To obtain greater carrying capacity than our 2J Inch springs will give, we advise four springs behind and 
bmr in front,, using the U or l^ 1 inch springs. 

WARKAKTY. The Spring may be subjected to any fair and reasonable test at time of purchase, and if found defective, 
Dew springs or parts will be furnished at our factory, free of charge; provided always, that the defective parts are held subject to 
our order. tiSrlK. B These Springs are only Intended for Farm Wagons, or such as have Bolsters and Standards, with Cleats on 
Wagon Bed to Keep it from sliding backward or forward, and not for Dravs, Trucks, Harks, etc. 

"AM Steams 


The Center of Los An- 
geles Valley. 

Embracing Anaheim, 
Westminster, A r t e a i a , 
Garden City, etc. Thir- 
teen miles southeast of 
Los Angeles City, within 
the Artesian Wilt Belt. 
Hundreds of flowing pipe 
wells. Water near the 
surface. Rivers on two 
sides; ever-flowing creek 
runs through the tract. 
Front on tlie Ocean. Trans- 
portation and passage by 
Steamships or Railroad. 
Southern Pacific Railroad 
through the tract. Twen- 
ty-one hours from San 
Francisco. The unsold 
land for sale or lease io 
sections or fractions. Ap- 
ply to Trustee A. ROBIN- 
SON, 318 California St., 
San Francisco. 

Or to ROBERT J. 
NORTHAM, Anaheim, 
Cal., or concerning West- 
minster Colonv, to REV. 
minster, Cal. 

Terms, one-fifth cash, 
balance on interest at 10 
per cent, per annum. 

Send for Circulars and 

\I3W. j R ISW. ■ RHW. -..RIOW [ R- 9W. I 

\VK ■ ■■■■■A 

WmP^r n iii 6m, ml 







yyiMtun i ,s, iiuksi immvkrs. t 


all kiuds of Tumping Machinery built to order. 
51 Bealc St., ) V VJ UVftPTl 9. fin ' Patentees & 
San FranYo. \ I, W . 1X11111111 6! UU. (SoleProprs. 



StlKNTIKH l'UKSN OPFICK, 252 Market (Eleva- 
tor 12 Kront),S. F. Pamphlet for Inventors free. 


914 Market St., San Francisco. 

(Near the Baldwin Hotel.) 

CoK^hsroN iiknck is cordially .solicited from reliable 
sources upon all topics of interest and value to our readers. 

California Inventors 

sinmid consul! 

A M B B M A N 

ami FORETOW PATENT Solicitors, for obtaining Patents 
ami Caveats. Established in 18*',l) Their long experience as 
journalists and large practice jis Patent Attorneys, enables 

them to offer Pacific ('oast Inventors far better service (than 
they can obtain elsewhere. Semi for free cirruhirs ol infor 
niation. < mice of the .Mixinij IND SCIENTIFIC PRE8H ami 
il- tr Hrii \i, PKICM8, NO. 258 Market St,, San Francisco. 

EJevator, 12 Front St. 

Sewing Machines. 

Several first-class styles, goodfas new, will be soli) at 
a bargain. Cull on or a«UIrc»n ll\V, !>., at this office. 



[July 21, 1883 




The ONLY Cleaner awarded FIRST PREMIUM atthci ali- 
fornia State Pair in 1882, :md manufactured only by 

H. D. Nash & Co., 

No. 906 K St., Sacramento, Cal. 

Any other Cleaner claiming to he the Nv-u M 'Tttk 
will, upon trial, prove to lie n fraud. 

The NaSH ('errs ('i.kankk, manufactured bj II. D. 
S:»h a Co., i- fully WAISHANTKD to 


(nir NEW WHEAT GANG OF SIEVES Is made of zinc 
ami patent rolled wire, ami will dlacount anything we have 
ever used heretofore in 

Separating Oats, Barley & Cheat from Barley or Whea'. 

Send for Descriptive < lircnlar to 

H. D. NASH & CO., 

906 K Street, - - Sacramento, 

Onto manufacturers of the Nash k Cutts lirain Cleaner 
in California. 

tit Also, Cleaners for attaching to Thrashing Machines 



Greatest Economy with Perfect 
Simplicity in Operation. 

Manageable Range of Heat fiorn 130 to 
220 or more Degrees. 


No Sweltering of Fruit in its Moisture 


No Poisonous Sulphur Bleaching Needed. 


The Flavor and all the Peculiarities ol 
Fresh Fruit Retained 

Fruit Trays, Fruit Presses and Ladders 

On Hand and Made to Order. 
(T-rT lor CIRCULARS and Information, Address 


Proprietor Ely-Meeker Sun Fruit Drier, 

Fifth and Bryant Sts., - San Francisco. 


"Farmers' Headquarters." 


Raton, $1,45 to S-S.OO. 
Pro Coach from all Railroad and Steamboat Stations. 

A. & J. HAHN. Proprietors. 




/13IOTO 1316 MARKET ST.S.F. 

Don't Pail to Write. 

Should this paper he received by any suhscrilicr who 
does not want it. or beyond the time they intend to pay 
for it, let them not fail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal rani (coating only one cent) will suffice. We will 
■at knowingly send the paper to anyone who does not 
wish it, hut if it is continued, through the failure of the 
snhscriher to notify ns to discontinue it, or some irre 

*l il.le |>arty requested to stop it, we shall positively 

demand payment for the time it is sent. 



In the Market. 

Write for 


Giving Full Information 


Nos. 2 and 4 California St., 

San Francisco. 






— 3/ JTliis Mill has been in ufe on this Coast for four years.' It has three litres 


And has met with general favor, there now being 

Over 125' of them in Use in California! 

It is the most economical and durable Feed Mil) in use. Iain sole manu- 
ractmtr <>' the Con u gated Roller Kill. The mills are all ready to mount CO 


I thank the public for the kind natrona^e received thus far, and. hope for a continuance of the same. 

M. L. MERY. Chico Iron Works. 

Chico, Cal. 




Including Horses, Cattle, Sheep Swine, and Poultry, 

W ith the Breaking, Training, Sheltering, Buying, Belling, Profitable ITse ami General ( arc; embracing all the 
Diseases, to which thev arc subject; the Causes; How to Know, and What to 1 10; and w ith directions that, are BMlTj 
understood, iu»ih applied., and Remedies 'hat are within the reach of the |>coplc; (,'ivin;; the most Ih cent. Approved 
and Hiunane Hetnods lor the PTBoarvatloil mid Cure of stock, the I'revcutiou of Disease and livstomtiou t.i Health. 




The Largest, Handsomest, Moit Comprehensive an*! Best Illustrated Work on 
Live Stick tver Issued in this Country. 


t ei: g the Result of 25 Yuars' Experience as a Farmer, Stock Raiaer and 
Dealer, also an Extensive Practice as Veterinary Surgeon. 

With 400 ILLUSTRATIONS and 2 CHARTS Illustrating the Ages of Horses and Cattle. 

A<. i:\Ts WANTED in every counts town to canvass for this and afhor equally valuable and quick-selling 
hooks, which are needed In ever] household. Send for DmcairrivK Ciritlak and Liberal Terms to 

A. L. 


721 Market Street, San Francisco. 

|~ • Superior Wood and Metal Encrav Kkwittancks to this office should e made bv postal orde 
H f|S,r R V 1116, ing, Eluclriitjpiiiir ui,d Stercotjp- ' or mastered letter, when practicable. Cost of posta 
UillQI \A t ■•■Q* it,,. ,1 »i •!>. ■ ■ rTi • . ,,f the Minim | or^ I. r, for sir, or less. In els. ; f„r registered letter, in addi- 

»o Scrurrmc San Fnuieiso i. at ir. -.-.cable ra»«» | tion to regular postage (at 3 eta. per half ounce), 10 cte. 





Hay, Stock, Portable Platform, 
Butter and Counter Scales, 
Trucks, etc., 


— rOR SALS BV — 

Fairbanks & Hutchinson, 

No. 401 Market St . San Francisco. Cal. 




Self- Regulating 


Is recognized as the 

Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLE, 
STRONG aud DURABLE In all parts. 
Solid Wroueht-iron Crank Shaft with 
double BKAHiKos for the Crank to 
work in, all turned aud run in adjust- 
able babbitted boxes. 
Positively Self-Regulating 
With no coil springs, or springs of any 
kind. No little rods, joints, levers, or anything of the 
kind to get out of order as such th ings do. Hills In use 
6 to 1 2 years in good order now, that have never a it one 
cent for repairs. All genuine Enterprise Hills for the 
Pacific Coast trade come only through this agency, and 
none, whether of the old or latest pattern, are genuine, ex- 
cept those bearing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out 
for this, as inferior mills are being offered with tes- 
timonials applied to them which were given for ours. 
Prices to suit the times. Pull particulars free. Boat 
Pumps, Feed Hills, etc., kept iu stock. Address, 



San Francisco Agency. LIWFORTH, BICE 
<5» CO., 323 <5> 325 Market St.. S- F. 









Curvature of the Spine, Wry-Neck, An- 
chylosis, Club Feet and Bow Legs. 

Trusses and Crutches, Elastic Stockiiigs for Varicose 
Veins. Supporters and Bandages of every description. 
Also, Inventor of the Celebrated Autenwrieth's Club-Foot 
Shoe. Send for circulars. WM. ADTENKIETH, 
71 West .Sixth Street. Cincinnati. Ohio. 

fl£ MOORE'S f£ 


A Non-Poisonous Preparation for the Pre 
vention and Cure of the SCAB. 

The General Health and Condition of the 
Mieep Promoted by Its Dee. 

Price Itedured io 91 per tiallun In 5-l.allnn Pfcgs. 
One ballon makes (SO (.allons of Dip. 

This Hpecihc for Scab is composed principally of 8ul 
pbur and Tobacco, the Hulpliur being held in solution by an 
entirely new process. It has none of the objectionable fea 
tures of a Lime and Bidphur Dip, and iu l's use the grower 
has the benefit of a Sulphur-Tobacco preparation, without 
the evil effects consequent upon the use of lime It is easily 
mixed and applied, requiring no boiling; is certain in eff-ct; 
is free from poison; will put the tkin In a healthy condition 
and will improve the character and growth of the wool. 

tf Vut up in one-gallon aud five-gallon package*. 



(Formerly C. E. Williams k (Jo.) 

Stockton, ... California 

July 21, 1883] 

fAeiFie F^JRAL fRESS. 

Seeds, Plants, Etc. 




Thrifty, Well-grown, Fruit, 

Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

Palms, Bamboos, Shrubs, Roses, etc. Small Fruits, In- 
cluding a large variety of Orapevines, lor table, for 
wine and (or raisins. 


Of newest and best varieties for market and for profit. 

Descriptive Catalogues will be sent as follows: 

No. 1. Fruits, Grapevines, Berries, etc 3 ctg. 

No. 2. Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, Roses, etc 3 cts. 


San Jose. ----- California 

Wager Peach & Kieffer Hybrid Pear! 

We offer a large stock of the above new fruits, together with all the leading varieties of 



We are the first to grow the WAGER and K1EFFER on this Coast. ire" PRICES LOW. 

torus.. BELL & McMANAMON, 

Corner Tenth & Jackson Sis. - - - Oakland, California. 

Fruit Trees for Sale. 

A very large and fine stock of FRUIT TREE 3 , embracing all the leading varieties ol Apple, Pear, Peach. Apricot 
Prune, Plum, Cherries, Small Fru tB, etc., etc. A large assortment of Snade and Ornamental Trees, Shr..bbcry 
Vines, Plants, et;. All thrifty and well grown. 

The Kelsey Japan Plum and White French Gooseberry our Specialties. 


New Fruits, Roses, Clematis, Etc., on the Pacific Coast. 

I. H. Kizkr. W. H. Bowman. C. E. Bowman 


GUroy, Saota Clara Co, Cal , 

KIZER & BOWMAN BROS., Proprietors! 


DEPOT-Cor. Ninth and Clay Sts., Oakland. Send for Catalogue and Prices to 

W. P. HAMMON & CO., 

834i Broadway, - OAKLAND, CAL. 

We have a Laroe Stock of Kruit Trees for sale. None 
hut the best drying, eanninic ;m<l shipping varieties culti- 
vated. Also Forest Trees, 1 Icd^r I 'hints, < (rnaniental 
Shrubbery and 


Our Apricot trees are on Apricot root, our Peach trees 
on Peaeli root, and our Plum and Prune trees are Oil 
Almond root. This, we claim, makes the Plum and 
Prune hardier, longer In cd, less liable to sun burn, and 
a more abundant hearer. 



We are now prepared to take large and small contracts 
of orchard planting. For further particulars, address 


Gllroy. ... California 

[Established in 1875.] 


Sarcoxie, Jasper Co., Missouri, 


Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees, Forest Tree Seed- 
lings Deciduous and Evergreen, Fruit Tree 
Stocks of Apple, Peach, Pear, 
Cherry, Plum and Quince. 
We are prepared to bud Sno.niKi Peach Seedlings to the 
Leading Varieties of Peaches, Apricots and Plums. 
Prices per 1,000 for Peaches, Slf>; Apricots and Plums, 
$20. Packing free. Budding commences June 1st. None 
but healthy stocks used. No Yellows! Secure orders 
with one-tenth cash. Balance before shipment. 

gS'Our Price List, containing everything we grow 
will he ready early in July, and will contain Railroad 
Freight Rates to leading points. Write for it. Free. 


liaised at the Earn hodie Nurseries, in the foothi 
without irrigation. Sound and thrifty, and free from 
pests. French Prune, Oregon silver Prune, German 
Prune, Mooipark Apricot, Bartlctt and Winter Nellis 
Pears. In lots to suit. Liberal discount to the trade 


San Jose, Cal. 


Established In 1858. 
I grow ali kinds of hardy Fruit Trees, Evergreen Tree 
and Shrubs, Shade Trees, Roses, Flowering Shrul>9 
Plants, etc. Qrown without irrigation, clean and 
healthy. The demand is likely to exceed the supply of 
some kinds of Fruit Trees. Prices and kinds will be 
given on appication. Address W. 8. PEPPER. 

Petaluma, Sonoma Coun ty, Cal 


South of Colton. 

Of choicest varieties of Peach, Apricot, Prune, etc., froi 
3 feet upwards. The.v arc all on 2-year-old roots and tru 
to name. Prices lower than Eastern Trees, if engaged 
early. Also Bartlctt Pears in dormant bud, w-r^ chea] 
DAVE TURNER, Colton, San Bernardino Co. , Cal. 


nas# TURNIP 





179-183 MAIN STREET, 


200-206 Randolph St.ChicaRO, II* 


p ftlCE LIST 




Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Red fop, 
Blue Crass, Lawn Orass, Orchard Crass, Bird Seeds, 4c. 

ii S ,ii7&iioKinzieSt. ° fflce - 115 X" 1 ™ St.. 

104, 106, 108 & 110 Michigan St. CHICAGO. ILL. 





400,000 TREES 

For tlx© Season Of 1883-84 

OF- — ' 

Apples, Pears, Peaches, Apricots, Nectarines, French and Hungarian 
Prunes, Plums, Figs, and Cherries. Cypress, Gums, Acacias, 
•Ornamental Plants and Shrubs, Roses, Green- 
house Plants, Etc., Etc. 

All Thrifty, Strong Growth, FREE from Scale or Aphis. 

/t-r Ten ji*.r cent - Discount can be reserved on all orders accompanied h\ the 

cash received before Dbckmbf.h 1st. LIBERAL RATES TO DEALElts. 

C -A. T -A- L O O LTE 

P. O. BOX 175 


Fresno City, Cai. 




Porcelain Lined 
._, and Bragg 

aj-Jil^iF CYLINDERS. Rkklm 
—and — 

— or— 


Buckkvk Grain Drills, Broadcast Skkukkh, 
Cultivators, Plow Sulkies, Cider Mills, Lawn Mowers etc 

P. P. MAST & GO., 

33 MarKet Street, S»n Francisco. 

Send fi r Circulars and Price Lists. 

S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 

rPree Coach to and from the House J. W. BECKER. Proprietor 






Carry Engines and Boilers in Stock for Immediate Delivery. 
H. P. GREGORY & CO., Agents, San Francisco, Cal. 


A new manual and reference bonk un all subjects connected 
with successful Poultry and Stock Raising on the Pacific 
Coast. A New Edition, over 100 pages, profusely illustrate.! 
with handsome, life-like illustrations of the different varieties 
of Poultry and Live Stock. Price by mail, 50 cents. Address 
PACIFIC RURAL PRESS Office. Wan Francisco, Cal. 

Silos Reservoirs, Head bate* 


RANSOMS, 402 Montgomery St„ S. F, Send for Circular 



E. A. SCOTT & CO., 

Proprietors for the Pacific, 

P. 0. Box 293, Sacramento, Cal. 

Hayos' Fire TrucK. 

aWCIrculars Forwarded Free to any Address. JBI 


Of California, 


Authorized Capital, - $1,000,00 
In 10,000 Shares of SlOO each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $531,200. 

Reserve Pond and Paid up Stock, SI , 178. 



A. D. LOGAN Vice-Presideut 

ALBERT MONTPELLIEK Cashier and Manager 



JOHN LEWELLING. President Nana Co 

J. H. GARDINER Rio Vista 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus Co 


J. C. MERYFIELD So'auo Co 

H. M. LARUE Yolo Co 

L C. STEELE San Mateo Co 

THOS. MoCONNELL Sacramento Co 

O J. CRES8EY Merced Co 


A. D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and oonduotedin the 
usual way, bank books balanced up and statements of ac- 
counts rendered every month 

LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 

COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made 
promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 

GOLD and SILVER deposits receivea 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on 

BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic Status bought 
and sold. 


Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco. Jan. lf>, 1882. 

Fruit Jars! Fruit Jars! 

The celebrated Peoria Acid and 


The Best in the World for 
Keeping Fruit. 

IHmIi M'Tchants & Housekeepers 

I'AKF. NOTICE: I have a 

| carload (1,050 dozen) soon to 

>S arrive, which I offer for sale 
^= to the Trade and others at the 
f | ==^ lowest figure. 

The number for the season 
is limited. First come, first 
sen ed ! All are invited to call. 

IKM'TER COOLBRS for keeping but* i 
lit ice. Send for Circular. 


OI«l Stand, :II7 .1 Sweet, Sacramento, Cal. 

nnd will bale 
« itii" twice the rapidity of 

:iny other. The only way 
; inferior inncliincs can be 
sold is to deceive the In- 
experienced bv ridiculously 
f Isc st itcinciits, and thus 
sell without si?hfior seeing, 
d swindle the purchaser. 
^Working any other Press 
alongside of bcdcrlck's at- 
vnvs pells the purohnsero 
Dedcrlck Press, and all 
'know it too well lo show 
up. Dedcriek Hay presses anil pi. pared Wire Bale 
Ties in stock. Address, for circular, 

Hawley Bros. Hardware Co., S. F. 

Splrndid! I> Latsat Stylo chromo cards,, 10c. Pre- 
mium with 8 packs. E. B. Pardou, New Haven, Ct. 



[July 21, 1883 

This IMIlllllW tboofdl a went invention, has at once 
taken the foremost place among prefises of its cum. and 
s.lls ..ti sijdit to tli..-.- who ;ire jndKes "f small Iwle 
presses, ami wlm understand the serious ohjeetions to 

those hitherto use. I 1 have only ki-w to em 'rate it . 

principal advantages, which are as follow*: 

This press, as will he seen, is an uprisht one. the- hah' 
Leon; formed in a chamber at the top of the press hy a 
Mir.ession of charges (four.. r live in nuinlier). which nr.- 
put into the fecdint; throat, seen at the si.le of the pres. 
near the Tins feeding throat. . .r hoppei is 
thr.-efeet four in. hes long, hy three feet wi.le. ami the 
hay descends an incline when thrown int.. it, instead of 
requiring to he pushed horizontally; the result of this 
, uiistmction heing that it will receive as large a forkful 
of long, coarse hay as a loan can lift, making the procesi 
of feeding rapid and easy. ■> 

The hales are pressed and tied sidewise (four wires he 
inguse.ll. instead of heing pressed endwise, and hound 
with three wires, ami they are of even density through 
oat. and w ill not come to pieces even if one hand should 
la? broken., . . . ti 

By pressing the hay in large forkfuls, and in an upright 
p— M in the usual way. all crushing, chafing, and grinding 
is avoided, and the hay looks as plump and fresli as |sissi 
hie. consul, ring the solidity "f the hales. 

The power of this press is such that two M k.n on the 
horse lever are sufficient to press hales so heavy that 
they will go ten tons to the ear. and a horse will make 
hales that will go thirteen or fourteen tons to the car 
with ease. 

The strength ot this press Is ,uch that it does not seem 
to feel hales that will go IS tons to the cjir. The horse 
travels in a circle and constantly in one direction, and 
does not have to climb a high hridge. 

The hales measure, w hen out of the press. 18 inches 
thick, 2 feet deep anil 3 feet 4 inche* long I >nc hundred 
aud twenty ..f them will go in a box -car, and their weight 
must he ltili pounds t.. make that numher weigh in tons 
Their average weight h..wever. is from 200 t" 230 pounds 
(1 have hales of dry wheat hay. made hy it, weighing 270 
pounds. I 

The pre ss is seven feet high, aud w eighs, including horse 
jKiwer, 4.000 pounds. 

Its capacity depends largely upon the men, the hay. 
and the climate, ami will he found to range from eight 
to fourteen tons per day, anil a crew comprises two 
men and a boy; hut a third man increases its speed so as 

t .,ie than nay his wag.-s The hales will he found to he handsomer and mor.- satisfactory than any yet produced Th< 

tirst put '•!! the w ag"ll. and Ms. .1 as Led |,in',s f, ir e.o r> ing the press Til.' press is guaranteed t,, h. as repp-sent ed ITS l*lt It t' 

of hay close hy the factory, at San Leamlro, and will operate it at any time for interested parties TKl'M AN", I SHAM « ft 






Ml Market St 

•ss a wagon in the way that the I'. taluma and other upright presses are 
it Bower ami ric rilhlii; complete Tor running l» $<iOi>. 

ftanFtudu areagent foril Irtdmss h.r Circular, JACOB PKH 

carried the horse 
1 have one of them ! 

E. Man I ■ ,i ml i " 

IM.wer t»eing 
.•t at a stack 
« nl. 


G-EO. W. MEADE & CO., I ° 

OFFICE and WAREHOUSE— Nos. 213 and 215 Market St., San Francisco, Cal., 




California Raisins and French Prunes, California Comb and Extracted Honey, Almonds, Walnuts, Etc. 

tsr As the Leading House and Headquarters in all these Products, we are ready to correspond with the producers with the view of purchase or contract for the 

ROtning Tops. REMEMBER, that we purchase outright, either at points of production (paving freights, etc , ourselves), or delivered in San Kranciseo, freight paid. Remember, also, that in dealing with us \nu are operating 
through strictly Kikst Jl amis. NO COMMISSION CBAKSED. M ' DKI.A VS IN SEITI.F.MFATS. 1 * 

Huntington, Hopkins & Co., 




Gilmiztl Feicii. 


The High Arm, Light Running 






The Pioneers of Progress, after 37 yoars' experience, come to the front once more with 



strictly Firdt-Class in Construction and Appearance. Entirely New, Handsome, Ebh>' 

Runniuor ana Lmr»ole 

,t«- Delivered, freight paid, to any 1!. R. station or Steamer Landing on the Coast. &r I'AT Al.i Hil'KS KKKK. 
_____ Kr AtiKNTS WA.VI'EH. tr Liberal allowances muile fur old lnaehines ill exchange. 



9,|1 1 & 13 First St., San Francisco, Manufacturers' General Agent. 


Volume XXVI.] 


[Number 4 

Two Florida Scale Insects. 

The citrus fruit growers of Florida and 
Louisiana have to fight scale insects, but the 
chief ones they have to deal with arc different 
from the ones most common in this State. To 
interest those who care for comparative studies 
we give on this page engravings of two preva- 
lent Florida scales, taken from I'rof. Comstoek's 
report to the Commissioner of Agriculture. 

Fie 1 is Mytilasjm Citricola shown natural 
size upon the orange leaf. Most of the scales 
arc seen to be curved. These are the female 
scales shown more in detail at \a and 1/;. The 
scale is brown and the exuvia 1 or matter pro- 
truding from the scale proper is also brown, 
with a light colored margin. 

FlO. 1/* shows the ventral side of the scale 
with the eggs in place. The eggs arc white and 
arranged irregularly. The female insect is yel- 
lowish white. The male scale is not curved, 
but straight as shown in Fig. If. It is similar 
in color to the female scale, or varies in different 
specimens to a very dark brown, almost black. 

Near the posterior extremity the scale is thin, 
forming a hinge which allows the posterior part 
of it to be lifted by the male as he emerges. 
The female scale is. 12 of an inch long; the male 
scale half as large, or .00 of an inch. This in- 
sect, I'rof. Comstock says, is probably a Euro 
pean species, and frequently occurs on imported 
oranges at the Fast. It is believed to have en- 
tered Florida from Bermuda in 18")."), and is now 
also found in Louisiana. This pest has been 
found on imported citrus fruits in this State by 
Matthew Cooke, of Sacramento, and its com- 
munication to our trees is continually to be 
feared and guarded against. We have enough 
species without this one. 

Another common Florida scale insect is Fig. 
, Mytilaspis Ghverii, or Glover's scale. This 
insect is often associated with the M. Citrirola 
above described. Fig. 2 shows the female scale 
in its natural size; 2a is the same enlarged. The 
color of the female scale is light yellow, vary- 
ing to dark brown. The ventral scale, 2c, is 
white, and consists of two long, parallel plates, 
between which is an open space, as shown in the 
engraving. The eggs shown in 2c arc white 
■when first laid, but become purplish before 
hatching. They arc arranged under the scale in 
two rows in a very regular manner. The male 
scale, 26, is similar in form to that of the female, 
except that there is but a single matted skin, 
and the scale is furnished with a hinge like that 
of the male .1/. Citricola. This insect is very 
prevalent on citrus trees, both in Florida and 
Louisiana. It infests the fruit, leaves and bark of 
the trees. It is supposed to have been intro- 
duced into Florida about forty years ago, on 
some trees purchased in New York from a ship 

from China. 

Shkki' Goisi; East.— The Tuscarora Minini/ 
AVirx says upwards of 10,000 sheep passed 
through Independence Valley last Saturday on 
their way from California to Idaho, Montana 
and Wyoming. It is estimated that over 100,- 
000 have been driven through the valley (luring 
the present season. 

The grain sheds on the seawall, are being 
stored with wheat sacks, and the busy air about 
gives note of the approach of the grain season. 
A flotilla of small river and bay craft from the 
wheat counties, is moored along the seawall, 
discharging wheat for shipment to foreign lands. 

The Limit of Wheat Production. — Dr. 
Max Sering, a scientist sent by the German gov- 
ernment to investigate the limitations of wheat 
production in America, has reached home and 
made his report. He gives it as his opinion, 
based upon investigations carefully pursued in 
California, Oregon, Washington Territory, Da 
kota and Minnesota, that the "United States 
is near the limit of its ability to flood Europe 
with cheap wheat." Meargues that the great in- 
crease in the production of wheat that has occurred 

Trespassers on P0BUC Lands. — Another 
circular has been issued by Commissioner Mc- 
Farland of the General Land Oflice to registers 
and representatives of the United States lands, 
and to special agents, calling their attention to 
the unlawful inclosurc of public lands, and di- 
recting thcin to promptly report the number 
and extent of all such cases, with the necessary 
corroborative evidence, that they may be trans- 
mitted to chief adjusters. The circular con- 
cludes as follows: "This department has no au- 


only in the last fifteen years, has resulted from 
increased acreage through new settlements, and 
not from any increased production per acre in 
the older grain fields, and that as new districts 
are being put in wheat, the older regions are 
turning their wheat lands to other uses. 

Water Bights. — The Supreme Court of 
Colorado has rendered a decision annulling the 
old doctrine of riparian ownership and sustain- 
ing acquired rights through priority of appro, 

The canning and sending out of unripe and 
imperfect articles is injuring the California 
fruit trade, — Cincinnati Commercial Gazette, 

thority to remove fences or prosecute trespass 
crs, and when cases have been reported to the 
Department of Justice for appropriate action 
the duty of this department is performed and 
its jurisdiction ceases.'' 

The State Fair PAVILION. — According tore 
ports from Sacramento, the new Pavilion at Sac 
raniento is progressing. The Building Commit 
tee of the State Board of Agriculture met Mini, 
day evening at the Pavilion. Secretary Smith 
was directed to advertise for bids to do the 
plumbing and gas-fitting in the State Exposition 
building, and also to advertise for proposals to 
furnish an engine for the building. 

Hailstorms and Forests. 

Everything relating to the phenomena and 
philosophy of hailstorms and tornadoes is just 
now being studied with much interest. The 
following, from Herr Riniker, Chief Forester of 
one of the Swiss cantons, contains something 
new and suggestive in this direction. He says 
where there are forests there are no hailstorms, 
and in support of this theory he adduces a re- 
markable fact, for the accuracy of w hich he and 
many others can personally vouch. In the 
south of Aargau there is a little chain of moun- 
tains known as the Lindenberge. The Linocn- 
berge arc about twenty kilometers long, of an 
average height, above sea level, of some S00 feet, 
and completely covered with wood. About 
twenty years ago the forest Was divided in two 
places by wide gaps, with 
the valleys at the foot of th< n 1 
soor afterward visited with I rti 
The hail charged clouds w travi 
the gaps. In 18(18 the wiiWl 
were closed by a plantation 
1871 no hailstorm has crosi 
planation of this phenomeui 

gests that, as hailelouds are saturated with posi- 
tive electricity, and trees conduct from tin 
earth negative electricity, the meeting of the 
two currents develops sufficient heat to prevent 
the complete congelation of the clouds, and even 
to thaw the hailstones contained in them — for 
the clouds of this description pass very near the 
earth — and so convert the frozen particles into 
rain. If further observation should confirm the 
accuracy of Herr Kinikcr's conclusion in this re- 
gard, the importance of forests in countries 
where hailstorms are frequent will be greatly 

Immigration Work. 

On another page we have a paragraph con- 
cerning an effort to fitly represent the southern 
counties at the Fx position at Louisville. We 
understand that a collection of California pro- 
bations is now being made by the Central Pa- 
cific, which is to be shown at Louisville, and 
then taken to Europe. It is expected that a 
characteristic and very attractive display will 
be obtained. Quite a gratifying spirit of 
co-operation with the Immigration Asso- 
ciation in making known the desirable char- 
acter of California for home-scekcrs, is noticea- 
ble in various parts of the State. The Board 
of Trade Committee in Sacramento has obtained 
subscriptions amounting to $2,579 to be used 
by the California Immigration Association in 
advertising the resources and advantages of Cal- 
ifornia. This is payable in quarterly install- 
ments, in advance, and the first collection has 
been made. The Immigration Society hascom- 
mcneed the work of platting the government 
lands in Siskiyou, Modoc, Shasta, Lassen, Te- 
hama, Plumas, Colusa, Butte, Sierra, Sutter, 
Yuba, Nevada, Placer, El Dorado, Amador, 
Yolo and Sacramento counties. The land will 
be mapped by townships and counties in con- 
venient and durable form. The field notes 
from the Surveyor General's books will be 
transferred to the township and county maps. 
Personal examinations w ill be made of the land, 
and all the information that can be Obtained 
will be compiled and printed, together with a 
map of California in pamphlet form, and the 
pamphlets w ill bo distributed free in the States 
cast of the Rocky mountains and in Europe. 


pAeiFie RURAL f> RESS. 

[July 28, 1883 


Horseback from Oakland to Mount 

Kuitoks Pkkss: — On the evening before the 
Fourth of .Tuly, my brother and myself started 
on horseback for a trip to the summit of Mount 
I liable We had a two days' holiday before us. 
and, having heard much of the fame of the won- 
derful view from the mountain top, and having 
long desired to make the trip thither, set off 
from Oakland for the journey in high spirits. 

Our destination for that night was Walnut 
('reek, a distance of about seventeen miles. 
Passing Temcscal, we soon readied the range of 
hills north of Oakland, and leaving behind ns 
the pleasant dwellings in the foothill nooks, en 
tered a winding canyon, the fog which bad been 
driving in from the < iolden Oate flying from 
hill to hill above our heads, the trailing gar- 
ments of the clouds coming down between us 
and the hills at our side, yet not touching us, 
till, as we ascended, we came into the midst of 
the clouds themselves. 

Reaching the summit, all was obscurity - 
clouds above, beneath, around. Nothing evi- 
dent to sight and sense but the bit of earth about 
our feet. 1 leseending the range by another 
canyon on the eastern side, we soon reached 
again a region of light ami clear vision, the fog 
again driving in hurried flight above us. We 
noted the improvement of our roadway over 
that on the Oakland side of the range, and 
passed a unanimous vote of thanks to the Contra 
( osta road master. 

Passing eastward and lea vingthis range behind, 
we turned to look. It was a striking picture. 
The fog banked itself at the top, flying frag- 
ments advancing like wraiths of snow in wild 
endeavor to make their way downward, but dis- 
armed and melted by the warm air of the tran- 
quil valley beyond. 

Hence to Walnut Creek the road is nearly 
level for some miles. Cantering on through 
the gathering darkness past the harvest fields, 
anil now and then a lighted window, we 
reached Walnut (.'reek at half ]> nine, having 
had a four hours' ride. 

It was the eve of the Fourth, We sought 
repose in childlike trust. We had left behind 
us the great city with its seething patriotism, 
its bells, tire-crackers, rockets, horns, bombs, 
and general ".Jamboree," which, though well 
meant, to the thoughtful mind appear at times 

In this sylvan retreat no rude alarm shall 
break upon our repose with untiined fervor. 
Sleep shall hold sway till the morning, when 
these sedate folk, unvexed by the high wrought 
agitations of the town, shall betake themselves 
to decorous and seemly celebration of the day. 
Vain hope! Unfounded confidence! Upon the 
mid night air peals the clangor of the firemen's 
bell. Loud and long rings out the proclama- 
tion, Liberty and Independence now and for- 
ever! Softer, slower, slower grow the notes, 
King! Ding! T-i-n-g! Silence. 

Sinking to slumber, the ear is saluted by 
repeated clangor of the bell, which soon relaxes 
its energy and dies upon the still air. This is 
again and again repeated, during an hour. The 
explanation we leave to the enquiring mind of 
the reader. 

The commemoration of the day had never 
before been inaugurated in this fashion, and at 
least one worthy citizen was somewhat stirred 
thereby. Wakened suddenly from slumber by 
wifely appeal, forgetful of his patriotism, he 
rushed to the door of his dwelling, visions of 
flame and destruction before his eyes, and 
nether garments in hand — to look out upon the 
quiet of a drowsy world turning a sleepy ear to 
the Proclamation of liberty and union now and 
forever one and in-sep-er-a-ble. 

Slumber deep and grateful and a happy- 
waking, spite of midnight salutations were ours, 
and after a hearty breakfast we bade good- 
bye to the excellent hotel quarters, where in 
ill ways we had been well cared for — and pur- 
sued our way, our gratitude deepened by learn- 
ing that we had but just escaped a conflagration 
in earnest; firecrackers having in the night set 
fire to the porch roof of a store next door, the 
flames from which were discovered and ex- 
tinguished by a passer by. 

The freshness of morning was upon all the 
land. We journeyed on past harvest fields, the 
dark soil and abundant grain beneath the shade 
of scattered oaks seeming to indicate a favored 
valley. It lies nearly level. Here and there we 
came upon a young vineyard and Orchard, but 
for the most part little attention seems given 
to the cultivation of anything but grain. It 
would seem that it must ere long be put to uses 
of orchard and vineyard, for which, to all ap- 
pearance, it i - « ell adapted. The distance is 
but twenty miles to San Francisco. A graded 
road leading from Oakland to this valley was 
partly constructed some two years ago, bnt 
when the long tunnel that was to have cut 
through the summit of the hill was being made 
the work ceased. Were this road completed it 
would open to easy access a beautiful and fertile 
region of some six miles in width and many 
miles in length. 

Six or seven miles from Walnut Creek we en- 
ter Pine canyon, the road following the wind- 
ings of a stream of clear mountain water, under 
trees and past rocky, wooded hillsides. Family 
camping parties were enjoying the delightful 
warmth and quiet in shady nooks beside springs 

of cold water. Ascending we paused for an oc- 
casional backward view from some projecting 
bluff over the extending landscape below us, 
and by noon had reached by easy traveling the 
cottage hotel two miles below the summit of 
Mount Diablo. Its pleasant neatness was a 
pleasant greeting, and the savory fare set before 
us met not tardy welcome. 

Mr. Hunt, bur kindly host, and his good wife, 
made us at home, and well content we rested 
for a time, then leaving our horses to the enjoy- 
ment of equine good, made our way on foot to 
the summit. Though there is an ascent of 1,700 
feet in the two miles, the grade is gradual and 
the road a fairly good one for driving, as had 
been the entire road up the mountain. 

The roadside is hedged with chemisal, bay, 
and growths unknown to us. With every 
ascent the view broadens, till reaching the top- 
most summit the whole unbroken vision breaks 
suddenly upon one. 

Words cannot describe the w onderful outlook. 
Eastward lie the great San Joaquin am) Sacra- 
mento valleys, the windings of the rivers dis- 
tinctly seen; northward, at our very feet, the 
fair valley about Clayton, with its vineyards; 
beyond, the Sacramento river, Antioch, Rio 
Vista, the farther shore of the river obscured 
by haze: southward, range upon range of high 
hills, steep in the climbing but diminutive to 
look down upon: w estward lies the fairest scene 
in the whole wide range. Oh, for an artist's 
brush or eloquent pen to preserve some trace of 
its loveliness! The near mountains in deepest 
shadow; beyond them, bill beyond hill, in van- 
ishing, ethereal mist, their sides in curves of 
perfect grace descending to the plains lielow, 
bright in misty haze, Suisun bay a golden sea 
upon the horizon. 

Oaring long and silently, we at length de- 
scend, to return early on the following morning 
to watch the sunrise, when lo ! another marvel. 
The fog was driving in over the lower hills be- 
neath us, like the waves of the sea. All about 
us was clear. The fog, we were told, never 
reaches the summit. The atmosphere is clear, 
dry and delightful, looking across the fog, 
touched with faintest, softest, tinge of pur- 
ple of the coming sunrise, we could sec 
clearly the ranges beyond. As far as the fog 
extended it appeared to have taken up all-im- 
purities of the air above it and left it clear. 
There was a space of a quarter of the circuit 
over which the fog had not yet rolled when ar- 
rested by the rising sun. Beyond this, all was 
haze. A party from one of the camps in Pine 
canyon, which we had passed in coming up, 
reached the summit with their team just after 
us, having risen at half-past two to see the sun 
rise i>u I liablo. 

The mountain would be a very attractive 
place in which to spend a summer vacation, and 
to invalids or those having any throat or lung 
trouble the air is said to be specially favorable. 

Speaking of the view as being the finest we 
hail ever seen, our hostess said : "People who 
have been all over Switzerland and Kurope, ami 
who come here, tell us the same thing. " 

At ten o'clock we took our leave, descending 
the mountain by another road, homeward bound. 
Space would fail to tell of the interesting fea- 
tures of the Cook Farm road, of the surprise at 
coming upon Cook farm itself, with its elegance 
and beauty, its fields of grain, handsome house 
and grounds among the oaks, numerous and fine 
barns, carriage house and buildings, the neat 
bridges over the stream that passes through tin- 
place, the lawn for dancing with light frame 
for canvas cover, green houses, garden, flowers 
and fruits; and half hidden among the oaks on 
a knoll the most attractive of cottages, in color 
a dark seal brown, surrounded by a spacious 
veranda on three sides, the walls of the cottage 
itself painted an Indian red for two-thirds the 
height, the remaining third and all other wood- 
work of the house, veranda-posts and braces, 
of the prevailing brown. The effect is pictur- 
esque and satisfying to the eye. Some architect 
with an eye for color and courage in using it 
had evidently designed it. 

We pass on by the training ground for young 
horses and are soon beyond the limits of the 
farm the fairest our eyes have ever beheld. 

This road, called the Cook Farm road, is the 
better kept of the two routes, and passes 
through a wild and interesting canyon. 

Passing through Danville and a rich farming 
region, we note still the singular absence of 
fruit where nature seems kindly to its produc- 

Peaching Walnut Creek again, and Lafay- 
ette, we turn to the left, into a different road 
from that by which we came, leading through 
Morago valley and the beautiful Redwood can- 
yon, and ascending come out suddenly at the 
summit of this Oakland range, near Piedmont, 
looking down upon Oakland and the bay lying 
bright in the afternoon sun. 

We reach home at half part six, horses and 
riders scarcely wearied from a trip that has 
been a succession of interesting and delightful 
experiences, not the least grateful of which is 
tin- return home and the welcome of friends. 

A. K. S. 

Dillon Brothers. -This is the name of a 
new firm for the importation and breeding of 
Norman horses, at Normal, 111. The firm name 
is new, but the members are among the best 
known in the interest, as the old firm was K. 
Dillon & Co., who have sent many fine 
horses to California. Normal is two miles 
north of Bloomington, 111. At this point new 
stables have been erected and everything ar- 
ranged for the keeping of a line stock of Nor- 
mans, and for the accommodation of visitors. 

Japan Clover. 

EDITORS Pkkss : Absolute essentials for suc- 
cessful fanning and stock raising aie good lands, 
good pasturage and a good breed of stock. The 
fanner who has all these is on the highway to 
fortune. The most vexing question to fanners, 
not only here but in many other sections of 
country, has been how to obtain a self-propo- 
gating inexpensive pasturage. Some ten years 
ago, the question was settled in this section by 
the mysterious and inexplicable appearance of 
Japan clover, Lfxpedeza 8/tittta, It then occu- 
pied a space not exceeding ten feet square, but 
on account of its rare fecundity it now covers 
thousands of acres upon which all kinds of stock 
browse, and keep fat and sleek. Our worn out 
or exhausted and turned out lands that have 
hitherto yielded us nothing but that worse than 
Useless broomsedge, Sudroprufon Scoparhu, now 
gives us a beautiful carpet of the most nutri- 
tious verdure in its stead; for this plant speedily 
eradicates broomsedge and other noxious weeds 
and grasses. This plant will grow anywhere, 
on red banks and bottoms of gullies, on high, 
dry, poor lands, and on rich, wet bottom lands. 
It has been found growing luxuriantly upon the 
summits of the Blue Ridge at a height of 
4,000 feet. It stands well our midsummer 
droughts, and flourishes and blooms through 
the heats of August, and on till frost, furnishing 
pasturage after most other natural forage and 
volunteer herbage has perished. It will catch 
and grow luxuriantly where red clover nor any 
other of the clovers proper will not catch nor 
grow at all; and unlike, it never runs out, 
neither does it require any cultivation what- 
ever, and it is perennial. Crazing does nut de- 
stroy or injure it, or retard its spreading, but 
on the contrary, seems to greatly assist in its 
propagation by scattering it over the catties' 
range. This plant has no equal as a fattener of 
stock and improver of the soil, and by its use 
all our old fields, roadsides, fence corners, 
are utilized, as well as other waste places; use- 
less and noxious plants are displaced, to the 
great improvement of the landscape, and at the 
same time utilizing that large proportion of the 
surface of most of our farms now presenting to 
th' eye only idle and worse than useless blanks 
and blotches, mantling them with a beautiful 
covering of valuable pasturage, and this at a 
season when it is most needed. Last year it 
grew here all the way from six inches to three 
feet high. The U. S. Agricultural Report, 
1879, gives its value as follows, on page P.24 : 
Value of .lapan clover per ton dry substance, 
!* - 20. .S."i : value per ton as hay w ith 14.3 per cent 
of moisture, SI 7.44 

The following is its analysis j Nitrogenous 
matter 18.6, fat 4.1, ash 5.92, lime .99, mag- 
nesia ..Mi, potash .S.s, soda ,01, phosphoric 
acid .39, sulphuric acid .'JO. From this can be 
seen the reason of its fattening capacity as well 
as its utility as an improver of the soil. So 
without human aid Providence has supplied us 
with the ih xiilrmlum, rich, luxuriant, valuable 
and costless pasturage. J. W. Wu.kkk. 

Franklinton, N. ('.,. Inly 14, 1883. 

We had an engraving of this plant in the 
RURAL two or three years ago, and have had 
frequent reference to its growth in the South- 
ern States. We presume by this time some one 
has tried it in this State, and we would like to 
hear the results of the experiments. Bin. Pkkss. 

Cheese Making at Home. 

KlMluKs Pkkss. Would -nine of x our readers 
please -end me a good recipe for making cheese, as 
1 would like to try it this summer, also w here I could 
send to procure rennets. — Mks. W, R. Tl KBITS, 
Inyo county Cal. 

Any butcher will save the rennets for you or 
you can buy liquid rennet by the bottle. The for- 
mer will be easier to get for an experiment. You 
w ill find the following from Arnold's "Ameri- 
can Dairying" to be a good recipe for homo 
cheese making: For making cheese under any 
circumstances, a few things are absolutely neces- 
sary. One must have a vessel large enough to 
hold the milk. It may be any clean tub, boiler 
or kettle. A wooden tub is best, because it 
will lose the least beat w hile standing. There 
must be means for warming, which can be sup- 
plied by a cook stove. Rennet for coagulating 
the milk must be provided and soaked before- 
hand. A strong hoop for pressing the curd, 
with a capacity of at least six cubic inches for 
every quart of milk used, and power for press- 
ing equal to at least the weight of a ton. 
These being provided, warm the milk in any 
convenient way without burning, to about 84 , 
and add rennet enough to have it begin to 
curdle in IB minutes, and cover the milk to 
keep it from cooling. The quantity of rennet 
to use must be found by trial. A good 
rennet, well soaked ami rubbed, in time 
will curdle about "J.OOO quarts of milk, 
but there is so much variation in their strength, 
that only an approximation to the quantity 
required can be made. When the curd has 
become so hard as to cleave before the finger, 
when passed through it, it should be cut with 
a blade that w ill reach to the bottom of the 
vessel, into columns an uich or so square, and 
then covered again, to let the whey separate. 
After it has stood fifteen or twenty minutes, 
the whey which can be conveniently removed. 

may be dipped off, and the curd carefully broken 
with the hands into pieces of the size of chest- 
nuts, or even finer. When this is done, the 
whey which has been dipped off, or what is 
better, an equal bulk of water, heated to 
l.W, may be turned into the curd and stirred 
enough to make all parts of the curd wanu up 
alike. The curd should be again covered to 
prevent cooling, and left standing fifteen or 
twenty minutes, or as long as it can be with- 
out sticking firmly together, when the whey 
may be again dipped off, the curd broken up 
fine again, and more hot w hey or water turned 
on and mixed evenly with the curd by gently 
stirring, so as not to rile the whey and waste 
the riehuess of the curd. Cover the curd 
again, and repeat the operation till the mass 
is raised to blood heat. The stirring should 
be repeated often enough to prevent the pieces 
of curd from adhering, and the whole covered 
and left standing for the curd to harden. 
When it has stood so long as to become hard 
enough to squeak between the teeth, or spring 
apart readily when pressed in the hands, or 
what is better, to respond to the hot-iron test, 
the whey may be at once dipped off, and the 
curd drained on a strainer-cloth laid over 
something which will allow the whey to nm 
away steadily, like a large sieve or a basket. 
When the curd has been stirred till it is freed 
from the whey and becomes a little cool, and 
the large lumps broken up tine so it will all 
receive salt about alike, salt at the rate of one 
ounce for each ten quarts of milk. Mix the 
salt thoroughly through the curd, and then put 
to press. As soon as the curd is well stuck 
together, so it can tie handled safely, remove it 
from the press, put on a new press cloth, turn 
the under side up. fold the cloth evenly over it, 
and press again till the press is wanted for the 
next day's cheese. Upon taking it from the 
press, let it stand an hour or tw o till it becomes 
dry: then rub it over with some soft grease, 
and turn and rub daily till it is cured, which 
w ill be in from thirty to sixty days. < hi small 
cheise for home use no bandage w ill lie required. 
The surface must be greased often enough to 
keep it from drying ami checking. 

In making small cheese lor home use, the 
press, though desirable, is not absolutely 
necessary. If a curd is properly made, it will 
form itself into a cheese of good texture by its 
own weight. In molding a cheese without 
pressing, tin hoop should lie made of pcrfo 
rated tin, so the whey can readily escape, and 
should have a cover of the same material, for 
its top and bottom, shutting over ami outside 
of the tin, like the cover of a pill box, and 
should be only just about large enough to 
hold the curd to be molded. A cover is pkiced 
upon the lower end of the hoop, the warm curd 
tilled in, and the cover put on the upper end, 
and set on auy level foundation. After stand- 
ing a few minutes, the hoop is turned quickly 
upon the other end, the curd slides dow n and 
makes a smooth surface on what was at first 
the npper end. By turning the hoop a few 
times while warm, both ends get an even sur- 
face, and then, by standing still, the curd will 
permanently- adhere and remain firm when 
taken from the hoop. To succeed well in 
molding cheese without pressing, the curd 
should be taken from the whey a little sooner 
than otherwise, and be quickly drained and 
salted and put into the hoop quite warm. 
Cold curd w ill not adhere without pressing. 

Clover Bloat. 

Km riiKs Pkkss: Some time ago I read an ar- 
ticle in the Pkkss on "Bloat of cattle on 
clover." After carefully leading the article, I 
was disappointed, for all 1 could make out by 
the article was that cattle would bloat if 
pastured on clover, a fact w hich had dearly 
proven itself in this county. Now what we 
want to know is, what w ill prevent bloating, 
and at the same time allow us to pasture stock 
on clover ? There has been an unusually large 
number of cows died this season from the effects 
of bloat. Although I have not lost any at the 
present time, still almost every evening I have 
one or more bloated. Some say that salt kept 
in the pasture will prevent it, but it does not in 
my case. Others claim that if you keep the 
grass short it will prevent it, but I keep four 
head of cattle to the acre on my pasture from 
the first of May to the first of November, and 
w hile the grass is not very short, still it is not 
extra rank, the grass averaging from three to 
six inches in length. The only remedy I have 
used so far consists of running the cows for a 
short time until the swelling begins to subside. 
Another strange feature is, that so far as I have 
heard neither steers or bulls bloat, only cows. 
Not knowing that cows were subject to stop- 
page of water, I was surprised to find mine af- 
fected that way after having been bloated. If 
there is any known remedy it would be a boon 
to the dairymen r.f this county if it was pub 
lisle :d in the Pkkss. My cows seem to be more 
subject to bloating about .sundow n, or on a damp 
foggy day. My cows are not off of the pasture 
only long enough to be milked; they are on the 
clover night and day. The pasture is white 
clover. Hoping w e w ill hear of a -»/•' run bSj 
fore long in the Pkkss, we remain respectfully 
yours, etc. K. C. Damon. 

Ferndale, Humboldt Co., Cal. 

| The subject is of interest and importance, 
and we would like to have it fully discussed. 
Our object in publishing the article to which 
our correspondent refers w as mainly to give all 

Fuly 28, 1883.J 

pAeiFie'^URAL fRESS. 


readers a correct idea of what bloat is. There 
is, we' have found, no little misapprehension on 
this subject. How to overcome the bloating, 
and still allow our correspondent to keep his 
cows on the clover all the time is the problem. 
If he should change his regime, and allow the 
cows on the clover only during the daytime, 
after the dew is off, giving them other range 
during the rest of the time, or if he should give 
them partdry feed and part clover, or if he should 
adopt the soiling system, and allow the clover to 
wilt after cutting — any of these would tend to 
lessen, if not remove the bloating tendency: 
but who can prescribe a cure without such a 
change in his methods that is what is wanted? 
Eds. Pkebs. ] 

JUhe JStcxsk *Y*arb. 

Notes on Stock Growing. 

The following budget of interesting para- 
graphs on stock growing we compile from the 
last issue of the National Lire Stock Journal of 

Feeding While Upon Grass. 

Time waits for no laggard's cattle to get into 
condition for winter, and none but those who 
ii tve never reared cattle require to have it re- 
peated, that the most economical time for get- 
ting stock in flesh for winter is during the grass 
season. Nor should grass be alone depended 
upon for young growing tilings, and cows in 
milk should each, according to her require- 
ments, have meal, bran and oil cake. This ex- 
tra feeding is imperative when grass gets scant, 
owing to over pasturing, or from drouth. Re- 
peated trials nave proved that one hundred 
pounds of ordinary pasture grass contains about 
eighty per cent of water, and that twenty 
pounds of the liner kind of wheat bran is equal 
to one hundred pounds of grass. Hence, if a 
herd is on a short allowance of grass, no one is 
excusable for leaving it on short allowance of 
food when it is so easy to make up the defi- 
ciency, and this can be so cheaply done. It is 
a question for every man to settle for himself, 
depending on the value of his land per acre, 
and of his cattle per head, as to how far he is 
warranted in supplementing his pasture grass 
with ground feed. We believe, however, that 
upon all lands of high value, and in the case of 
cattle of high value for breeding purposes, and 
for use in the dairy, free supplemental feeding 
will always be found advantageous. 

The Jersey Boom. 

There is much about the steady rise in Jersey 
cattle for the last three or four years worthy of 
consideration. One remarkable fact will be 
noted, that the extraordinary prices have not, 
as heretofore, attached to the animals with 
fancy pedigrees, according to the amateur breed- 
ers, or according to the fancy points some insist 
upon. These apparently extravagant prices 
have been based upon the yield of solid butter 
from the cows, or their close relationship to the 
great butter yielders. The fanciful points do 
not count now in price. The first point is the 
practical butter point. What has she done? 
What is her butter figure? What have her 
ancestors done ? The answers to these ques 
tions fix her value. If they are satisfactory, 
it matters little about "solid color," or the 
points concerning the tail. The Jersey has 
nearly passed the whimsical period, and is now 
being considered on her merits as the butter cow. 
The Jersey boom is not likely to produce any 
such evil consequences as the boom in Short- 
horns a few years ago, because the sales are 
made for cash, paid by those who have it to 
Spare, and the receding of the tide is not likely 
to produce any serious inconveniences. The 
Jersey cow is a generous gift to the dairy in- 
terest; let us [develop her, and let prices take 
care of themselves. 

Improving Flocks of Sheep. 

The merchant is constantly trying to improve 
his trade by improving the quality of his goods 
without increasing the price in proportion, try- 
ing to meet all the wants of his customers. 
The manufacturer tries to increase the amount 
of his sales and profits by improving the char- 
acter of his manufactures. So, likewise, should 
the flock owner make it a constant study how 
to improve the character of his Hock, both as to 
its capacity for increasing the weight of carcass 
and wool from a given amount of food, and its 
capacity for breeding strong, healthy lambs. 
Kvery element of income should be taken into 
consideration, and an effort made to increase 
the value of each. 

The best digestion produces the best growth 
of body from a given amount of food, and the 
power of digestion is increased in several ways: 
First, by the proper selection of foods. A mix- 
ture of grasses is nature's prescription of food 
for the sheep, as well as other grass-eating ani- 
mals. This mixture of grasses contains all the 
elements in precisely the right proportion, and, 
when in full supply, cannot be improved upon. 
When other food must be given, it should be of 
a varied character, in imitation of the grasses. 
The sheep has a strong c raving for variety in 
food, and should be indulged. It is always a 
strong recommendation of a food that it is palat- 
able, that the animal eats it with pleasure. 
Care of Colts. 

While climate and soil contribute largely to 
the bone, muscle, and growth of the colt, yet 
generous feeding and comfortable quarters are 
necessary to insure the desirable size; care dur- 

ing the first two winters generally determines 
the future form of the colt. Especially is this 
true with reference to the attention he receives 
during the first winter after he is weaned. If 
he has only rough fodder, and is subjected to 
constant exposure, he is sure to be stunted. 
His growth and prosperous condition their seem 
to stop suddenly after he is weaned, and he re- 
mains at a standstill throughout the winter and 
spring, till the early grass again starts his 
growth. But then much valuable time has been 
lost in the period of his growth that can never 
be recovered. Moreover, his system has been 
stunted, and his subsequent growth is, like that 
of the pony, more in breadth than in height. 
All this is remedied if sufficient food and 
shelter are given to the young colt during the 
first winter of his existence ; and if the same 
generous treatment is continued during the sec- 
ond winter, then the possibility of stunting him 
has passed away. Kvery consideration, mone- 
tary and useful, of value and beauty, favors the 
horse of fine size, Whatever specialty the 
small horse may fill, the larger horse will serve 
much better. 

Judging Stock. 
Men who have had very excellent opportuni- 
ties in the feeding yard, becoming good judges 
of the merits of steers, are quite likely to doubt 
their ability to judge of the higher classes of 
breeding stock. They do not consider that a 
well-modeled, fat ewe must necessarily be quite 
like a well-shaped, fat wether, and that to im- 
prove their ideas upon cattle by examining the 
winning breeding cows at a prominent fair, they 
must vrew them from a practical standpoint. 
In other words, they must be guided by the 
same general rules that they would apply to a 
fat steer or a fat wether. The broad, well- 
rounded front, the thick, smooth shoulder, well- 
filled crops, full-spread loin, hips, and rump, 
long ribs, well sprung, flank and twist well 
down and full, united in one animal, whether 
cow, heifer, steer, or fat sheep, show the forms 
it is always safe for the beginner to study, and 
follow as a model in breeding. 

FEEDING Animals. — A new work on "heed- 
ing Animals" has just been published by the 
author, Prof. E. W. Stewart, Lake View, Eric 
Co., N. Y. I'rof. Stewart is one of the fore- 
most investigators of the phenomena of animal 
nutrition of our day, and his conclusions are of 
much interest and practical value. The book is 
not the work of a day, nor of a year, nor is it a 
compilation from old authors, but a bringing 
together of facts learned by living, thinking 
men, and placing them in a convenient form 
for reading and for study, by the great army of 
live stockmen, upon whose good judgment and 
sound practice the price of every man's daily 
food so largely depends. As a work on soiling, 
or on ensilage, or the erection of barns, it will 
prove a safe guide, while in the discussion of 
the main question, the economy of animal feed- 
ing, it certainly has no peer in the agricultural 
literature of the day. It contains over 500 
pages, and is amply illustrated. 

P^HE *V'lJ v JEYARE). 

Curative Qualities of the Grape. 

KnrroRS Press: — The following description of 
the "Grape Cure," was kindly sent me by H. C. 
I'-ggcs. I^sq. . of San Francisco, who copied it from 
a book in his possession. I thought perhaps your 
readers might bo interested in it, and so have re- 
copied it for your use. Mr. Eggers has a very large 
vineyard in Fresno county, though 1 don't think we 
have the twenty-five miles of vines anywhere in Cali- 
fornia yet. — Hilda DelESTHER. 

A pleasant writer in the London Review de- 
scribes the process of this cure, and gives an at- 
tractive picture of the place that has become its 
headquarters. The cure is practiced at Mer- 
any, [in the Tyrol, and at Vevay and Martreux, 
on the lake of Ceneva. But in Germany, Durk- 
heim is the place which enjoys the most fame. 
Durkheim lies on the left bank of the Rhine, 
in the Bavarian palatinate, and is distant about 
fourteen miles, due east, from Maunheim. The 
nearest railway station is Neustadt, a small 
town on the line from Mayance to the French 
frontier, at Forbaclr. The surrounding region 
is one great vineyard; for some twenty-five miles 
the highroad passes through the midst of a suc- 
cession of vineyards, without a trace of any 
other cultivation meeting the eye of the trav- 
eler, and although immense quantities of wines 
are made from the twelve or fifteen different 
sorts of grapes which arc grown there, almost 
an equal amount of the juicy fruit is diverted 
from bibulous to curative purposes. 

The process of the "grape cure" is at once 
simple and agreeable. It lasts from three to 
six weeks. The regular season commences 
about the first week in September and lasts 
nearly to the end of October. Everything de- 
pends on the ripening of the grapes. 

The amount of grapes daily taken by persons 
undergoing the cure varies from four and a half 
to seven or eight pounds. In some cases nine 
pounds are eaten. They are taken three times 
a day at the same hours at which mineral waters 
are usually drank in Oermany — before break- 
fast, at eleven o'clock in the morning, or two 
hours before dinner, and at five or six in the 
evening. Persons generally commence the cure 
with from two to three pounds a day, and ad- 
vance daily in quantity till the larger limit is 
reached. The skins and seeds should not be 
swallowed. The largest portion is usually con- 
sumed at eleven o'clock. Some doctors don't 

allow patients to take any other breakfast than 
the grapes, accompanied by a roll of bread. The 
usual plan, however, is to permit them to take 
a breakfast of tea and coffee with bread, but no 
butter, after the grapes. A strict diet is usu- 
ally prescribed. All fat, sour or spiced meats 
and pastry are forbidden. A small quantity of 
white, light wine is permitted, but red wine, 
beer and milk must be avoided. The evening 
meal should be a very light one. 

The system pursued at Durkheim is the same 
as that followed at other places where the grape 
cure goes on; and the grapes which are used in 
the cure at Yevayand Martreaux, also at Durk- 
heim, are, for the most part, the Gutedel and 
the Austrian varieties. 

There is a small Kurgarten at Durkheim, for- 
merly the garden of the Casta, where a band 
plays at the regular hours appointed for the 
eating of the grapes. On one side under the 
tree there are tables covered with large baskets 
full of the varieties used in the cure, and as at 
Kms and other places where mineral waters are 
drank, it is the fashion for everyone to buy a 
glass for himself; so here, everyone must be pro- 
vided with a basket to car ry the grapes in which 
he purchases from the attendant at the table; 
the price of the best grapes is at present two 
and a half pence per pound. To a stranger the 
sight is an amusing one, and very different from 
anything to be met with elsewhere. Numbers 
of people are seen walking up and down in the 
little garden, each with a small black basket full 
of grapes, which he is eating with the greatest 
rapidity, as if he were doing it for a wager. 
The place is, as may be imagined, covered with 
grape skins, though some of the burly round- 
shouldered Germans bolt skins and all. 

The diseases in w hich the grape cure is con- 
sidered by the German doctors to be the most 
beneficial, is in affections of mucous membrane 
of the respiratory organs. The secretive power 
of the membrane is aroused and it is enabled to 
throw off obstructions which have assumed a 
chronic form. Cases of bronchitis and pneu- 
monia are said to have been often cured, even 
in patients of scrofulous constitution, and much 
benefit is said to have been experienced by per- 
sons affected with tubercular consumption in 
its earliest stages. Where spitting of blood has 
set in much caution must be used as to the 
amount of grapes taken. Persons affected with 
any of these complaints are in the habit of com- 
ing to Durkheim yearly from all parts of Ger- 
many. A well known grape grower of New 
York some years ago put forth a theory of cur- 
ing diseases by the use of grapes, but iie never- 
carried his theory into practice beyond the cir- 
cle of his own family. At Durkheim they do 
it on a large scale. 

Assessing Vineyards. 

The value placed upon the vineyard by the 
assessor is a matter of much importance and 
will increase in moment as the vineyard area is 
expanding. The St. Helena Yiticultural ( 'lub, 
has been investigating the subject and 
find much cause for complaint at their rating. 
At the last meeting of the club much informa- 
tion was presented and we quote from the re- 
port in the Star as follows: 

Mr. Pellet had been appointed a committee 
of one to visit Santa Clara county to see about 
assessments there. He went to San Jose Mon- 
day. With the exception of General Naglee's 
vineyard, situated within the corporate limits 
of San Jose, anil the vineyard of J. B. Pierce, 
adjoining the town of Santa Clara, which, on 
account of their location are assessed at a very 
high figure, he found that the average valuation 
of vineyards, is as follows: Lands, $.'10 per acre; 
vines, $30. To arrive at this estimate he tran- 
scribed the assessments of a number of vine- 
yards in full bearing in different parts of the 
county, added them together and struck an 
average. From the most reliable information 
he could gather, he found that the average 
yield per acre last year was four tons. 

Many young vineyards not yet bearing, situ- 
ated on rolling table and hill land, are assessed 
at from $10 to $20 per acre. From this showing 
it will be seen that vineyards in the upper Napa 
valley are assessed more than double what they 
are in Santa Clara county, both as to land and 
to improvements (vines). 

The speaker instanced various assessments in 
this vicinity to show the difference. Following 
parties are assessed the following amounts per 
acre for land alone: H. A. Pellet, $90; McCord, 
$80; Peterson, $84; Krug, $94; Crane, $75 for 
upper place and $90 for lower; Yeaton, $100; 
Brockhoff, $40; Ink, $75; H. J. Lewelling, 
187.50; John Lewelling, $74; Laurent, $100; 
Norton, $80: John Pellet, $1 10; Beringor, $80; 
Heymann, $90.50; Kraft, $100; Kister, $110; 
Jno. York, $56; W. E. York, $75; Jones, $75; 
Mrs. Bourn, $90. 

The question was fully discussed, and the 
conclusion arrived at that not only were we in 
this county much more heavily taxed for vine- 
yard property than the people of other counties, 
but that this particular part of Napa county 
was more heavily taxed for land of equal value 
than other parts. It was, however, concluded 
that there was no help for it now, as far as this 
year was concerned. The assessment was nrade 
and the Board of Equalization powerless to 
change it. No aid could be Rooked for, either, 
from the State Hoard, for they could only raise 
by counties and not by individuals. Bat it Vas 
not too late to make an effort to avoid a repeti- 
tion of the evil for the coming year, and to this 
end Crane moved the appointment of a commit- 
tee to draft resolutions protesting against un- 
equal taxation and expressive of our views on 

the subject, to be presented to the State Board 
of Equalization, said resolutions to be framed 
and presented at the next meeting of this As- 
sociation for approval. Carried, and Messrs. 
Ewer and Pellet appointed such committee. 

Wine Ferments. 

The researches initiated by M. Pasteur upon 
the alcoholic ferments, promise to have an im- 
portant influence, not only upon beer brewing, 
but upon the apparently less artificially con- 
ducted process of fermentation that goes on in 
the production of wine. It seems quite proba- 
ble that the quality of wine of any year is as 
much affected by the particular mold which 
predominates during the fermentation, as by 
the amount of sunshine or rain during the 
growth of the grapes, or even the passage of a 
comet through the sky. In Germany, it is al- 
ready the practice to sterilize the must and 
then to sow it with some selected ferment, a 
process favorable to the elimination of various 
"false" ferments (species of JUmntii) that arc 
common to the surface of the grape and other 
fruit, while the custom in some southern conn 
tries of decanting the must as soon as the first 
foaming appears, may have the same effect. In a 
recent communication [Comptes Hi ndus, xevi, 
1,369) M. Le Bel incidentally remarks that last 
year none of the grape collection with which he 
had to do underwent fermentation influenced 
by what Pasteur considers to be the true wine 
ferment, (Saceharomyees ellipsoides), Iters, but 
was all fermented by S. Pastorianus. M. Le 
Bel also states that a natural must yields a 
larger proportion of the higher alcohols than a 
solution of sugar fermented with the same fer- 
ment, and as the higher alcohols are more in- 
jurious to health than ordinary alcohol, it would 
appear that a beer made partly from sugar is 
quite as wholesome as one made solely from 


Work of the State Fish Commission. 

The Sacramento Bee gives the following out- 
line of the proceedings of the State Fish Com- 
mission at a meeting at the capita] hist week : 

Mr. Dibble reported that at the State hatch 
ery at Shelby's, in Nevada county, rainbow trout 
eggs from Modoc were hatched, and the young 
trout, to the extent of 25,000, were m good con 
dition, and that Richardson bad secured over 
100,000 eggs of Tahoe silver trout. Many com- 
plaints have been made of the violation of the fish 
laws by the use of unlawful irets, the killing of 
fish by giant powder, lime and other means by 
parties on the Sacramento and its tributaries. 
Presideirt Puiekinghani was again directed to 
call the attention of the District Attorneys of 
the counties on the line of the river to repeated 
violations of the fish laws, and to cause them 
to arrest and cause the offenders to be punished. 
The same Commissioner was also directed to in- 
quire into the matter of the destruction of 
fish at Soquel, Santa Cruz county, by deleterious 
substances used at the paper mill. President 
Buckingham reported that he had been down 
the river, and found extensive preparations Were 
being made for the close system. There was 
capacity for 100,000 salt fish. There were ten 
boats on the Mokelumne, four or five on 
Three-mile slough, eight or ten on Seven-mile 
slough. President Buckingham and Commis- 
sioner J. D. Redding were appointed a com- 
mittee to look into the cases of various offenders 
and prevent the violation of the laws. Citizens 
of Humboldt county asked that a hatchery In- 
established on the waters of Eel river. 

It was reported that Chinamen were in the 
habit of destroying fish above Redding, on the 
Sacramento river, by the use of giant powder. 
Forty dollars were appropriated to aid in the 
prosecution of these people. President Buck- 
ingham and Commissioner Dibble were author 
ized to employ five deputies to assist them in 
prosecuting violators of the fish law on the 
Sacramento river and tributaries. A letter was 
received in relation to the dam at Linsey creek, 
in Humboldt county. The District Attorney 
was written to to have a fish ladder erected in 
order to prevent further violation. A letter 
was received from a gentleman prominently 
connected with the canning business in Collins 
ville, in which he makes these remarks: "Hav- 
ing been on the river a number of years engaged 
in canning fish, and knowing the fishermen per- 
sonally, and their peculiar ways, I take the lib 
erty to say that no open patrol of the river with 
sloop or steamer will ever avail. * * * The 
whole thing must be done on the detective plan. 
* * * You would be surprised to sec the 
open preparations being made to fish 'next Au- 
gust. Salt, by the ton, is being landed on this 
wharf, consigned to fishermen. Large tanks 
are being built purposely to salt fish in, and the 
open avowal is made by the fishermen that thej 
will fish in season and out of season. The local 
officer and Sheriff are of no account at this place. 
They have been bought to keep their eyes shut, 
and $10 or $20 from each boat will make a largi 
bribery fund." A letter was written to the 
owners of the Lenin hatchery, on Sonoma 
creek, to know how much they would charge, 
per thousand, to put trout into different streams. 

Commissioner Buckingham has just returned 
from a trip dowrr the river as far as Pinole 
point, to look after the enforcement of the fish 
laws. He saw many evidences that numerous 
people are preparing to violate the law during 
the close season for salmon next month, 



[July 28, 18§o 

CorrcsponilcnLC on ( ".range principles and work and re- 
port-, of transactions of subordinate Granges are respect- 
fully solicited for this department. 

Subjects for August Meetings. 

II. Bah ba ugh, Lecturer of the National 
Grange, issues the following suggestions con- 
oernklg discussions in subordinate < J ranges dur- 
ing August: 

Question- What is religion anil politics in 
the < irange ? 

Suggestions — It has been said and repeated 
a thousand times that there is no religion nor 
politics in the (irange. An organization of this 
character, void of religion and politics, would 1* 
a fraud, and deserving of contempt. 

If there were no religion in the Grange, why 
make the moral standing of an applicant a test 
for admission ? Is not the first lesson taught at 
the threshold on entering a < irange a religious 
one ? And so it is with every lesson as we ad- 
vance in the Order through all the degrees and 
ceremonies. If there is no religion in the • irange, 
why open all its meetings with prayer and close 
them with a benediction? Why the W. M.'s 
injunction at the close of every session as to our 
conduct during the intervals of its meeting '.' 
The most devoted and earnest men and women 
i >f the various religious denominations meet and 
mingle together in the ( irange in the enjoyment 
alike of its religious exercises; having laid aside 
all sectarianism, their religious sentiments are 
elevated to higher esteem and usefulness. 

Educating on political economy, on the affairs 
and science of government, is "politics" in its 
true sense. Men and women of all political par- 
ties meet in the (irange and enjoy tin- teaehinos 
of these principles; having divested themselves 
of selfish partizanship, they readily assent that 
each shall enjoy his own political convictions. 

When we dismiss selfishness, then we can 
properly distinguish l>etwecn religion anil sec- 
tarianism, between politics and partizanism. 
Our religion is true and elevating; our politics 
sound statesmanship. 

Women in the Grange. 

The first degree of the Order was compiled 
on the 5th of August, 1S(»7. On the With of 
t In- same month. W illiam Saunders left Wash- 
ington for St. Louis, with the design of estab- 
lishing the ( fider in the South and West, hut 
signally failed to interest the farmers in the 
movement. Upon his return and report, there 
were grave fears expressed that this laudable 
undertaking would he a failure. When douht 
and despondency filled the little camp at Wash- 
ington, and after O. H. Kelly had expressed his 
disposition to abandon the enterprise, Miss 
Hall said to him: "Uncle Kelly. I think I have 
the key that will unlock this difficulty. 1 
bebeve I can suggest a talisman which will 
charm and captivate the farmers of the nation." 
When requested to give it, she replied: "Yon 
have started your Order of Patrons after the 
plan of all orders and associations formed among 
men, which is upon the principle that man 
alone is worthy of confidence and the only fit 
repository of valuable secrets. For the first 
time in the world, give the women a chance to 
prove their ability to keep a secret and their 
fidelity to principle. Admit her to all the 
rights and privileges of the Order; let her kneel 
at the altar with you in your prayers and obli- 
gations; let her share with you the honors and 
offices, and I will pledge you all that I have and 
am, that the (irange will be a success." 

The suggestion w as adopted, ami the result 
is known. The Order grew as no other order 
or association ever grew before or since. In 
the short space of seven years, it grew from 
nothing to a two-million membership. Com- 
munities of fanners who had never known their 
neighbors, were found together in council. 
With a knowledge of each other, timidity and 
reserve disappeared. — Cat. Palrou. 

A Quorum in a Subordinate Grange. 

W. M. Daniel Flint has issued the following 
decision, in answer to an inquiry from South 
Sutter (irange, as to the number constituting a 
quorum in a Subordinate ( irange. 

I have been unable to fine any definite rule govern- 
ing that case, but think I can point out rulings bear- 
ing on the case that will be definite enough for any 
Orange to act in the premises. 

In digest of 1882. page 84. (Parliamentary Guide), 
"a quorum is the least number with which a Orange 
can be opened in due form, anrl should be prescribed 
in the by-laws of every subordinate Grange. 'If not 
so prescril>ed, 13 members shall constitute a quo- 

It seems to resolve itself into this— that if South 
Sutter, or any subordinate Grange has adopted in its 
by-laws that seven shall constitute .1 quorum, then 
seven members can open the (irange and transact 
business, and consequently initiate, although very 
inconvenient to do the latter. On the other hand, if 
seven is not mentioned as a quorum in the by-laws, 
then 13 must stand as a quorum, and it is necessary 
to have that number present fit open the (irange. 
See Digest, page 57, Art X. Seven members is 
the least number with which a (irange can be opened 
indue form. See proceedings 14th session, page 

An Interesting Occasion. 

The (i rangers of Kstrella plains, in San Luis 
Obispo county, according to an account in the 
Trilnuie, celebrated the F'ourth by a picnic on 
the Salinas river, and a ball at the schoolhousc 

in the evening. Quite a number were in attend- 
ance at the picnic. The Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was spoken by Master Lee Huston, a 
lad about ten years of age: a very interesting 
essay was read by Miss Kittie Middleton,\ind 
speeches were delivered ,by H. W. Khyne, 1'. 
'1'. Waggoner and H. K. Adams. After dinner 
various games and pastimes were resorted to. 

About three o'clock a marriage ceremony was 
performed by Rev. H. F. Adams, uniting in the 
holy bonds of matrimony Byron Lee Fortney 
and Sylvia Dora Botts. This was not on the 
programme, but was an agreeable surprise to 
all assembled on the grounds. The Ti llmru say s ; 
"Byron is one of our active Grangers, and we 
wish him and his bride a long and happy life, 
and may all their troubles be little ones." 

I'aso Kobles (irange will hold a meeting on 
Saturday, August 4th, at ten o'clock. Bro. 
( leorge Steel is expected to be present, and a 
class of six will be initiated in the fourth de- 
gree. The harvest feast will be given at 1 
o'clock. Kittie Middleton, Secretary of the 
(irange, writes: "Lay aside the care of the 
farm for one day and meet your brothers and 
sisters in social reunion, and let us together 
render praise to Him who has so signally 
blessed this portion of our State." 

The Meeting at Danville. 

We learn there was a good attendance of 
Patrons at Danville, Contra Costa county, last 
Saturday, from Danville, Walnut creek and 
Martinez. Chas. Wood, of the State Executive 
committee, Nathaniel .lones. P. M., of Walnut 
creek, and other Brothers earnestly discussed 
interests of live interest to the farmers of this 
State. A class of candidates received the de- 
grees, and a line harvest feast and a general good 
anil encouraging time was enjoyed by all pres- 
ent. We should be pleased to receive reports 
of all interesting (irange meetings, whenever 
and wherever they occur. 

The Coming Fairs. 

This year's fairs promise to be of unusual in- 
terest and to command the attention and pat- 
ronage of the people, to a greater degree than 
formerly. We reach this conclusion from what 
we read and hear of the preparations now being 
made. Several new pavilions are being built, 
for the local societies seem determined that the 
grand new structure at Sacramento, shall not 
consume all the lumber which shall be devoted 
to fair purposes. Many of the local boards 01 
fair managers are working with much skill and 
vigor in enlisting the efforts of exhibitors, and 
where a stir of this kind occurs, the result is 
always a better exhibition than can be secured 
by an indolent policy. We give below a list of 
the fairs of which we have record of dates. 
( <ur list is not complete and we hope additions 
will be sent us at once, so that subsequent pub- 
lications of the list may include all the fairs, 
both county and district. The list is ar- 
ranged according to the dates of holding: 

Santa Cruz Fair, at Santa Ciuz, July 31st to Aug- 
ust 4th. 

Ray District Association, races in San Francisco, 
August nth to 24th and on Se p tember 1st. 

Sonoma County Fair, at Santa Rosa, August 20th 
to 25th. 

Sonoma and Marin District F'air, at Petaluma, 
August 27th to September 1st. 

California State Fair, at Sacramento, September 
3d to 15th; races and live stock show September 
10th to 15th. 

C jolden Gate Fair, at Oakland, September 3d to 

El Dorado District Fair, at Grass Valley', Septem- 
ber 4th to 8th. 

Thirteenth District Fair, at Marysville, September 
41I1 to 8th. 

Mechanic's Institute Fair, in San Francisco, Sep- 
tember ■ 1 tli to October 13th. 

Stockton Fair, atStockion, September 18th t0 22d. 

San Mateo and Santa Clara District Fair, at San 
Jose, September 24th to 29th. 

Please send us the dates of the other fairs and 
secure their insertion in the above list, which 
we shall publish from time to time. 

SoKolir.v.— Robert Clarke & Co., of Cincin- 
nati, have in press a book on sorghum, both as 
a source of sugar anil syrup and as a foddcr 
plant, by Peter Collier, Ph. D., late chemist of 
the I department of Agriculture at Washington. 
Dr. Collier is the chemist by whom most of the 
recent investigations into the sorghum sugar in- 
dustry have been made, and as his book covers 
the whole industrial character of the sorghum 
plant, it will be sought for as the best and most 
comprehensive review of the subject. 

National City. -We have in preparation 
an engraving of National City, Sin Diego 
county, and objects of interest in its \ icinity. 
It will we expect be an attractive picture of a 
growing locality. Wc would be glad to re- 
ceive notes of interest in connection with the 
country tributary to National City, for publica- 
tion with the engraving. Let us hear from you, 

Snow FIELDS on TBK Sikkra. — Hot as the 
weather has been for the past three or four 
weeks, there are still vast and unbroken fields 
of snow on the high Sierra, especially about the 
head of Mill and Lee Vining creeks, in the 
vicinity of Mount Conness, Mono county: also 
even on some of the exposed slopes of the 
higher peaks further south. 


CkAlN. Haywards .Ininnul : ( )n a visit to 
thi' warehouses at the depot Wednesday we 
found them well prepared to receive all the 
grain that will be stored this year. At Ans- 
pacher's, the busy manager, Charles Prowse, 
was shipping a large lot of hay. He has shipped 
'.2,000 sacks of oats below, the first to arrive 
this season. A huge lot of barley of this year's 
harvest has arrived, which was found to be in- 
ferior in quality, but this cannot be said to be 
the average, though barley has suffered more 
than wheat from the late scorcher. From reli- 
able sources we learn that the average yield per 
acre so far has been between thirteen to fifteen 
sacks. One place near San Lorenzo w ent twenty 
sacks to the acre, and several others touched 
fourteen. The Chevalier barley is the worst 
injured, and Meek's is thrashing a very light 
crop near town. The barley so far seen this 
year is shrunken and dark, and when placed 
alongside of that raised last year, looked still 
worse by the contrast. 


Anothbb Odmbi Ni l. Machine. Gridley //. <■ 
a 1,1, July 19: We learn that ft R, Wis.-, a 
young mechanic of Chico, has made noteworthy 
improvements upon the combined header and 
thrasher. He has been experimenting with one 
upon a ranch near Chico this season. It worked 
successfully and satisfactorily. The machine 
with which Mr. Wise has been experimenting 
is equivalent to a nineteen-foot header, and 
does all the work of a separator at the same 
tune. But it is not heavy and bulky. It is run 
by eight horses and operated by two men only. 
He intends this winter to build some to cut only 
eight feet and be run by four horses. 

Wheat Varieties. — In the early part of last 
winter William Kagan, a Dibble creek farmer, 
sent to Yolo county and got a few sacks of Pride 
of F'.ngland and French wheat, which he sowed 
on the 28th of January on gravelly land. He 
sowed eight acres of the former and four of the 
latter. He cut both lots of grain a few days 
since, getting one hundred sacks of the Pride of 
Kugland, anil about fifty sacks of the Frem-h 
wheat. The former yielded about forty-live 
bushels to the acre, and the latter not quite as 
much. The Pride of F.ngland is a long, round 
grain, about the color of Club-head. It has a 
short beard at the end of each mesh. It is 
much earlier than Club-head, and does not 
thrash out with the w ind near so bad as it does, 
and it yields about three times as much. Both 
the Pride of Kugland and the French w heat are 
full, plump grains, while the Club-head is badly 
Shriveled, and is only valuable for chicken feed. 
Mr. Kagan thinksthe Pride of Kugland is a little 
the best wheat, and the trial he has made this 
season has convinced him that it is the best 
wheat that can be raised "in the State. These 
varieties of wheat are superior to the ( Hub for 
three reasons: They yield more to the acre, ma- 
ture earlier, and thrash out less with the wind 
or w hile being handled. 

Los Angeles 

LaKi.K Ouani.k. — Tim": We w ere pi csented 
yesterday with an orange taken from a cluster 
of four, brought in from the Mission by Mr. 
ChtW. Stephens. The cluster weighed four 
pounds and ten ounces, and the largest one 
was nearly seventeen inches in circumference. 

The Kaisi.n Crop. — Santa Ana Standard' 
July 21; From present appearances there wil' 
be no lack of raisin buyers the present summer- 
At least four packing houses will be operated in 
Orange alone, where raisins will be bought in 
the sweat boxes. The crop promises to he 
enormous, and enough raisins will be made to 
keep all hands busy. 

BlACKLXO. — Considerable excitement hits 
been created among cattle owners of Santa Ana 
region by the appearance of the disease called 
blackleg. The first symptoms, to one not ac- 
quainted with the disease, is lameness in one of 
the fore feet. .1. B. Haines, who has some of 
the best cattle in the valley, has lost about 
fifteen of his herd within the past few weeks. 
J. 11. Garner, veterinary surgeon, reports a large 
number of Mr. Haines's cattle sick, but only 
two have died since he commenced treating 
them. A great many who claim to have some 
knowledge of this disease say that it is not 
blackleg. Mr. Gamer, who has successfully 
treated such cases elsewhere, and whose opinion 
is entitled to great weight, says there is no 
doubt of the epidemic being blackleg. The 
blood taken front an animal that has this dis- 
ease is entirely black, somewhat resembling 
black ink, and the flesh on the legs also turns 
black. Mr. Cox, who lives a few' miles below 
Santa Ana, has lost ten head of cattle from the 
same cause. A great many other cattle in dif- 
ferent parts of the valley are also sick, some 
having died. 


Wheat wd Basle y in Salinas Valley. — 
Democrat, July 21 : The high price of barley 
during the past year caused the seeding for this 
season of an unusual proportion of that grain. 
Usually, the wheat sown exceeds the other iu 
the proportion of two in three, but this year 
the barley grown in our valley is at least repre- 
sented by one half the acreage. It has been 
turning out pretty well — was not much hurt by 
the hot spell — is of bright color though not 
weighty, not passing ninety-live pounds as the 
rule. Of wheat, as before said, there is no 

chance to brag. Estimates of the grain yield 
by our valley for the present year and the two 
preceding are as follows: ISSO SI, (i7,"><IO tons ; 
188] 82,00,000 tons: I88B 88, 50,000 teas,- of 
which the proportions of w heat and bailey are 
as above stated. 

Anderson Valley.— Cor. Ckiah DitqxUehi 
July 20: Messrs. McAbce and Stnpp are erect- 
ing a hop-house in Bonneville. Kix!t2 feet. The 
hops in that valley are as well advanced as in 
this. The grain crop is the largest ever known. 
It is estimated that then? will be tw ice the 
usual amount raised. Thrashing commence! 
Monday, and business is in a very flourishing 
condition. The fruit crop all over the valley is 
very milch lighter than usual. 


The Dwtbjct Fail. Plaeerville ptmocraA 

Their little till w ith their Nevada City neigh- 
bors has put the Grass valley people on their 
mettle, and they have arranged a programme 
for the forthcoming district fair, which is ex- 
ceedingly liberal and must result in success. 
Their purses and premiums at the track and 
fair grounds foot up >"."i,400; and their premiums 
for exhibits at the pavilion amount to SiiJHK). 
For one running race — No. 11, on the fourth 
day a purse of si, 000 is offered. For one 
trotting race— No. 4, on the second day — the 
purse is $800. For a pacing match -No. 12, 
on the fourth day the purse is s.100. For a 
pigeon tournament on the fourth day they put 
up a purse of $200. It is reported that Geo. 
Hearst will take his fine stud of fast stock to 
Grass valley, and that Governor Stoneman has 
accepted the invitation of Director Dibble to lie 
his guest during fair week. 


Ten Yeahs' Work. — fftraU : J. A. EMM 
sold out his fruit ranch the other day to Asa 
Smith, recently from the Bast, for $10,006; 
The place consists of seventy acres of land a 
little less than a mile from Newcastle station, 
thirty acres of which arc in fruit and vines, 
fifteen acres in hay, and the balance in a com- 
paratively wild state. Mr. Klliott bought the 
squatter's right to the laud a little less, we 
believe, than ten years ago, for $2.">0, and has 
since paid Sil.'iO more to the railroad company 
for a perfect title. W ithout any capital to 
start on but his own labor, he has placed him- 
self in easy circumstances, and made his place 
worth $10,000. This he has done in the foot 
hills of Placer, and his experience is better 
evidence than a column of generalities of the 
capabilities of this foothill region, and the 
opportunities it offers to the economical, in- 
dustrious and persevering. 


Nvti'Kal SritiNi:*.- Chico Rfjiifrr: To one 
feature of the attractions of Plumas county wc 
wish to call attention the great variety and 
abundance of her natural and mineral springs. 
In no other part of the State have we seen any- 
thing approaching it. There are positively 
thousands of pure, cold springs welling up amid 
her woods, or bursting forth iu her valleys. So 
abundant are these line springs, that nearly 
every farm in the county has one or more, and 
some have a dozen. But we particularly allude 
to more than ordinary springs. Springs of un- 
usual size are frequent. On the farm of Piehard 
Thompson, in Indian valley, is one that affords 
water enough to irrigate probably fifty acres of 
ground. Another spring sending forth a large 
stream is on the ranch of Matt KnowleS in the 
same valley. One of the finest springs in Plu- 
mas is at Prattville. It bursts forth from the 
lava rocks in a powerful volume, and fills a ba- 
sin at least a hundred feet across, and from two 
to four feet deep. It Hows off in a large, fine 
stream, big enough to hold half a dozen boats 
abreast of each other. When wc last visited 
Prattville no effort had been made to elear out 
the dead logs and otherwise improve the boat- 
ing facilities, but we presume a few years have 
made these needed improvements. Just above 
Prattville are several springs that would he 
giants if it were not for their still larger neigh 
bor. Some miles above Big Meadows occurs a 
magnificient spring on the lied Bluff road. It 
bursts forth from a ledge of rocks in a pure, 
sparkling stream, that is the wonder and ad- 
miration of every one who sees it. The stream 
flowing from it cannot be less than from thirty 
to fifty feet wide. The largest spring 
in the county is the monster known as 
the Big Spring, on the north side of Kig 
Meadows. It would make a magnificent 
fish pond for a school of whales. The water 
in all these springs is as pure, eold and delicious 
as water can be. It would be impossible to 
name all the famous springs, such as the Lassen 
Geysers, well worthy a trip to see; those of 
Hot Spring valley and other places. While 
these an- the w onder and admiration of tourists 
the mineral springs of the county will some 
day make Plumas as famous as the celebrated 
watering places of ( iermany and Austria. Hum- 
bug valley has a splendid sulphur spring. Mo 
hawk valley has several fine ones, while be- 
tween Qnincy and Crescent mills is a very su- 
perior soda Spring. Indian valley has two 
springs w orthy of note; one near ( ireenville, 
that if properly advertised would be worth a 
fortune to its owner in curing certain diseases, 
while the other, between Crescent and Taylor- 
ville, will rival in virtues and smell any spring 
in the State. The people of Plumas have small 
bonanzas in their mineral springs, when they 
have learned the art of tooting their horns loud 
enough to make people know their worth. 
San Benito. 

San Jl an Gkain. -Admin;-: The thrashing 

July 28, 1883.] 



machines of Messrs. Nash, of Hollister, and 
Chalmers, of San Juan, are busily engaged 
thrashing the barley crop of San Juan valley. 
The crop is very good, averaging twenty sacks 
to the acre. It is feared that the wheat will 
not yield as well, as considerable shrinkage is 
noticed, owing to the extreme hot weather of 
last month. 

Strawberriks. — Hollister Advance: Thesec- 
ond crop of strawberries now ripening, is 
unusually large, and berry men, though 
their daily shipments now are large, 
expect to make larger shipments than 
ever before in a week or two. Thurber & 
Woody sent about two tons of strawberries to 
tin- city, by express, Sunday, an off day, and 
Waters Ik Brewington arc sending large ship- 
ments daily from their berry farm, planted this 
year. While Pajaro berry-growers are prom- 
ised a second crop so large, in other parts of 
the State the second crop is very short. I'rices 
continue good. The Pajaro valley leads the 
State in strawberries. 

San Bernardino. 

Thk Honey Crop.— /w/r.<', July -21 : It is 
about time that honey buyers begin to under- 
stand that there will not be much over one third 
of a crop of the sweet essence this season in 
southern California. True, a month or six 
Weeks ago the outlook was favorable for at 
least an average yield, but later developments 
nave nipped great expectations in the blossom, 
so to speak, and "honey will be honey" for 
the balance of the season, and no mistake. 
This information we get from bee men from 
many and widely divided localities, arid the 
worst is yet to come. P>ee men in southern 
California who save their stock in good con- 
dition over next winter will be in luck. 

San Diego. 
The Honey Crop. — Santa Maria Cor. Union 
July 12: The hot wave last of .lime dried up 
everything green. In San Pasqual everything 
is as dry as if it had been seared by fire except 
the alfalfa fields which look beautiful. The 
grain on the Santa Maria was too far advanced 
to be injured much, but the bee pasture is com- 
pletely destroyed. One month ago we had 
some prospect of making one-fourth of a crop, 
to-day the bees are not gathering enough to sub- 
sist on. I examined quite a number of hives 
yesterday and find that they have not enough 
honey to last them one week. There will be no 
honey made in this section. If we save one- 
half of the bees it will be as much, judging 
from the present prospect, as can be ex- 
pected. It is a heavy loss to many of 
US. fruit trees and vines have made a 
fine growth, the latter are loaded with fruit. 
There will be a very fine crop of wheat harvested 
on the Santa Maria; four headers are now, or 
will bo in a day or two, at work. 

San Joaquin. 
Correcting Wheat Assessments. - Inde 
pendent: The Hoard of Equalization were in- 
structed yesterday by the District Attorney, in 
regard to the application of J. H. Cole for a 
deduction from his assessment of the value of 
wheat, upon which he had borrowed money, as 
follows: That the Board, under the law, had no 
right to make the deduction prayed for, because 
it was something more than equalization, in 
fact, the correcting of an error in the assess- 
ment roll, and that they had no right to make 
Uthe correction of the assessment roll without 
■the written consent of the District Attorney. 
iThe Hoard was directed, by the'District Attor- 
Iney, to make the correction of the error. A 
resolution was also passed, directing the Asses- 
sor to assess to the First National bank "210 
tons of grain, for a lien of $5,810, and to assess 
to A. Borrell forty-eight tons of grain, valued 
at $1,437, being property held by them as se- 
curity for the payment of a debt, and properly 
assessable to them. The corrections in the as- 
sessment w ill be made. 

Santa Clara. 
Apricots. — Herald, July 1!) : San Jose apri- 
cots are evidently not going begging this year 
at least. Several new drying establishments 
have been started up within a few days, and 
they are all buying fruit, which keeps the price 
Well up and makes owners of apricot orchards 
feel happy. The canning men have been saying 
for a year or more that the bottom had dropped 
But ot the apricot business, and that henceforth 
they would be a drug in the market. Probably 
they would but for the driers. It takes a small 
fortune to start a cannery, but a few hundred 
dollars starts one in the drying business. And 
the more one looks at this question of handling 
fruit the more it seems that drying will be the 
way in which the great bulk of our fruit must 
be prepared for market. The price of orchards 
in which most of the trees are apricot is ad 
vaneing. One gentleman who has been offering 
Ml orchard for S4, .">()() has advanced the price to 
(6,000 within the last week, and with apricots 
telling at wholesale in San Francisco at from 
two and a half cents to three and a half cents 
per pound it would seem that an apricot or- 
chard was a good thing to have, especially if it 
is located in a section free from frost. Young 
trees have not made a very good growth this 
season, and many have died where extra care 
W&s not given them. There was but little 
moisture in the ground when the growing sea- 
»n commenced, and parties who took pains to 
keep the ground pulverized around the newly- 
*et trees and thereby retained what little moist- 
ure there was in the ground, find that their trees 
nave nearly all lived and made a fair growth; 
but those which were neglected have suffered 

badly, in some eases as high as forty per cent 


Shipping Buns. — Suisun Republican: Mr. 
Buck is shipping buds to Lusk, at Temescal. Mr. 
Lusk has about 1,000,000 peach trees, and 
2."> or 30 men budding. It will take them about 
.">0 days to do the budding. The buds are 
packed in wet sawdust in chests about 12x14 
inches square and 4 feet long. 

Improved Header. — Mr. J. W. Reams has 
made some valuable improvements on theheader, 
whereby he lightens the draft, has better com- 
mand of his machine, and can cut square out 
and turn short round, making a square corner. 


Hop Notes. — Healdsburg Mag, July 10: The 
hop acreage hereabouts is as follows: Peter 
Schmidt, 8, being 3 acres increase; Fred Heb- 
ron, 4 acres new; Thos. Toomy, 5 acres new; 
Bailhache, 12 acres new; Henry Hebron, 4 
acres; Brannern, ."> acres; all on Bailhache addi- 
tion. J. D. Grant, 20 acres old, 1 new; Red- 
ding, 22 old, 8 new; .John Born, 8 old, 11 new; 
Taufer, 8 acres new; Foreman, 8 acres new; 
Slocum, 1 acre new. Total old: 04; total new: 
61 j grand total: 125 quite an increase. Peter 
Schmidt has just finished a new hop drying 
house at his hop yard, at Bailhache addition, 
different from the others, inasmuch as the roof 
is three-quarter pitch, and is surmounted by a 
cupola seven feet high. It is expected that 
there will be some advantages in this, one of 
which will be the practicability of spreading 
the hops from eighteen inches to two feet deep, 
the securing of more draft, etc. A peculiar and 
disastrous accident has happened in most of the 
hop yards of this vicinity, through the purchas- 
ing of bad rope from the Fast. The crops are 
heavy and the strings are breaking anil the 
vines falling to the ground. One hop grower 
says he will lose about a ton of hops, valued at 
$500, through this mistake. Had the rope of 
Pacific coast manufacture been purchased, this 
trouble would not have happened. 

Kui it Prices. — Mr. W. N. Gladden has 
been offered by the Petaluma cannery, for 
peaches, §00 per ton, delivered at the depot; 
for plums, Yellow Fgg, Coe's Golden Drop and 
Gen. Hand, $70 per ton: all other light plums, 
$60 per ton, including the Gage; Bartlctt pears 
$50 per ton. About five acres of Mr. Gladden's 
peach orchard did not bear this year, owing to 
eurl-lcaf. He will form new heads, but in the 
meantime plant Petite Prunes d'Agen between 
the rows, and ultimately grub up the peaches, 
the prunes doing much better on same soil. 
The prunes and pears would hav« done better 
but for the heavy crop last year. They do very 
well, however. 

Kmi;iit's Valley. The yield of wheat in 
Knight's valley this season will be larger than 
was anticipated three or four weeks ago the 
north wind that did so much damage in many 
parts of the State not having been so destruc- 
tive there. Of course, the yield will be less 
than it otherwise would have "been, but the 
farmers appear to be very well satisfied 'with 
the crop. 


I-'ki it and Vegetable Shipments. — Visalia 
Delta: Already Tulare has a reputation in this 
State and neighboring Territories for producing 
fruit of the finest quality, and every year the 
amount exported shows an increase. Mr. I. 
II. Thomas, who has done more than any one 
else to build up this business, is daily shipping 
large quantities of fruit, both north and south, 
by the S. Pi railroad. A portion of it is sent 
to Arizona and the Territories beyond. A few 
days ago he received orders from Deming and 
Silver City, New Mexico, not only for fruit, 
but for cucumbers, summer squashes, etc. The 
shipments already made have given satisfaction, 
and as the population of these Territories is 
increasing rapidly the demand for fruit will 
also increase, and Tulare county's good name 
will insure her a fair portion of the trade. 


Apricots. — Free Press, July 21 i The apri- 
cot crop will be decidedly short in Ventura this 
year. In the first place, the trees had but lit- 
tle fruit to start with, and at a later stage a 
great deal of this fell off. There ^will probably 
not be half as much dried in the whole county 
as was put up by Mr. Day alone last year. All 
other fruit will he a full crop. 


Sheep Sale. — Woodland Mad, July l!l: Mr. 
Watkins yesterday sold sixty-six sheep to Mi. 
Munson. They were of the Spanish and Krench 
Merino blood. They were purchased for the pur- 
pose of taking them to Texas. Mr. Ballard 
sold to the same gentleman a carload of the pure 
Merino, for which a price was paid largely in 
advance of those sold by Mr. Watkins. Yolo 
has a reputation for line sheep, and people come 
here from great distances to purchase. In this 
transaction there was probably $3,000 left in 
Yolo county to these two gentlemen. Mr. 
Watkins has also purchased a pure Merino 
buck, for which he paid a fancy price, but 
which will continue the improvement in his 


Spotted Apricots. — Appeal: Apricots, 
though abundant, have been poor in quality and 
of forbidding appearance. All the apricots from 
the valley orchards this season have been badly 
spotted. The spots, it is supposed, were due to 
the attacks of some minute insect enemy, prob- 
ably some form of scale insect. But the apri- 
cots that have reached this market from the 

Brownville and other orchards in the mountains 
have been generally free from spots. 


PiscicrLTCKE. — Tombstone Epitaph, July 21 : 
Dick Rule went to Tucson Thursday to con- 
sult with Dr. Taggart concerning the work of 
the Arizona Fish Commission, of which both 
the gentlemen named are members. He re- 
turned yesterday, and informs the Epitaph that 
Dr. Taggart will go Fast in a few days to 
make arrangements for obtaining a supply of 
carp, catfish and salmon frW- the lakes and 
streams of the Territory. The salmon will be 
placed in the Colorado River, while the carp and 
catfish will he distributed throughout the Ter- 
ritory, to all persons making application for the 
same. Mr. Rule states that the caqj placed in 
the waters of Cochise county about one year ago 
are doing finely, and their extraordinary growth 
is a matter of surprise. When received here for 
distribution, the young fry were about two 
inches in length, and now many of them have 
attained a weight from four to six pounds, and 
are from twelve to eighteen inches in length. 
Mr. Rule thinks the climate and waters of Ari- 
zona peculiarly adapted to carp culture. In 
other places the fish do not begin to propagate 
until two or three years old, but those placed in 
ponds in this vicinity a year ago he thinks will 
deposit their spawn this summer, so that within 
another year fresh carp may be numbered among 
the luxuries of Tombstone. Among those who 
have established carp ponds in this county are 
Oapt. Mike Cray, at his ranch in the Swiss- 
helms; Gus Williams, at Fairbanks; Peck Bros., 
at their ranch on the Lower San Pedro; Brown 
St Rule, at their ranch in the Sulphur Spring 


Cattle Sale. - -New Northwest: The heavi- 
est transaction in cattle that has occurred in the 
Territory took place this week, Mr. Conrad 
Kohrs, for Kohrs it Bielenberg, and Mr. Gran- 
ville Stuart, for Stuart & Anderson, purchasing 
of Mr. A. J. Davis, the Davis, Mauser & Co. 
herd of 12,000 cattle for S4( 10,000. Stuart and 
Anderson were former owners in the herd, the 
late sale being in fact a purchase of the two- 
thirds interest of Judge Davis by Mr. Kohrs 
for $266,667. This is the heaviest transaction 
in cattle that has ever taken place in the Terri- 
tory, the next highest being that of a few weeks 
ago when the Montana Company bought of 
Downs A Allen the old 7,000 head herd of 
Clark & Ulm for $235,000. By this transaction 
Conrad Kohrs puts himself at the head of the 
Montana cattle business, and in the manner of 
the times is the undisputed cattle king of Mon- 
tana, he and Mr. John Bielenberg owning, or 
owning a controlling interest in 25,000 head of 
cattle, which, at rates we have heard of being 
paid recently, are worth on the range a million 
and a half dollars. Mr. Kohrs knows what a 
good herd of cattle is, and the fair inference is 
that in making the recent purchase he has se- 
cured what he believes to be a very valuable 
band of cattle. Messrs. Granville Stuart and 
Rezin Anderson, two of our old townsmen, 
own a one-third interest in the recently pur- 
chased cattle, ranches, etc., and will have 
charge of them. The range headquarters are 
within four miles of Port Maginnis, in Meagh- 
er county, and about two hundred miles east of 
Helena. We are glad to see our old townsmen 
keeping the lead and making an honest penny 
or two in the struggle of life. ' 

A Mohair Sale. — lohn B. Lambert, of Yo- 
seinite, gives the Mariposa Herald the results of 
the sale of one bale, 705 pounds, of mohair to 
the Tingue Manufacturing Company, of Sey- 
mour, Conn. : 

Sorts- Combings, 









30 gray 






17. Id 




30 gray 






strings and dips 


no value 





A One-Wheeled Buggy. — Chicago has a 
''single-wheel buggy company," which has been 
incorporated with a capital of $1,800,000. It is a 
new departure in the buggy line, and those in- 
terested claim that "there's millions in it." The 
invention consists of a wheel which will be at- 
tached to a horse by means of a pair of buggy 
shafts, and which will carry at the other end a 
buggy seat. The inventor claims that by means 
of his new contrivance absolute safety in driv- 
ing is secured, as the wheel can only tip or 
turn over in case the horse does the same thing. 
Besides, he claims that his new vehicle can get 
anywhere a horse can get, and that the horse 
will be able to make a greater speed in this con- 
trivance than in any sulky of' the old pattern. 
If the invention is all that it is claimed to be, it 
is .lest inc. I to win its way to popular favor. 

The middle belt of Minnesota, from Mankato 
cast to the Mississippi River, was swept by a 
tornado Saturday, when six persons were killed 
and nearly 100 in jured. The estimated damage 
to crops is about $.">00,000. 

The Canning Industry. 

The season is proving rather unsatisfactory 
to canners in that they are unable to obtain 
fruit enough to run full time and the season's 
pack promises to be reduced. The Grocer 
gives the following review of the situation in 
this city: 

As the season advances, it becomes necessary 
to advance many descriptions of fruit from 
prices issued two weeks ago. Some of the 
agents report large sales, and an active demand, 
even at the advance. Our views as previously 
expressed are being realized, as the market 
shows unmistakable strength, due to the fact of 
short pack of many varieties, and desire on the 
part of buyers to secure full supplies of such 
fruits. Prices for these particularly are very 
firm. Early small fruits (except blackberries), 
are all packed, and are known to be short. It 
is now believed that blackberries will be short 
also. Apricots, which until recently promised 
an immense crop, are seriously below expecta- 
tions in the central and northern counties. 
Phi ins show a large falling off from last year. 
Pears still promise well, but it is too early to 
calculate with any certainty on them. Peaches 
are likely to be something less than full crop. 
Unfavorable weather accounts for the disap- 
pointment in the result, as the early season 
promised an unprecedented yield. A feature, 
which is likely to curtail the supply of fruit for 
canning purposes this year, is the quantity of 
green fruit which will be consumed in this mar- 
ket during the Triennial Conclave. This de- 
mand w ill be largest just at the season when 
packers need their greatest supply. The grow- 
ing demand for high grade, carefully selected 
fruit, should encourage California canners to 
work to maintain a high standard. There is a 
disposition to ask higher prices for many de- 
scriptions than quoted last week, and it is evi- 
dent the early figures will prove the lowest in 
the season. 

News in Brief. 

San Litis Obispo is to build a big hotel. 
The strike of the telegraph operators still 

Tea raising is among the latest experiments 
in south Mississippi. 
_ CONNECTICUT devotes 00,000 acres to the cul- 
tivation of the oyster. 

In India 700,000 acres of the best land are 
planted with the poppy. 

An Iowa tramp left the smallpox with a 
family who gave him his dinner. 

Horace Greeley's old farm at Chappaqua 
will be sold at auction September 8th. 

The railroad bridge at The Needles, A. T., 
will be completed in about two months. 

In Boston horses' heads are shaded during the 
hot weather to save them from sunstroke. 

An institution is about to be founded for the 
care of weak-minded children in this State. 

The experiment of cables instead of horses 
will be tried in New York on the line of cars 
running on Tenth avenue. 

Swim m im: soirees are all the rage in Wash- 
ington, where the rink is converted into a nata- 
torium. A fine band is in attendance, and the 
interior is brilliantly lighted with electricity. 

The strike of railroad laborers on the exten- 
sion of the Oregon branch of tin Central Pacific 
railroad has ceased, and the whole force of 
about 4,000 men are at work grading and track 

Mr. Abbott, wife and mother, of Cornpton, 
were poisoned recently by eating canned sal- 
mon, and a family named Kenton, living near 
Wartham Canyon, Fresno county, were poisoned 
by eating canned fruit last week. 

The law forbidding the sale of cigarettes to 
boys under sixteen years, which went into 
operation in New Jersey on July 4th, is work- 
ing effectively. Though the law reduces their 
sales, dealers generally approve of it anil obey 
it cheerfully. 

Some twenty-five ships are riding at anchor 
in Mission bay and a half a dozen other vessels 
are breasting the tides back of Goat island. 
This fleet of vessels representing a value of 
about $1 ,.")00,000, is forced to lie idle for want 
of profitable charters. 

The machinery for an oleomargarine factory 
was recently sent to a little place above Yan- 
couver, W. T. , where it was intended to estab- 
lish a factory. The residents, however, ob- 
jected, and one night recently took the ma- 
chinery and dumped it into the Columbia River. 

The Chinese laundries have recently increased 
their rates from fifty to seventy-five per cent, 
the assigned reason being scarcity of washermen 
and higher wages. The washers and ironers, 
formerly paid $1 and $1.;10 a day, now receive 
$2, and as the supply is not equal to the de- 
mand, the employes of the laundries are becom- 
ing very independent. 

The lands of the Tulaip Indian reservation, 
in Oregon, are being allotted to the Indians 
thereon. Every Indian, the head of a family, 
gets 100 acres, and every adult Indian, not the 
head of a family, gets eighty acres. There arc- 
about :?7;"> Indians all told, about 100 of whom 
are entitled to lands under the arrangement. 

It is rumored that the water in LakeChabot, 
the source from which Yallejo and the navy- 
yard at Mare Island draw their water supplies, 
is running very short, and the government, fear- 
ing a water famine, is negotiating for the pur 
chase of the Yallejo White Sulphur Springs, 
for the purpose of having an independent sup 
ply for the yard. 



[July 28, 1883 

Putting in the Shade. 

'Twas his little (laughter's portrait — 

Child as a lily fair ; 
Clear as some crystal stream her eye. 

Sunlit her golden hair. 
1 le hlent his colors tenderly ; 

Love was in every hue 
That decked the canvas pale, whereon 

His darling's face he drew. 

"What dost thou, darling father, now ? 

The little maid would say, 
"And why that darkness on the brow 

1 saw not yesterday ? 
Such somber hues are not for im — 

I love the light," she said. 
"My little daughter, " answered he, 

I 'm putting in the shade. 

"'Twere not a perfect picture, if 

The dark lights were away ; 
To show the brightness needeth yet 

The help of shadows gray ; 
Be patient, little maiden mine, — 

No shadow without sun ! 
How dark was needed thou shall see 

W hen all the work is done I" 

O 'twas the Master l'ainter, in 

Her early morning tide, 
That called that little maiden from 

Her doting father's side, 
And left the old man weeping lone 

Beside her little face, 
Still smiling from the canvas in 

Its innocence and grace. 

" 'Tis well, O Heavenly Master ! Wl 

The old man softly said ; 
"To make my picture perfect, thou 

Art putting in the shade : 
Be patient, restless spirit, then — 

No shadow without sun ! 
That dark was needed thou wilt see 

When all the work is done." 

II !" 

A Lost Baby. 

Baby's hidden all away ! 

Nobody can find her ! 
Where's the baby, mamma? Say, 

l-et'sgo look behind her. 

Baby? No, she isn't there — 

Have we lost our baby? 
Let's go hunting down the stair, 

There we'll rind her. maybe. 

Papa's lost his little girl ! 

What will he do for kisses? 
What is this? A yellow curl? 

Anil please to say what this is. 

Inside my coat ! ''I 'aint some hreff ! 

It mikes me almost 'oasted ! 
Next time don't smovver me to deff — 

Let's play adin I'm losted !" 

— Youth's I ',•>»/>.! n 

Home Training. 

[.Written (or the Ki km. Pmm by l. II. | 
Who will attempt to answer "Sister Sue 7" 
Will it be the model mother who has devised a 
perfect system of government, vnd whose fault- 
less children give evidence of the efficiency with 
which she carries it on? Alas! I greatly fear 
that she is yet to be discovered. 

Shall it not rather be some one like herself, 
who in trying to train her little ones aright, 
meets with many disappointments, is conscious 
of much ignorance, makes many mistakes, and 
is, therefore, glad of any word of encourage 
ment and hope which may be offered V If so, 
than may I venture to take up my pen; but less 
with any intention of giving advice than of ex- 
pressing sympathy and suggesting possible con- 

" Mow to govern." All the pages of the RtJBAL 
PRKSS might be rilled with essays on the subject, 
and when we had read them we should Raid 
ourselves no wiser than before. The secret and 
the mystery each mother must discover for her- 
self. Sad for her, as for the children committed 
to her care, if she is too careless or too indolent 
to make the attempt. 

We can help each other so little here: for the 
plan you adopt with your children, and find in 
a measure successful, may fail utterly in my 
hands and w ith my children, w ho are in char- 
acter and disposition entirely unlike yours. I 
know the mother is usually held responsible, for 
the faults of the little ones, just as though they 
had been made of plastic clay and put into her 
hands to be modeled at her own sweet will. 
Hut the sooner we admit the fact that our chil- 
dren have inherent traits of character beyond 
our power to alter, the better will it be for our- 
wives and for them. 

The best that we can hope to do, and, there 
Ion-, tin- chief aim and object of all our train 
lug, seems to me to be this— to teach them to 
train themselves; to inspire them with some 
trite idea Of the beauty and nobility of a char 

acter thoroughly self-controlled, and so to incite 
them to that effort which will make ther.i noble 
men and women. 

"And have you succeeded in this with your 
children f ' asks one. 

Mj dear friend, if I had, my work would be 
ended, whereas it is only just liegun. Neither 
you nor I can accomplish this in a day, a month 
or a year; but we can be striving after it so long 
as our children are under our oare, trusting at 
last to see the fruit of our labors. 

With such a principle underlying our plan of 
home government what can be said of its details'; 
Again the mother must judge for herself. There 
are children w ho are much the better for a good, 
sound whipping at times; there are others whom 
it only hardens into sullen obstinacy or rouses 
to ungovernable rage. Some means you must 
have of making a child realize your displeasure 
with intentional wrong doing. 

Heliberatc disol>cdience, untruthfulness, dis- 
honesty of any kind; how dare we let them pass 
unnoticed? Only be sure that the child under 
stands the reason of your severity — do not meas- 
ure out the same punishment for a broken win 
dow or a torn dress. The busy mother, whose 
time is so fully occupied that she cannot attend 
to her children as she would, rouses all my sym- 
pathy. To her Harriet Beecher Stowe's assur 
ance of the benefit of a " little wholesome ueg 
leet" may bring comfort as it did to me. There 
is deep wisdom in the words: Children are not 
lienefited by over-anxiety and excessive care 
fulness. Who has not seen the only child 
whose parents watched every motion and tried 
to correct every fault, and who was after all 
simply unbearable to all the world besides? 

Another wise woman says that we trouble 
ourselves too much about our children's little 
faults and short-comings. If we can see them 
honest in word and deed, reasonably obedient 
and industrious we may well be willing to wait 
for the development by and by of more graces 
and courtesies. 

But the i|tiarreling: Do not all children 
quarrel more or less? Ami is it not liecause all 
■hildren are more or less selfish ? Ami what is 
that but saying that they are human beings of 
like passions with ourselves ? I»o not grown 
people quarrel too — husbands and wives -neigh 
bors, doctors, lawyers — even christian ministers 
and members of churches? Alas! in this "the 
boy is father to the man." 

It is a hateful fault in anyone, no doubt of 
that; but what can we do about it ? Only this 
We can strive patiently and persistently to over 
come the evil habit. Talk to the children. Bea- 
son with them. I believe all children are open 
to reason. Show them the sin and the folly of 
it. Then, if you do not succeed at once in hav 
bag your home the abode of peace, do not break 
your heart about it. Gradually the change will 
come. The girls and boys will grow ashamed 
of their dissensions. They will learn self-re 
spect anil self-control, and all the more surely 
if they see you slow to take offense and to re 
sent little injuries - if in their presence you can 
take, patiently and in silence, a sharp, unjust 
Or unkind word. 

Ah, dear friend, I am preaching to myself, 
not at all to you. Thinking over this matter of 
the proper training of our children, which 1 
feel with " Sister Sue to be of vastly greater 
interest than the question of female suffrage, 
women's rights, or the like, 1 call to mind the 
most beautiful words ever written about it. 
Would that they could be printed in letters of 
gold on the walls of every home and of every 
schoolhouse in the land ! Palling that may 
there be stamped upon the hearts and mem- 
ories of the mothers who read the Ri k 
I'kkss the words of the poet Coleridge: 
i t'er wayward childhood would'st thou hold linn rah 
Ami sun thee in the light of happv fact s, 
Love, Hope ami Patience, these must he thy graces, 
Ami in thine own heart let them first, keep school. 
For as old Atlas on his broad neck places 
Heaven's Btarr) glohiL and there sustains it, so 

Do tbeai upbear the little world below 

of education Patience, Love and Hope 

Mcthink* I sec them grouped in seeml.v show. 

The straitened arms upraised, the palms aslope. 

And rohes. that touching as adown thev How, 

llistinetly hlelld, like snow elllhossed in snow. 

ii, part them never! If Hope prostrate lie. 

Love, too, will sink and die; 

Hut Love is suhtle and doth proof derive 

From her own life that Hope is vet alive; 

And banding o'er with soul -transfusing eyes, 

Ami the soft murmur of the mother dove 

Woos hack the fainting spirit and half supplies, 

Thiu Lov« repa v >. to Hope what Hope first gavs to lan e 

Bat haply there will come a wear.v day, 

When over-tasked at length, 

Itoth Love and Ho]>c heneath the load irive way; 

Then with a statue's smile, a statue's strength, 

Stands the mute sister, Patience, nothing loth. 

And hoth supjiortinc, does the work of hoth. 

Walnut ("reek, Cal. 

How to Walk Well. 

I Written for the Rikai. Pkksk hj Me. I 
An easy, graceful carriage of the body in 
walking, or other exercise, is an agreeable 
sight, even to the moderately artistic eye, as 
the spectacle of a shullling, waddling or hob 
bling gait is unpleasing. The position of the 
feet has much to do with the general bearing 
and it is a great pity that so little attention is 
paid to this subject, especially in the case of 
children with whom any slight tendency in the 
wrong direction can be so easily overruled. 

No habit is more inelegant than that of 
walking with the toes turned in, or straight 
forward of us, like the Indians; it always sug- 
gests a defect of character quite out of pro- 
portion to the bodily imperfection, as one may 
realize any day who will take the pains to ob- 
serve the movements of those who believe that 

while it is proper to pay attention to their 
heads, the feet will take care of themselves. 

Watching a succession of children, on their 
way to or from school we shall notice some who 
seem to tip up the inner side of the foot and 
step on the outer edge of the shoe sole, as if 
thus to escape painful pressure elsewhere. 
This kind of awkward walk originates in the 
wearing of too short shoes; others display a 
firm but elastic gait, their feet directed suffi- 
ciently outward. Some place the foot flat on 
the ground but turn the toes in. As in other 
things the majority range between the best 
and worst: one or two in a hundred will be 
"splay-footed," but this is infinitely less ob- 
jectionable than to be "pigeon-toed." 

Some famous writer has said that "grace de- 
pends on excess of power," or a surplus of that 
vital force with which we use and control the 
muscles. In a large sense this is doubtless 
true, yet a good dancing master, or a little sys- 
tematic home training (the former preferred I 
will do much towards securing a well-balanced 
freedom of movement where this "excess of 
power" does not exist. 

We once knew a girl of 14 who was the 
despair of her first dancing master because of 
the fault in question. Her effort to obey his 
orders failed to sufficiently relax the muscles of 
the ankle. She, however, was a determined 
character and made up her mind to overcome 
the difficulty or die in the attempt, and she hit 
upon a plan which succeeded admirably. Kvcry 
spare five minutes in the day she spent stand 
ing at her chamber window, with her feet ex 
tended laterally against the wainscotting. This 
settled the case in less than 10 days. As the 
instructor in foreign languages finds it desir 
able at first, to exaggerate the unaccustomed 
gutterals and Unguals, in order that his pupils 
may afterwards fall back with ease on the cor 
rect pronunciation, so my young friend found 
that by pressing out her feet at right angles 
previously, she attained the desirable juMt mi 
nm of pedal attitude and was no more a re 
proach to hall or street. 

How to Govern. 

Kmtors I'— I have often thought of 
contributing some of my humble experience to 
the "Home Circle," which seems such a gc 
nial medium for us "farmers' wives," as well 
as others, to "counsel together." Many duties 
have fallen to me since becoming a fanner's 
wife, hence my silence. However, "Sister 
Sue" has touched a responsive chord, and I 
cannot remain silent. 

"How to govern our children?" That 
is the thought that has engaged my mind 
for the past four years, and Bhould most 
seriously engage the minds of every parent in 
the land — fathers, as well asmothers. No fam- 
ily is so well trained as the one in which father 
and mother have done their best. True, the 
father's business generally calls him from his 
children most of the time, leaving the whole 
care to mother. But his absence only seems to 
strengthen the kindly correction or advice he 
docs give. And how much practical advice and 
instruction are within his power to give, from 
his contact with the world. So, fathers, please 
consider this, and do not neglect your part in 
this all important work of guiding your children. 

Sister Sue has truthfully said it takes 
more time to govern refractory children, 
making them courteous aud kind, than most 
farmers' wives have. How can a mother who 
must "be up with the lark," and busy all day 
with the manifold duties of the household, be 
always thoughtful and kind, teaching by ex 
ample or precept the noble nature she would 
have her children emulate ? I hily think of om 
iromaii, with a family of little children, attend 
ing to nil the duties of a farm-house, three meals 
a day, washing, ironing, scrubbing and baking, 
raising poultry, making butter, and the do/ens 
of garments necessary to clothe her family, and 
the many "extras" that are ever claiming an ad 
ditional effort on her part! How can she attend 
properly to the many wants of her dependent 
wisdom-seeking little ones? And this very 
neglect of their natural wants often makes the 
irritable disposition. Children are human, and 
if neglected or thw arted in all their little plans, 
how natural that Harry should pinch Johnny, 
or Mary be cross to sister Fanny ! 

Are we not undertaking too much ? What 
farmer would think of running his header and 
driving his header-wagon? Sou say it is im 
possible. I answer that it is utterly impossible 
for a mother to do all the necessary work about 
the house and attend properly to the physical 
and mental development of her children. Let 
us economize more in other respects, if need be, 
and hire some of our work done; not try to do 
all the work and leave the training of our chil 
dren entirely to teachers. Nothing can equal 
the wise, loving training of a thoughtful mother, 
especially in the first tender years of life. 

Karmington, Cal. M us. K 

It seems that something is to be done in 
this country for the improvement of men's cos 
tumes. A novel idea is suggested by Mrs. 
Croly (Jennie June,) namely, that ladies should 
dress u.ore simply and thereby induce men to 
adorn themselves with some attention to taste, 
replacing the awkward trousers, for example, 
by breeches and stockings or by genuine pan 
taloons. This sort of thing might be worth try- 
ing, if only to get the abomination "pants" off 
the tailors' signs. Whether "gents' 'would ever 
wear any leg covering but "pants" need not 
concern people of taste. Mrs. C. has only to en 
list the aid of other ladies to reform men's dress. 

Women's Work. 

Is the agitation of the subject, "Women's 
Work," too little allowance is often made for the 
fact that young women, as a rule, do not attack 
an.occupationas vigorously as doyoungmen, from 
the fact that they regard it but as a temporary 
matter, and that they may soon do better by 
marrying. The young women are not to blame 
for whatever lack of application they sometimes 
exhibit, because, of course, all the traditions of 
the sex point to the altar, and it is doubtless 
impossible to keep it out of mind. Hut, it 
w ould be well for those seeking an Occupation 
by which to gain a livelihood, that concentra- 
tion of purpose and intense application are the 
price, any one either man or woman must pay 
for success, and the young woman should en- 
deavor to apply herself as if indeed her chosen 
occupation was to be a life work. This idea is 
well brought out by Mr. Howells in the August 
Century. Helen Harkness, the heroine of 
"A Woman's Reason," makes an effort at self- 
support — first by writing for the newspapers, 
and afterwards by millinery. The capable, 
self-supporting Miss Boot, of whom she takes 
counsel, asks her if she is willing to prepare 
herself for teaching, and to wait for a situation. 
Helen's answer and Miss Boot's rejoinder, con- 
tain the kernel of the question of women's work 
as stated by the novelist: 

"No," she sighed, "1 couldn't wait. But 
perhaps I shouldn't want to do any thing for a 
great length of time," she said, innocently, with 
the thought of Bobert's return in her mind. 
"It might only be for a limited period." 
"That's what 1 supposed," said Miss Boot. 
"That's the great trouble. If a man takes a 
thing up, he takes it up for liie, but if a woman 
takes it up, she takes it up till some fellow 
comes along anil tells her to drop it. And then 
they're always complainin' that they aint paid 
as much as men are for the same work. I'm 
not speakin' of you. Miss Harkness," she said, 
with a glance at Helen's face; "and I don't 
know whether 1 want to join in any cry that'll 
take women's minds off of gettin' married. It's 
the best thing/or 'em, and it's about all they're 
fit for, most of 'em, and it's nature; there's no 
denyin' that. But if women are to be helped 
along independent of men — and I never was 
such a fool as to say they were -why, it's a 
drawback. And so most of 'em can't wait to 
prepare themselves for anything, because they 
don t expect to stick to anything ; they turn 
book agents, or sell some little pay tented [thing: 
or they try to get a situation in a store." 

Speaking of women's work, there comes to 
mind an account we lately read of, an interest- 
ing style of industrial education undertaken by 
the French government. I iovcriiinent mistresses 
from the provinces are sent to Paris daring the 
summer holidays to take cutting-out lessons for 
twenty days, working seven hours per day. All 
traveling expenses are defrayed by tin- State. 
They are expected to impart what they learn to 
their pupils when they return home. The Parisian 
school children pass a general examination in cut- 
ting out once a year, the best workers receiving 
one, two or four pounds. The teachers have also 
their share in the payment. These monetary 
rewards, however, are very wisely withheld 
from their juvenile winners. Instead of money, 
they receive a savings bank liook, in which is 
entered the prize sum, to serve as a foundation 
for future deposits. It seems that nearly all 
government rewards are now given in this way 
— a most admirable plan, inciting to thrift, 
and preventing the money lieing wasted by 
parents or children, as they are forbidden to 
touch it before the age of twenty-one. All this 
system of useful instruction lias been secured 
mainly through the efforts of Mile, (iuilleaume, 
who, for thirty-three years has been struggling 
to prevail upon the government to have cutting 
out taught in all public schools. With all these 
advantages it is no wonder that French women 
are noted not only for the elegance of their 
toilette, but for its exquisite shape. No matter 
the cheapness of the material, the lit must be 

Fashion's Caprice. 

With manifestly undeniable argument, we 
assert that woman's dress is Ijeing fashioned 
w ith greater degree of taste and loveliuess as 
each year goes by. Barring the extremes — 
"gaiuliiiess," and injury to health — we have 
naught to say against the course I lame Fashion 
has decreed, and is destined to follow in the 
future — higher art in form, color, shade and 
contrast. This is as it should be. The woman 
who clothes herself in loveliness; with becom- 
ing simplicity, or the reverse if need be, so it 
is with taste and suggestive purity, fashions 
her life after nature, ami nature's laws. 

Science has produced colon most exquisitely 
delicate ami of infinite shades from a seemingly 
useless and most unattractive substance. These 
fascinating colore in their limitless combina- 
tions, attract and cultivate the sense of sight 
to finer and higher tastes. With all the varied 
scope from the elaborate to the more simple 
toilette, w ho among the fair sex, in all the 
world of fashion, can fail to find robes befitiug 
the expression of soul and body, as well as purse ? 

Another, and stronger argument in favor of 
higher art in dress: to liecome licautiful, one 
must needs dwell among beauty -think lieauti- 
f nl thoughts — see beautiful things; and, as time 
wears on apace, beauty leaps forth from the 
eye, the lips, the face- -the heart — bespeaking 
the innermost musings of the soul. So long 
then as fashion wills to move in ways of purity 
and loveliness, should we follow her caprice. 

July 28, 1883] 



The Moss Gatherers and Their Work. 

A very interesting and rather aesthetic indus- 
try is growing up in Santa Barbara which 
promises in time to give profitable employment 
to a number of women and children possessing 
the requisites of good taste and nimble fingers. 
The gathering, assorting, and curing of the 
numerous varieties of the delicate sea moss, 
and its proper display for exhibition, is steadily 
growing into a business, which, while it is not 
altogether lucrative — when the time consumed 
in it is taken into consideration, is nevertheless 
profitable to those who understand the art. 
The varieties of sea moss obtainable upon the 
sea shore of Santa Barbara are very numerous. 
These weeds, for that is their common name, 
are daily gathered by women and children who 
after each successive high tide pass along the 
sea shore and with sharp eyes and nimble 
fingers, pick out from the tangled mass cast 
ashore by the surf those delicate sprays which 
are most desired for the purpose in view. 
These sea side gleaners, after securing the re- 
quisite assortment of ocean foliage of the most 
beautiful hues and fragile form, carry it to 
their home where by an art known to them- 
selves and a skill which few possess, first assort 
it, then properly display and press each delicate 
spray, after which it is arranged in tasteful 
forms and displayed for sale. 

One of the dealers in these beautiful sea-side 
treasures, stated to a reporter this morning, 
that the principal manufacturer of sea moss 
ornaments in Santa Barbara, a lady of rare 
taste and experience, finds a ready market for 
all the sea moss pictures and cards she can sup- 
ply. They are inexpensive and exceedingly 
beautiful, surpassing in their designs anything 
of the kind obtainable on the Northern Pacific 
or the Atlantic coast. The favorite designs at 
present are baskets arranged upon card board, 
crosses and anchors formed of coarse sea weed 
or kelp, around which many varieties of deli- 
cate sea mosses are displayed. During the 
forthcoming Knights Templar Triennial Con- 
clave, the Maltese Cross and other Masonic 
emblems will be most fashionable, and many 
mementoes of Santa Barbara will find their way 
to far distant states in this form. It is not 
every one who may successfully work these sea 
shore trifles into works of art, for it requires 
fine taste as well as skill to convert the fragile 
moss into things of everlasting beauty. The 
labor is said to be tedious and as each minute 
leaf upon each spray must be straightened out 
upon cards by the aid of a needle point it 
requires a large store of patience. It is cer- 
tainly a fine art and one which may be made 
profitable to many families in Santa Barbara. 
The demand for well arranged sea moss pictures 
is practically unlimited and it will increase, as 
each specimen sent from this place reaches the 
large centers of population. - Santa liar'a Press. 

The follow ing is from the Carson Appeal: "For 
some years past there has been a bank in Lake 
Tahoe, which in clear weather has generally 
been taken for moss formation. It lies at the 
right of the steamer's course between Tahoe 
City and the Tallae House, about two miles 
beyond Idlewild. It looked as if a lot of trees 
had sunk to the bottom of the lake and that 
moss and slime had collected there until the 
whole presented a wavy, semi-transparent ap- 
pearance about oO feet below the surface. Dur- 
ing the past few weeks the moss and debris has 
disappeared, and now when the water is clear a 
forest of pine trees can be plainly seen with 
every limb and twig perfect. On Wednesday 
last some fishermen went out there in a boat 
and lowering some grapplinsr irons secured sev- 
eral splendid pieces of the petrifaction. One 
is a pine branch about three feet long, which 
held a few feet from the eye, has the exact ap- 
pearance of a pine branch just taken from a 
living tree and apparently fresh and green, the 
brittleness and weight distinguishing it from 
the freshly cut branch. The forest occupies 
about two acres and seems like a forest im- 
mersed, except that its stony branches are for- 
eyer still, and the tall weeds and vines which 
cluster about the trunks of the giant trees are 
as motionless as the rocks. No wind ever stirs 
this strange Verdure, and the birds, which once 
sang in the branches centuries ago, have given 
way to fish which swarm through the forests. 

CliMBINCJ MOUNT Shasta. — Ascending this 
grand old mountain is a perilous undertaking, 
but it has just been successfully accomplished 
by three of Butte county s dashing young ladies. 
Their names arc Misses Alma and Laura K linger 
and Flora Steele, and they live near Oridley. 
The girls are traveling through the mountains 
with a party of campers from that vicinity, and 
they are having a most jolly, rollicking time, 
swimming, rowing and fishing. Only one man 
in the party had nerve enough to accompany 
the girls up the steep and rugged incline. One 
of the girls writing to the Record says that the 
trip was not very arduous, the ascent being full 
of excitement and, in her opinion, very easy of 
accomplishment. The temperature at the sum- 
mit is of an arctic character, and the air being so 
very light they did not remain long on the hill- 
top. The atmosphere was so hazy that the view- 
to be obtained was not very good. The descent 
to the base of the mountain was full of excite- 
ment, and one that trys one's nerves. In many 
places there is some snow and ice, which the 
visitors slid over with lightning swiftness, but 
arrived safely at the bottom. Nearly a whole 
day was consumed in making the upward and 
downward trip. — Cliiro Record. 

"Y'oUjVSG JfoLKS' QoLUJvlN. 

Driving Away Martins. 

I Written for the Hi kal I'khss.I 
A band of martins came to my uncle's a little 
while ago, and built their nests as thick as they 
could on every board and standard of the barn 
and veranda. Uncle and aunt left home for 
some days, and when they came back the 
veranda was covered with mud. They swept it 
all away day after day, but they kept on build- 
ing, so uncle thought he would shoot at them 
and frighten them away, if he could, but noth- 
ing scared them. 

One day he went into one of his rooms and 
saw one of the martins had gone through the 
open window. He put down the blind, and the 
bird flew to the window. He caught it by the 
tail; it fluttered, and all the feathers came out, 
and it got away. He caught it again, and cut 
its wing feathers, and tied a string around its 
left wing, and fastened it to the post of the 
porch for half a day, and there was not a mar- 
tin to be seen at the house after that. 

It is a sure cure to drive martins away, be- 
cause when they are too numerous, or come to 
the wrong place, they are as much a pest as any 
other creature or insect, though it is sad to 
oblige one to suffer all those hours to effect the 
remedy. I'erhaps this may interest some of the 
readers in the " Young Folks' Column " who 
may have the same trouble. If you think it is 
too cruel to publish, I will think of something 
else another time. I'erhaps you will remember 
I am your little correspondent who wrote about 
the cats nearly two years ago. 


Soledad, July 13, 1883. 

Jerry's New Pantaloons. 

When Jerry was six years old he began to go 
to school. Toward the end of the school 
term the teacher wished to have an exhibi- 
tion. All the scholars were to learn pieces to 
speak. Jerry's mother found some verses 

Twinkle, twinkle, little star, 
How I wonder what you are. 

Jerry thought these verses were very nice, 
and with his mother's help he soon learned 

She taught him how to make a bow, and to 
point up to the sky when he said "star,'' and 
to wave his hand over his head when he said 
"Up above the world so high." After some 
practice, she thought he made these motions 
very prettily, 

Jerry's best pair of pantaloons were old and 
patched. He must have a new pair to speak 
in; but the stores were far away, and money 
was very scarce. After searching for 
something to make them of, his mother used 
a large check apron she prized very much, and 
wore only on holidays. 

Some of my little readers would hav smiled 
if they had seen Jerry dressed in his long blue 
and white check pantaloons, check shirt and 
heavy shoes. He thought he looked very fine. 
He could not help admiring himself; in fact, 
he thought too much about his new pantaloons. 

On the evening of the exhibition the school- 
room was crowded. It had been dressed with 
wildflowers and grasses. A great many tallow 
candles burned in the bright tin candlesticks. 
The children thought it looked very grand. 

When it was Jerry's turn to speak he stepped 
boldly upon the stage and made his bow. His 
father and mother leaned forward, so that they 
could see him better. Alas, his thoughts were 
onhisnewpantaloons, so thathe had forgotten all 
about "the little twinkling star. " But he was 
nut afraid, and, after looking all around, he be- 
gan in a loud, distinct voice: 

"I have got on a new pair of pantaloons. 
Flitting his hands into his pockets, he went on: 
"My mother made them out of her new apron 
my Aunt Selina sent from New York, where 
you can buy lots and lots of nice, things; for in 
New York they have great big stores. Some 
day I shall go there, for I think new pantaloons 

But he did not have time to tell what he 
thought. The teacher got upon the stage, and, 
to the relief of his parents, hurried him to a 
seat. The farmer lads had greatly enjoyed his 
speech, and, clapping their hands, gave a hur- 
rah for "Jerry's new pantaloons." — Our Little 

I hi, V 

Human Hair Undee the Microscope. — E. 

Bi Tylor, in Nature, says that the microscopic 
examination of the cross section of a single hu- 
man hair is sufficient to determine to which one 
of the race divisions of humanity the wearer be- 
longs. If examined microscopically by Pinner's 
method, it shows circular, or oval, or reniform. 
Its follicle curvature may be estimated by the 
average diameter of the curls as proposed by 
Moseley. Its coloring matter may be estimated 
by Sorby's method. There has been even a sys- 
tematic classification of man published by Dr. 
\V. Muller, of the Novara expedition, which is 
primarily arranged according to hair, in straight- 
haired races, curly-haired races, etc., with a 
secondary division according to language. 

Orances Far North. — One of the largest 
orange trees in the State is the famous one at 
Bidwell Bar which is 2.5 feet high, 23 feet in 
diameter through its limbs, and its trunk is 
44A inches in circumference. It bore last year 
2,07o oranges, 

(g>OOG) JfcEAbTJ-l. 

Very Hot Water for Consumption. 

We find the following in the New York Sun 
of a recent date, and commend it to the careful 
attention of our readers generally. The cases 
mentioned below are not altogether isolated 
ones. The use of hot water in the way men- 
tioned has proven beneficial in many cases, and 
is not infrequently recommended by practicing 
physicians. All such remedies, however, 
should be used with care, and better in consul- 
tation with the family physician : 

_ A young man who was compelled to resign 
his position hi one of the public schools of this 
city because he was breaking down with con- 
sumption, and who has ever since been battling 
for life, although with little apparent prospect 
of recovery, was encountered several days ago 
in a Broadway restaurant. 

"I see," he said, "that you seem surprised at 
my improved appearance. No doubt you won- 
der what could have caused such a change. 
Well, it was a very simple remedy — nothing but 
hot water." 

"Hot water 7" 

"That's all. You remember my telling you 
that I had tried all the usual remedies. I con- 
sulted some of the leading specialists in affec- 
tions of the lungs in this city, and paid them 
large fees. They went through the usual course 
of experimentation with me under all sorts of 
medicines. I went to the Adirondaeks in the 
summer, and to Florida in the winter; but none 
or these things did me any substantial good. 1 
lost ground steadily, grew to be almost a skele- 
ton, and had all the worst symptoms of a con- 
sumptive whose end is near at hand. At that 
juncture a friend told me that he had 
heard of cures being effected by drinking hot 

"I consulted a physician who had paid special 
attention to this hot-water cure, and was using 
it with many patients. He said : 'There is 
nothing, you know, that is more difficult than 
to introduce a new remedy into medical prac- 
tice, particularly if it is a very simple one, and 
strikes at the root of erroneous views and 
prejudices that have loug been entertained. The 
old school practitioners have tried for many 
years to cure consumption, but they are as far 
from doing it as ever. 

" ' Now the only rational explanation of con- 
sumption is that it results from defective nutri- 
tion. It is always accompanied by mal-assimi- 
lation of food. In nearly every case the stom- 
ach is the seat of a fermentation that necessarily 
prevents proper digestion. The first thing to 
do is to remove that fermentation and put the 
stomach into a eondidion to receive food and 
dispose of it properly. This is effected by tak- 
ing water into the stomach, as hot as it can be 
borne, an hour before each meal. This leaves 
the stomach clean and pure, like a boiler that 
has been washed out. Then put into the stom- 
ach food that is in the highest degree nutritious 
and the least disposed to fermentation. No 
food answers this description better than tender 
beef. A little stale bread may be eaten with it. 
Drink nothing but pure water, and as little of 
that at meals as possible. Vegetables, pastry 
sweets, tea, coffee and alcoholic liquor should be 
avoided. 1'ut tender beef alone into a clean and 
pure stomach three times a day, and the system 
w ill be fortified and built up until the wasting 
away, w Inch is the chief feature of consump- 
tion, ceases, and recuperation sets in.' 

"This reasoning impressed me. I began by 
taking one cup of hot water an hour before each 
meal, and gradually increased the dose to three 
cups. At first it was unpleasant to take, but 
now I drink it with a relish that I never ex- 
perienced in drinking the choicest wine. I 
began to pick up immediately after the new 
treatment, and gained fourteen pounds within 
two months. I have gained ground steadily in 
the trying climate of New York; and I tell you, 
sir, I feel on a sure way to recoverv. '' 

Here an old gentleman, who had been stand- 
ing near, and evidently listening to the convei - 
sation, turned to the teacher and said: "This 
remedy of hot-water drinking has attracted my 
attention for some time. It has been of im- 
mense service in relieving me of a terrible dys- 
pepsia that tormented me for years. I tried 
numerous able physicians, and there is probably 
no medicine that is prescribed for such an ail- 
ment which has not been given to me; but none 
of them gave me any permanent benefit. Hut 
the simple remedy of drinking hot water, ac- 
companied by a rational regulation of my diet, 
has entirely cured me, advanced though I am 
in life. It was not the dieting alone that did 
it. I had tried that before. It was the use 
of hot water that cured me, for that made it 
possible to derive benefit from a judicious diet. 
I have also found this treatment of great benefit 
in kidney diseases, which are largely owing to 
mal assimilation of food." 

The teacher listened very attentively to the 
old gentleman's remarks. 

"I am glad to learn that your experience,' he 
said, "agrees so fully with mine. I have be- 
come acquainted with various cases in which 
this simple method of treatment has effected 
permanent cures after all the efforts of the 
physicians had failed. I am convinced, simply 
from what I have seen, that almost any dis- 
turbance of the human system that results 
from disorders of the stomach can be alleviated, 
and, in most instances, cured in the same way. 

X)ojviESTie €[eor\jojviY. 

Lemon Whey.' — One pint of boiling milk, 
half a pint of lemon juice, sugar to taste. Mix 
and strain. 

Chnger Snaps. — Two cups of butter, two 
cups of molasses, two teaspoonfuls of ginger, 
tpo teaspoonfuls of saleratus dissolved in one 
cup of boiling water; knead soft, roll thin and 
bake in a quick oven. 

Strom: Bath Towki,. — A bath towel that 
will do good service is made of carpet warp, 
crocheted in any loose stitch. It is a short 
task to make it, and it will outlast most other 
towels used for rubbing alone. 

Shelf Decoration. — If after taking the 
house plants from the shelves the window looks 
strangely, get some of the cheap, but pretty 
vestibule lace, and tack above the top shelf. 
It will relieve the otherwise barren look. 

Boir.KD Con. — For breakfast try this: — Take 
the skin off a nice piece of salt codfish, wash 
it in several waters, and lay it on the gridiron 
to broil. It should be broiled for about 20 
minutes, and must be turned often to prevent 
burning. This is nice for tea also. 

Variety Jelly.— A pretty way to vary 
orange jelly is, after making the jelly in the 
usual way, to fill the mold half full with the 
jelly and lay slices of orange in and cover with 
the rest of the jelly. Pineapple jelly is also 
very nice with grated pineapple put in in this 

Everlasting Jumbles. — lumbles which will 
keep a month are made thus: One pound of 
butter, one pound of sugar, two pounds of 
flour, three eggs, nine teaspoonfuls of water, 
three of baking powder, with salt and flavor- 
ing to suit the taste. Roll them and bake in a 
quick oven. 

Cake QUANTITIES. No matter what any re- 
cipe says, a half a cup of butter is a liberal al- 
lowance for one cup of sugar. That is the 
proper proportion to use in cake making, 
though sometimes one may use a cup and a 
half of sugar with this quantity of butter 
when }'ou do not care for rich cake. 

Strawberry J am. -Take a quantity of ripe, 
fresh strawberries, rub and press the same 
through a hair sieve into an earthen pan; ail. I 
pulverized sugar in the proportion of three- 
quarters of a pound of sugar to one pound of 
berries. 1'ut this into a basin and place the 
same over the fire. Stir constantly with a 
wooden spatula. Now transfer to china pots 
or glass tumblers and allow to become cold. 

SPONGE Cake. — The secret of success in mak- 
ing white sponge cake is in the thorough mix- 
ing of the ingredients. The flour should be 
sifted, in the first place; then sift the flour and 
sugar together, then the one small teaspoonful 
of baking powder. For one loaf use 11 eggs— 
the whites only are required —one large cup of 
flour, and one and a half of sugar. If possible 
do not opes the oven door while the cake is 

Strawberry Bavarian Cream.— Mash a 
quart of strawberries with a cupful of sugar 
and let them stand an hour, and then strain tin- 
juice. Beat a pint of cream to a froth. Add 
half a cupful of boiling water to half a pack- 
age of gelatine, which has been soaked in cold 
water for two hours and strain it into tin- 
strawberry juice. Then set the whole into 
cold water and beat it until a cream has formed ; 
stir in the whipped cream and turn into molds 
to harden. 

Oatmeal Drink. — Mix one-half pound of 
oatmeal with five gallons of cold water, boil it 
for half an hour and strain it through a rather 
coarse gravy strainer; add brown sugar to taste 
while hot. It is very much improved by tin- 
addition of one-half ounce of citric acid or 
one ounce of tartaric acid. The thinly cut 
rind of two or three lemons or oranges may be 
boiled in it, or a still cheaper flavoring is to 
add, before boiling, a bit of cinnamon stick or 
a few cloves. To be served cold. 

How to Cleanse Cashmeres and Woolen 
DRESSES. — Take one-quarter of a pound of 
white castile soap, four ounces of carbonate of 
ammonia, twoounces of glycerine, two ounces of 
chloric ether, and two ounces of alcohol. Shave 
the soap into thin slices, and turn over it one 
quart of boiling water, and let it dissolve over 
the tire, stirring it rapidly. Add the glycerine 
and the ammonia when the soap is nearly dis- 
solved. Stir well, add three quarts of cold 
water, and when quite cold stir in the alcohol; 
put into a gallon jug and turn in the chloric 
ether. Shake up the jug, cork tightly, and it 
will keep good till used up. To cleanse the 
dresses : 1'ut a teacupful of the mixture into 
three or four quarts of lukewarm water and stir 
it up; then dip the fabric into it and rub off all 
grease' and soil. Rinse in strong bluing water 
to give a good color to black or blue goods, and 
iron With moderately heated irons while damp. 
For taking soil out of coat collars, vests, etc.. 
turn Lome of the mixture into a cup of tepid 
water and apply with a sponge; then clean, 
rinse jbff with cold water and a clean sponge. It 
will freshen old clothes wonderfully. 



[Jul a 28, 18S3 

Making Bread Dear.